Bio 104 2002 Test 4 Answers Stark

1. Coal was formed
(a) from organisms killed during the Permean extinction.
(b) from flowering plants in a reducing atmosphere.
*(c) from primitive vascular plants in the Carboniferous period.
(d) from mats of Precambrian photosynthetic prokaryotes.
(e) from deposits of foraminiferans.

2. The dinosaurs disappeared abruptly before the close of the Cretaceous because
*(a) there was a profound shift in climate probably caused by collision with an asteroid.
(b) of the most recent ice age.
(c) there were sudden, massive upheavals in Earth's crust.
(d) of a pathogenic bacterium specific to dinosaurs.
(e) of the Hardy-Weinberg theorem.

3. The geological time scale corresponds to sequences of rock formations and fossils that have been grouped into four broad eras (ordered from long ago to now)
(a) Precambrian, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, Pleistocene.
(b) Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Precambrian, Paleozoic
(c) Precambrian, Paleozoic, Cenozoic, Pleistocene.
(d) Paleozoic, Precambrian, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.
*(e) Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.

4. Exponential growth, when plotted as a graph,
(a) looks like a line.
*(b) is a curve with increasing upward slope.
(c) goes straight across.
(d) goes up, then down.
(e) goes down then up.

5. Some of Darwin's ideas on the struggle for survival developed only after reading
*(a) Essay on the Principle of Populations by Thomas Malthus.
(b) On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type by Alfred Wallace.
(c) Mendel's Laws of Segregation and of Independent Assortment.
(d) The play Inherit the Wind.
(e) The transcripts from the Scopes "monkey trial."

6. Biodegradation is achieved by
(a) tetanus toxin.
(b) cyanobacteria.
(c) extreme thermophiles.
(d) photoautotrophs.
*(e) saprobes.

7. Suppose that the red flower allele is dominant to the white flower allele and that the frequency of the red allele in the population is 0.8 while the frequency of the white flower allele is 0.2. What proportion of plants will have red flowers?
(a) 0.2
(b) 0.5
(c) 0.64
(d) 0.8
*(e) 0.96

8. Which would have come first?
(a) sexual reproduction
*(b) heterotrophic prokaryotes
(c) incorporation of bacteria (that eventually became mitochondria) into eukaryotes
(d) incorporation of photosynthetic bacteria (that eventually became chloroplasts) into the precursors of plant cells
(e) the invasion of land

9. Among his many contributions, Louis Pasteur is known for
*(a) a classic experiment disproving spontaneous generation.
(b) prosecuting the Scopes "monkey trial."
(c) publishing a theory much like Darwin's at about the same time.
(d) developing a way to distinguish bacteria with different cell wall-membrane geometry.
(e) visiting the Galopagos Islands.

10. Botulism
(a) causes ulcers
(b) is spread by the bite of a tick.
(c) caused the Black Plague in the Middle Ages.
*(d) comes from anaerobic bacteria.
(e) is a sexually transmitted disease

11. What is partially responsible for defining anterior vs. posterior in the Drosophila egg?
(a) imaginal disks
(b) homeotic mutants
*(c) bicoid
(d) the blastula
(e) segment polarity genes

12. Used as an example of rapid evolution:
(a) mimicry of the monarch butterfly by the viceroy
(b) the vulva of C. elegans
(c) the diversity of finch species on the Galopagos Islands
(d) homology of bat's wings and the human forearm
*(e) the rise to prominence of the black variety of the English peppered moth

13. Which promotes apoptosis?
*(a) Ced-4 and Ced-3
(b) totipotent cells
(c) gap genes
(d) myoblasts
(e) endospores

14. Embryonic stem cells come from
(a) bacilli
(b) protobionts
(c) an egg with the nucleus removed.
*(d) the inner cell mass of the blastocyst.
(e) the vulva.

15. Who thought that characteristics acquired during life could be passed on to the next generation?
(a) Alfred Wallace, 1858 author
*(b) Lamarck
(c) the school teacher John Scopes
(d) the geologist Lyell
(e) Malthus, author of Essay on the Principle of Population

16. Where would you find the DNA polymerase used in the PCR reaction that can withstand repeated heating?
*(a) Archaea.
(b) The bacterium that causes strep throat.
(c) Gram positive bacteria.
(d) Staphylococcus.
(e) Helicobacter pylori.

