1. At which stage of photosynthesis does carbon dioxide get fixed into organic molecules?
(a) during electron transport
(b) at the beginning of the light reactions
(c) only in C4 photosynthesis
(d) during the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle)
(e) as energy is passed to the reaction center chlorophyll

2. "Binomial nomenclature," with terms like Homo sapiens, refers to
(a) the kingdom and phylum.
(b) the class and species.
(c) the genus and species.
(d) the domain.
(e) the Punnet square.

3. Where does the repressor protein bind when it is not inactivated by allolactose (in the lac operon example)?
(a) to the intron
(b) to the operator
(c) to beta-galactosidase
(d) to DNA polymerase
(e) to the cyclin

4. Which of the following diseases is not caused by a virus?
(a) flu
(b) smallpox
(c) polio
(d) syphilis
(e) rabies

5. Which is a famous muscle protein?
(a) actin
(b) hemoglobin
(c) reverse transcriptase
(d) prion
(e) rhodopsin

6. Bacterial chromosomes
(a) have introns that are sites of active transcription.
(b) are arrested in metaphase.
(c) have promoters that help to control transcription.
(d) have telomeres.
(e) are arranged in a karyotype.

7. What disorder in the offspring increases with increasing maternal age?
(a) a disorder involving chromosomal nondisjunction
(b) spongiform encephalites like mad cow disease
(c) pertussis
(d) hemophelia
(e) a disorder caused by a missense mutation

8. Where might you find a kinase?
(a) in a signal transduction cascade
(b) in histones
(c) on the coat of a bacteriophage
(d) in the inverted repeat of a transposon
(e) inside HIV

9. Hemoglobin has heme and 2 a and 2 b chains. The a and b chains
(a) originated from convergent evolution.
(b) demonstrate the divergent evolution of gene families.
(c) are unrelated proteins.
(d) come from a single gene by RNA processing.
(e) are dominant and recessive respectively.

10. Which results in a haploid state?
(a) fertilization
(b) cleavage
(c) cytokinesis
(d) meiosis
(e) the S phase of the cell cycle

11. The reason you can get influenza several times
(a) is that this virus evolves and has a reservoir in an animal host.
(b) is because of the recent phenomenon of selection for resistance to antibiotics.
(c) is because no antigens are present on the virus.
(d) is because of bacterial transformation.
(e) is because the virus "mates" by conjugation.

12. The first living organisms were most likely
(a) autotrophic.
(b) heterotrophic.
(c) aerobic.
(d) photosynthetic.
(e) viruses.

13. On what molecule would you find a restriction site?
(a) receptor tyrosine kinase
(b) membrane phospholipid
(c) protein
(d) DNA
(e) cellulose

14. Which is defined (sometimes) on the basis of ability to reproduce sexually and produce fertile offspring?
(a) species
(b) order
(c) division
(d) genus
(e) family

15. In forming a bond between two amino acids, which process is fundamental?
(a) electron transport
(b) oxidative phosphorylation
(c) replacement of GDP by GTP
(d) hydrolysis
(e) dehydration synthesis

16. The calico cat looks the way it does because
(a) of a nonsense mutation in a pigmentation gene.
(b) it has a sex chromosome abnormality known as Turner's syndrome.
(c) it is a male with two Y chromosomes.
(d) like ABO blood groups, there are 2 alleles of the gene.
(e) of mosaicism and X chromosome inactivation.

17. Use of antibiotics in animal feed has caused an evolution of antibiotic resistance analogous to the penicillin resistance of gonorrhea. What organisms are thus of present concern in meat and eggs?
(a) bacteriophage
(c) methanogens
(b) mycoplasmas
(d) Salmonella and E. coli
(e) polio

18. The glycogen in your muscle is
(a) a protein.
(b) a polysaccharide.
(c) the product of anaerobic glycolysis.
(d) essentially a glucose that has been cut in half and is ready to enter the mitochondrion.
(e) an enzyme.

19. In plant cells, the cytoplasm of two cells can be joined by
(a) microtubules.
(b) plasmodesmata.
(c) centrioles.
(d) kinetochores.
(e) gap junctions.

20. Many eukaryotic genes can code for several different proteins in different tissues. How? (Disregard the situation for immunoglobin [antibody] genes.)
(a) It depends on which of the two DNA strands is used.
(b) It depends on alternate splicing of RNA.
(c) The DNA is rearranged.
(d) It depends on whether codons or anticodons are used.
(e) It is because of degeneracy in the genetic code.

21. Okazaki fragments are
(a) produced by the polymerase chain reaction.
(b) from nucleases in apoptosis.
(c) proteins on the cell wall of a bacterium.
(d) from laging strand replication.
(e) products of crossing over.

22. How do you make cDNA?
(a) by chopping the genome up with restriction enzymes
(b) from mRNA
(c) from the other DNA strand during the S phase of the cell cycle
(d) by transplanting a nucleus
(e) from the homologue you get from the other parent

23. AB is called the universal recipient because
(a) it has no antibodies.
(b) it is homozygous recessive.
(c) it confers resistance to malaria.
(d) it has no antigens.
(e) its hemoglobin has no mutations.

24. Which enzyme constructs the next generation of hereditary material during the S phase of the cell cycle?
(a) helicase
(b) RNA polymerase
(c) telomerase
(d) DNA polymerase
(e) the G protein

25. One product of anaerobic glycolysis in muscle is
(a) ethanol.
(b) acetyl co-A.
(c) glycogen.
(d) about 38 ATP's per glucose.
(e) lactate.

