Exam 1 answers

1. One function of microtubules is motility. What else is used for motility (motor movements)?
*(a) actin and myosin
(b) hemoglobin
(c) cytochromes
(d) Golgi apparatus
(e) glycolipids

2. An anabolic steroid would be what kind of chemical?
(a) hydrocarbon
(b) peptide
*(c) lipid
(d) inorganic
(e) polar phospholipid

3. Urea and uric acid are byproducts of what process?
*(a) utilization of amino acids in catabolism for ATP production
(b) transcription
(c) binding of one amino acid to another
(d) glycolysis
(e) the electron transport chain

4. The dichotomy autotroph-heterotroph applies most closely to
(a) whether or not the cell has a nucleus.
*(b) whether or not the organism has photosynthesis.
(c) whether or not the metabolism utilizes oxygen.
(d) whether or not the bonding is covalent.
(e) whether water is added or removed as the components of the macromolecule react.

5. If a biochemist grinds up some liver and isolates a "microsomal fraction" with enzymes for detoxifying alcohol, drugs or toxins, (s)he is really examining what part of the cell as seen in an electron microscope?
(a) central vacuole
(b) tight junction
(c) nuclear envelope
*(d) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(e) microtubules

6. Which of the following statements is NOT true about tRNA (transfer RNA)?
(a) It is smaller than rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and mRNA (messenger RNA).
(b) It would be composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus.
(c) It would participate in translation.
(d) It carries the amino acid up to the growing peptide.
*(e) It carries the genetic code for a protein.

7. At what level is most of the CO2 from catabolism produced?
(a) electron transport
*(b) the Kreb's cycle
(c) the synthesis of glycogen from glucose
(d) the conversion of pyruvate to lactose
(e) the catabolism of amino acids

8. In forming a(n) [A] bond between a fatty acid and glycerol, [B] is involved
(a) [A] peptide; [B] sucrase
(b) [A] high energy phosphate; [B] oxidative phosphorylation
(c) [A] saccharide; [B] cellulose
(d) [A] ionic; [B] a steroid
*(e) [A] ester; [B] dehydration synthesis

9. The freeze-fracture -- freeze-etch technique
*(a) would reveal membrane proteins.
(b) separates individual phospholipids on a thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plate.
(c) is how chromosomes ("colored bodies") got their name.
(d) utilizes reverse transcriptase.
(e) utilizes autoradiography in which a radioactive tracer exposes film.

10. Gasoline is a
(a) protein.
(b) nucleic acid.
(c) lipid.
(d) carbohydrate.
*(e) hydrocarbon.

11. Taxonomic levels analogy -
*(a) genus:species
(b) family:phylum
(c) cell:tissue
(d) genus:division
(e) prokaryote:eukaryote

12. What is the opposite of oxidation?
(a) phosphorylation
(b) metabolism
*(c) reduction
(d) aerobic respiration
(e) active transport

13. A polyunsatured fatty acid in a triglyceride would most likely have how many double bonds?
(a) none *(b) 3 (c) 18 (d) 100 (e) thousands

14. Post-translational modifications would happen to
(a) membranes.
(b) mitochondria.
*(c) proteins.
(d) ionic bonds.
(e) carbohydrates.

15. Which element is not part of any of the 20 amino acids?
(a) nitrogen
(b) carbon
(c) hydrogen
(d) sulfur
*(e) phosphate

16. In class, it was argued that very few adults gain or lose much weight (except deliberately) even though 250 extra "calories" per day would cause you to gain about 25 pounds per year. This example relates to the concept of
(a) reductionism.
(b) systematics.
*(c) homeostasis.
(d) taxonomy.
(e) homology.

17. What is NOT true about hemoglobin?
(a) Like cytochromes, it is an iron containing pigment.
(b) It is in erythrocytes.
(c) There are two different types of protein chain (two of each) in the human adult.
*(d) It functions mainly in liver cells.
(e) Its different globins are thought to have evolved from a common molecular "ancester."

18. What is NOT true about heat?
(a) Heat's units are interconvertible with the units for energy
*(b) Heat is the same as temperature.
(c) Turning liquid water into water vapor requires more heat than raising water by 1oC.
(d) When glucose is used to make ATP, the process is less than one half efficient, and heat is generated.
(e) Heat is measured in calories.

