Bio 140 2002 Test 1A Answers Stark

1. One reason that membrane lipids are arranged the way they are is because of
(a) essential amino acids.
(b) ionic bonds.
*(c) hydrophobic fatty acids.
(d) hydrolysis of bonds.
(e) the half life.

2. Although people with a genetic predisposition to type II diabetes tend to be overweight, that, in itself, does not mean that controlling weight will help to control diabetes. The above statement relates to which statement about the nature of scientific inquiry?
(a) You cannot prove the null hypothesis.
(b) An advanced course in statistics might be called "experimental design."
*(c) Correlation does not prove causation.
(d) Models, such as the thermostat model for body temperature homeostasis, can be good for prediction but do not necessarily describe the mechanism.
(e) There is a fine line between so-called "theories" like evolution and laws like the law of gravity.

3. You were presented with the classification of the wolf (Animalia - Chordata - Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae - Canis - lupis). Which group would have the most species in it?
*(a) phylum
(b) class
(c) order
(d) family
(e) genus

4. In the delivery of biological energy
(a) sucrase gets used up when it generates glucose and fructose.
*(b) phosphate is typically transferred from ATP to another molecule.
(c) heat and entropy are captured and stored in ADP.
(d) the end-product feeds back to inhibit the rate-limiting enzyme.
(e) the mitochondria use CO2 to produce O2

5. A reaction that requires oxygen is called
(a) autotrophic.
(b) fermentation.
(c) anabolic.
(d) reduction.
*(e) aerobic.

6. A given element with a given integer atomic number might not have an integer atomic weight because of
*(a) a variable number of neutrons.
(b) a variable number of protons.
(c) unsaturated bonds.
(d) the fact that light excites the electron orbitals.
(e) covalent bonds.

7. Which would have the greatest potential for variability?
(a) a nucleotide 3 base pairs long
*(b) a peptide 3 amino acids long
(c) a hydrocarbon 3 carbons long
(d) a glycogen chain 3 glucose molecules long
(e) ATP

8. Those amino acids your metabolism cannot synthesize from other amino acids are called
(a) polyunsaturated.
(b) isotopes.
(c) vital.
(d) exerogonic.
*(e) essential.

9. Certain chemical modifications of a protein are called "post-translational."
(a) Post-translational modifications include "high" levels of structural organization such as alpha helix vs. beta pleated sheet.
(b) "Post-translational" would be the term applied to the association of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits in hemoglobin.
(c) "Post-translational" refers to the sequence of amino acids coded in that protein's "gene" (DNA coding sequence).
(d) For a protein to become an antigen (a non-self protein), it must be modified post-translationally.
*(e) "Post-translational" is after the manufacture of protein from a template of mRNA.

10. Steroids are
(a) hydrophilic.
(b) hydrocarbons.
(c) carbohydrates.
(d) triglycerides.
*(e) lipids.

11. In terms of biological reactions, what is the opposite of dehydration synthesis?
(a) transcription
(b) anabolic metabolism
(c) entropy
(d) photosynthesis
*(e) hydrolysis

12. Which does NOT have nitrogen in it?
(a) deoxyribonucleic acid
(b) chitin
*(c) starch
(d) protein
(e) urea

13. Kilocalories, those "calories" you count when you are dieting, are a measurement of
(a) water content of food and drink you consume.
(b) amino acid content of food.
*(c) energy available in food.
(d) relative fat content of food.
(e) relative carbohydrate content of food.

14. Which nucleotide base is used in RNA but not DNA?
(a) cytosine
(b) adenine
(c) thymine
*(d) uracil
(e) guanine

15. The fundamental function of aerobic respiration in cells is
(a) production of glucose.
*(b) the release of energy.
(c) storage of entropy.
(d) the replication of DNA.
(e) biosynthesis of triglycerides.

16. People with type I diabetes mellitus need to inject insulin
(a) because they have a mutation that puts valine in the 6th amino acid position of the beta chain of hemoglobin.
*(b) that is a protein hormone.
(c) because it is an enzyme used in digestion.
(d) to replace the missing gonadal steroids.
(e) to activate the sodium-potassium pump.