17. In a population of wild flower, there is this frequency of flower color alleles: R (red, dominant) = 0.8, r (white, recessive) = 0.2. Which describes how the r allele might be eliminated if only a few individuals from each generation reproduce?
(a) the Hardy-Weinberg theorem
(b) punctuated equilibrium
(c) sympatric speciation
(d) altruism
*(e) genetic drift

18. Which gas was probably not abundant (during chemical and early biological evolution) until after the origin of photosynthesis?
*(a) ozone
(b) carbon dioxide
(c) methane
(d) nitrogen
(e) water vapor

19. The term "allopatric" was used in the context of
(a) whether symbiosis benefits both parties.
*(b) the formation of new species when the parent population becomes geographically isolated.
(c) whether the organism provides its own nutrition or needs to feed on others.
(d) whether the organism requires O2.
(e) whether evolution was gradual or sudden.

20. Clostridium botulinum
(a) is a methanogen, making swamp gas.
(b) was used by terrorists in Fall, 2001 in the US Postal Service.
(c) is a photoautotroph.
*(d) have a toxin that, although deadly, is used as a cosmetic.
(e) reproduces sexually but, since the offspring are not fertile, is not considered to be a species.

21. After DDT had been used for some time, insects "developed" resistance. This is explained by
(a) convergent evolution
(b) the bottleneck effect.
(c) homology.
*(d) survival vs. death of different individuals depending on which genes they carry.
(e) cladistics.

22. Numerous vacant niches are a model for the evolution of
(a) melanotic moths during the industrial revolution.
*(b) "Darwin's finches" on the Galapagos Islands.
(c) the Missouri mule.
(d) antibiotic resistance.
(e) the curious mating habits of the praying mantis.

23. "Pangaea" is a term applied to
(a) present day drift of land masses.
(b) a period in the Paleozoic era.
*(c) a supercontinent in the Paleozoic era.
(d) a domain in the 3-domain system.
(e) the shape of a bacterial cell.

24. Why was it important in an evolutionary context to have early reproducing molecules enclosed into coacervates?
(a) because nutrients were scarce
(b) to compete with the abundant chemiautotrophs
*(c) so that the peptides translated would reside near the RNA
(d) because aerobic processes were beginning to degrade RNA
(e) because DNA, unlike proteins, can have properties like enzymes

25. 14C
(a) was released when the Cambrian exploded.
(b) served as the energy source of ancient bacteria.
(c) causes programmed cell death.
(d) arrived on Earth from the asteroid that arrived at the end of the Cretaceous.
*(e) is used to date fossils.

26. Which form of life came into existence first?
(a) flowering plants
*(b) prokaryotes
(c) invertebrates
(d) eukaryotes
(e) reptiles

27. When structures in two different species are evolved from a common ancestor, this is an example of
*(a) homology.
(b) coevolution.
(c) convergent evolution.
(d) sexual selection.
(e) altruism.

28. The first biological organisms
(a) were probably eukaryotes.
(b) were probably autotrophs.
*(c) were probably heterotrophs.
(d) probably used DNA as their hereditary molecule.
(e) were probably photosynthetic.

29. Archaebacteria
(a) cause diseases that are cured with broad spectrum antibiotics.
(b) are famous for being anaerobic.
(c) are bacilli.
*(d) include methanogens, extreme halophiles and extreme thermophiles.
(e) are photoautotrophs

30. Organic compounds break down spontaneously in the presence of what substance? Hence, life probably never would have emerged if the atmosphere were the same billions of years ago as it is today.
(a) hydrogen
(b) water
(c) nitrogen
*(d) oxygen
(e) methane

31. Chemical evolution before the origin of life on Earth is believed to have taken place
(a) about 4000 years before Christ.
(b) about 10,000 years ago.
(c) about 1,000,000 years ago.
(d) about 1,000,000,000 years ago.
*(e) before any of the above.

32. The "atmosphere" in the Miller-Urey experiment was "reducing" because it contained what substance which would have promoted the formation of organic molecules through reduction reactions.
(a) Argon
(b) O2
*(c) H2
(d) N2
(e) CO2

33. According to Darwin's theory of evolution, present day giraffes came to have long necks because
(a) genetic drift makes each individual giraffe's neck longer and this longer neck trait is then passed on to each giraffe's offspring.
*(b) long necked giraffes survive to reproductive age because they are better adapted to eat while short necked giraffes die young.
(c) use of the neck enlarges it and each giraffe passes on its neck characteristics determined by such use vs. disuse.
(d) all giraffes reproduce similarly, but, after the reproductive part of the life span is passed, long necked giraffes can live to an older age.
(e) the bottleneck phenomenon eliminated short necks.

34. All of the following organisms have forelimbs which are examples of homologous structures except which one?
(a) Whale
(b) Bird
(c) Bat
*(d) Insect
(e) Human

35. Which live in salty areas like the Dead Sea?
(a) cyanobacteria
(b) Helicobacter pylori
*(c) extreme halophiles
(d) E. coli
(e) the bacterium whose DNA polymerase is used in the PCR reaction

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