19. What has the general formula Cn(H2O)n
(a) an amino acid
(b) a purine
(c) a triglyceride
*(d) a sugar
(e) DNA

20. A ribosome is about 20 nm.
*(a) That means you cannot see it unless you use an electron microscope.
(b) That means it is bigger than a mitochondrion.
(c) That tells you what color it would be in the microscope after it is stained.
(d) That means it is bigger than a prokaryote.
(e) That would only occur if it had pleated sheets instead of alpha helices.

21. The beginning of a protein is the amino end. By contrast, the end of the protein is the
(a) -R group.
(b) beta pleated sheet.
(c) glycerol.
*(d) carboxyl group.
(e) phosphate.

22. The cellulose in a tree trunk is
(a) a protein.
*(b) a polysaccharide.
(c) a nucleic acid.
(d) hydrolyzed.
(e) an enzyme.

23. Suppose you had a really short chain, only two units in length. How many different molecules would be possible for [A] DNA and [B] proteins?
*(a) [A] 16; [B] 400
(b) [A] 2; [B] 2
(c) [A] 4; [B] 20
(d) [A] hundreds; [B] thousands
(e) [A] thousands; [B] hundreds

24. Which of the following would apply to a plant cell but not an animal cell?
(a) rough endoplasmic reticulum
(b) plasma membrane
*(c) plasmodesmata
(d) Golgi apparatus
(e) mitochondria

25. Putting the cells of adult human blood into a hypotonic solution such as distilled water would
(a) be a good way to isolate free ribosomes.
*(b) produce erythrocyte ghosts, a good source of a known amount of membrane.
(c) cause the cell to shrink away from the cell wall.
(d) be the only way to see the sickle cells of anemia.
(e) cause hydrolysis at all the chemical bonds.

26. For water, 580 calories relates to
(a) acid - base balance.
*(b) heat of vaporization.
(c) its properties as a polar solvent.
(d) its involvement in hydrolysis.
(e) the proportion of the body's dry weight that is water incorporated into organic molecules.

27. Which of the following elements would not be part of the structure of the hemoglobin molecule?
(a) hydrogen (b) nitrogen (c) oxygen (d) carbon *(e) sodium

28. Which of the following would involve hydrolysis?
(a) formation of a bond between a fatty acid and glycerol
(b) the attachment of one amino acid to another in peptide formation
(c) the conversion of the monosaccharides glucose plus fructose to the disaccharide sucrose
*(d) the processes of digestion
(e) the storing of energy absorbed in a meal into glycogen in muscle and liver

29. A radioactive isotope of an element would have
(a) a different number of electrons.
(b) a different number of protons.
*(c) a different number of neutrons.
(d) a different number of bonds.
(e) a different number of atoms.

30. In addition to the cholroplast, which eukaryotic organelle is thought to have originated as a prokaryote incorporated intracellularly as a mutualistic symbiote?
(a) the nucleus
(b) the desmosome
*(c) the mitochondrion
(d) the Golgi apparatus
(e) the free ribosome

31. In animal cells, the structures analogous to plasmodesmata are the
(a) microtubules.
(b) flagella.
(c) centrioles.
(d) lysosomes.
*(e) gap junctions.

32. Glycogen is
(a) on the outside of the membrane.
*(b) animal starch in muscle and liver cells.
(c) half of a glucose molecule as it goes from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrion.
(d) capable of generating 38 molecules of ATP maximum.
(e) only digested in ruminants and termites.

33. If animal muscle cells are depleted of oxygen, what is it called when pyruvic is converted into lactic acid to keep ATP production going?
(a) oxidative phosphorylation
(b) electron transport
(c) anabolic process
*(d) anaerobic glycolysis
(e) the Kreb's cycle

34. Suppose you looked at a flagellum or a cilium in the electron microscope. The most predominant feature would be the
(a) vacuoles.
(b) transport vesicles.
(c) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
*(d) microtubules.
(e) lysosomes.

35. Which nitrogenous base is used in DNA but not RNA?
(a) cytosine
(b) adenine
(c) uracil
*(d) thymine
(e) guanine

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