17. Because of the half-life of 14C, you may be able to determine
(a) whether your solvent is a polar solvent.
(b) whether an organism is a prokaryote or a eukaryote.
(c) whether a reaction is anaerobic.
*(d) the age of a fossil.
(e) number of amino acids in a protein.

18. Enzymes are indicated by the suffix
(a) -ose.
*(b) -ase.
(c) -eic.
(d) -some.
(e) -karyote.

19. Ribosomes might be situated (A-where?) and serve (B-what function?).
(a) A in the nucleus; B to store genetic information.
(b) A in the Golgi apparatus; B to deliver energy.
*(c) A in the rough endoplasmic reticulum; B to synthesize proteins.
(d) A in the plasmalemma; B to mediate transcription.
(e) A in the desmosome; B to carry the genetic code for each protein.

20. What type of molecule is cellulose?
(a) triglyceride
(b) nucleic acid
(c) polypeptide
(d) polyunsaturated fatty acid
*(e) carbohydrate

21. Making mRNA from a template of DNA is called
(a) respiration.
(b) glycolysis.
(c) motility.
*(d) transcription.
(e) fluorescence.

22. Lysosomes would function to
(a) make glucose from CO2 and H2O using energy from light.
(b) modify proteins coming from the endoplasmic reticulum.
(c) allow cells to move ("swim").
*(d) break down membrane-enclosed cellular waste or food.
(e) carry oxygen from the lungs to the tissues.

23. Because of degeneracy of the DNA code,
(a) the HIV retrovirus disobeys central dogma.
(b) most mutations are bad.
(c) both strands can be used for DNA to reproduce itself, but only one strand can be used to code for a specific protein.
(d) it takes four nucleotides in a row to determine one amino acid.
*(e) it might be possible to have a mutation in the DNA without changing the protein it codes.

24. A cell's membrane consists principally of two layers of
(a) hydrocarbon.
(b) disaccharides.
(c) cellulose.
*(d) lipid.
(e) collagen.

25. Vegetable oils would be higher (than animal fats) in
*(a) fatty acids with double bonds.
(b) triglycerides in which each acyl group is saturated with as many -H's as possible.
(c) all essential amino acids.
(d) uric acid.
(e) mutations.

26. In which cellular organelle is most of the ATP produced from thorough glucose catabolism?
(a) nucleus
(b) rough endoplasmic reticulum
*(c) mitochondrion
(d) flagellum
(e) chloroplast

27. Triglycerides with some double bonds are called
(a) enzymatic.
(b) ionic.
*(c) polyunsaturated.
(d) hydrolytic.
(e) radioactive.

28. Which does not have sugar in it?
(a) starch
(b) glycoproteins and glycolipids
(c) glycogen
*(d) testosterone
(e) sucrose

29. Which is a purine base of a nucleotide?
*(a) adenine
(b) ribose
(c) phenylalanine
(d) lactic acid
(e) actin

30. Which is not true about hemoglobin?
(a) It contains iron.
(b) It is in red blood cells.
(c) It is altered in sickle cell anemia.
*(d) It is an enzyme that makes DNA from a template of mRNA.
(e) It is a protein used for the transport of oxygen.

31. Reactions by which amino acids are used for energy, yielding nitrogenous wastes, might be referred to as:
*(a) catabolic.
(b) anabolic.
(c) prokaryotic.
(d) eukaryotic.
(e) autotrophic.

32. Which is NOT a carbohydrate?
(a) lactose
*(b) cholesterol
(c) glycogen
(d) Cn(H2O)n
(e) chitin

33. If animal muscle cells are depleted of sufficient levels of oxygen during use, anaerobic glycolysis will result and pyruvic acid will be converted into
*(a) lactic acid.
(b) carbon dioxide.
(c) glucose.
(d) glycogen.
(e) oxygen.

34. Charged atoms such as Na+ are called
(a) isotopes.
*(b) ions.
(c) covalent bonds.
(d) molecules.
(e) neutrons.

35. If a biochemist grinds up liver and isolates microsomes as fraction in the centrifuge tube, what would this organelle with enzymes for detoxifying alcohol, drugs or toxins, be as seen in an electron microscope?
*(a) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(b) tight junction
(c) nuclear envelope
(d) microtubules
(e) contractile vacuole

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