26. Within chloroplasts are dense stacks of flattened membranous sacks called
(a) grana (stacks of thylakoids)
(b) stroma
(c) carotenoids
(d) inner membrane
(e) the Golgi complex

27. 5' and 3' are used to refer to
(a) the ends of the protein molecule
(b) the linkage between a fatty acid and glycerol
(c) the ends of the mRNA.
(d) the phases of the cell cycle.
(e) genes in the karyotype.

28. With PCR, you would make
(a) a transformed bacterium.
(b) mRNA.
(c) DNA.
(d) the label for a western blot.
(e) a recombinant plasmid.

29. Karyotypes are produced from
(a) cells whose division is blocked in metaphase.
(b) red blood cells.
(c) sperm cells.
(d) cells like neurons that go into G0 by not passing the G1 checkpoint.
(e) cells in the S phase (cell cycle).

30. Medical science has nearly abolished which disease worldwide?
(a) herpes
(b) influenza
(c) smallpox
(d) rabies
(e) All are still of epidemic proportions.

31. Which is composed of only nucleic acids and protein, not even in cellular form?
(a) bacteria
(b) gonorrhea
(c) bacilli
(d) blue-green algae
(e) bacteriophage

32. Which of the following puts O2 into the atmosphere that can be used for respiration?
(a) fermentation
(b) the ozone layer
(c) anaerobic glycolysis
(d) respiration
(e) photosynthesis

33. The zygote's genome is
(a) diploid.
(b) only possible by cloning.
(c) differentiated.
(d) a gamete.
(e) haploid.

34. Which disease is probably caused by a protein infectious agent without any hereditary material?
(a) west Nile encephalitis
(b) strep throat
(c) typhoid
(d) anthrax
(e) mad cow disease

35. Which statement is NOT true about bacteriophage T2?
(a) It lacks the cell's plasma membrane, a part of viruses like HIV.
(b) For reproduction, they are parasites.
(c) They are present in the earliest fossils.
(d) The coat of the virus which infects the cell remains outside the bacterial cell.
(e) Using 32P, Hershey and Chase showed that the hereditary material of the virus enters the bacterial cell.

36. The gene's promoter
(a) is where transcription factors might bind.
(b) is important for splicing.
(c) determines X-inactivation.
(d) is where the anticodon binds.
(e) is the cause of nondisjunction.

37. What molecule is abundant in today's atmosphere but was rare if present at all during chemical evolution?
(a) oxygen
(b) water
(c) argon
(d) methane
(e) nitrogen

38. Suppose you have a single base-pair deletion toward the beginning of the coding sequence of a gene. What would be the most likely consequence?
(a) Most likely the protein would not be altered because of degeneracy.
(b) Introns would not be spliced out.
(c) It would result in a nonsense mutation.
(d) It would result in a triplet repeat.
(e) Nondisjunction would occur.

39. In some classification schemes, there are two "domains" of prokaryotes:
(a) single-celled and multicellular monerans.
(b) autotrophs and heterotrophs.
(c) viruses and monera.
(d) streptococci and bacilli.
(e) bacteria and archaea.

40. The mule was presented
(a) as an example of mimicry.
(b) in the context of the definition of a species.
(c) as resulting from sexual selection.
(d) as demonstrating sympatric speciation.
(e) as an example of diversity Darwin witnessed on the voyage of the Beagle.

41. What distinguishes a radioactive isotope?
(a) number of protons
(b) number of neutrons
(c) number of electrons
(d) number of ions
(e) number of covalent bonds

42. Which term applies to division of the cytoplasm and appearance of the cleavage furrow or the cell plate?
(a) kinetochore
(b) cytokinesis
(c) centriole
(d) G2
(e) cyclin

43. A triglyceride is
(a) a hydrocarbon.
(b) a hormone.
(c) a polysaccharide.
(d) a lipid.
(e) a polypeptide.

44. What is NOT a property of water?
(a) very high heat of vaporization (about 580 calories per gram)
(b) ability to partially dissociate to H+ and OH-
(c) ability to dissolve steroid hormones
(d) ability to serve as a solvent for ions
(e) ability to attract the polar portion of polar phospholipids

45. An organism which does not need to feed on organic material would
(a) be called sympatric.
(b) be a homologue.
(c) be an autotroph.
(d) have existed at the dawn of biological life.
(e) need to be a eukaryote.

46. Autoradiography is a way to
(a) amplify DNA automatically (without adding new DNA polymerase).
(b) clone a mammal.
(c) shadow membranes in the freeze-fracture technique.
(d) cut a plasmid and a gene so that they have the same sticky ends and can be fused.
(e) visualize radioactively labeled molecules.

47. The G-protein-linked receptor
(a) pumps sodium ions into the cell using energy from ATP.
(b) is a tyrosine kinase.
(c) has a cyclic shape until a phosphodiesterase adds water into a bond.
(d) resides in the plasma membrane.
(e) binds to DNA.

48. Crossing over
(a) is the cause of disorders like trisomy 21
(b) occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle.
(c) increases diversity of gametes.
(d) is how the early embryo implants into the surrogate mother in cloning.
(e) is how normal genes can be inserted into mutant cells in gene therapy.

49. In the genetic code, how many different codons are there?
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 20
(d) 64
(e) thousands

50. Which disorder is caused by a nucleotide repeat (CAG) causing a stretch of amino acids (glutamines) that can increase from generation to generation?
(a) the Siamese cat
(b) hemophelia
(c) Klinefelter's syndrome
(d) Down's syndrome
(e) Huntington's chorea

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