Exam 4 answers

1. E. coli, which live in human intestines, are shaped like tiny, straight sausages. This means that they are
*(a) bacilli.
(b) endospores.
(c) symbiotic.
(d) staphylococci.
(e) anaerobic.

2. Myoblasts are particularly interesting because
(a) they are the reason that bacteria cause death.
*(b) they are determined to eventually become muscle cells.
(c) although they were abundant at one time, they are now extinct.
(d) they were used in a recent gene therapy trial where the patient died.
(e) they are the smallest bacterial cells.

3. Darwin's theory applies most closely to
(a) extinction of species.
(b) the origin of life.
*(c) the evolution of adaptations for survival.
(d) inheritance of acquired characteristics.
(e) genetic mechanisms of evolution.

4. Why are stem cells interesting in research and potentially useful in therapy?
(a) They only have some of the organism's genes (the ones that are chosen).
*(b) They are pluripotent.
(c) They utilize adenovirus to improve the genes.
(d) They prevent apoptosis.
(e) They are the only cells guaranteed not to have homeotic genes.

5. Punctuated equilibrium applies to
(a) the frequencies of each genotype when there are two alleles of one gene with probabilities: A-p, a-q.
(b) selection for positive phototaxis in the Hirsch-Hadler Drosophila maze.
*(c) rapid speciation.
(d) the tendency for organisms to cooperate, such as the oxpecker and the giraffe.
(e) the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

6. Coacervates (protobionts)
(a) were the first organisms to photosynthesize and produce oxygen in abundance.
(b) almost certainly used DNA for heredity since DNA is the only molecule other than protein with enzymatic activity.
(c) formed the first major type of biological fossil before the Cambrian explosion.
(d) are high in meteorites and in the geological stratum at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.
*(e) were stable aggregates of macromolecules before biology but otherwise somewhat like cells.

7. Used as an example of altruism:
(a) the monarch butterfly being eaten resulting in protection of the viceroy
(b) the peacock with its decorative feathers
(c) the diversity of finch species on the Galopagos Islands
*(d) the worker bee losing its life in defense of the queen and the hive
(e) the English peppered moth "becoming" black during the Industrial Revolution

8. A male wasp pollinates orchids because it is attracted to a scent like the sex attractant pheromone. This example applies to
(a) sexual selection.
(b) genetic drift.
(c) the bottleneck effect.
*(d) coevolution.
(e) convergent evolution.

9. The fact that radioactive carbon has a certain half life is most relevant to
*(a) dating fossils.
(b) finding petroleum reserves.
(c) explaining the adaptive radiation of the mammals.
(d) how life could exist in the wake of the Cambrian explosion.
(e) demonstrating that there was at least one asteroid impact in the history of life and extinctions on Earth.

10. Imaginal disks are
(a) segmentation genes in Drosophila.
*(b) primordia of adult structures in larval Drosophila.
(b) homeotic mutants in many organisms.
(d) maternal effect genes.
(e) cells that induce development of the vulva in C. elegans.

11. The term "allopatric" applies to
(a) cell death.
(b) cloning.
*(c) speciation.
(d) the shape of a population growth curve.
(e) camouflage.

12. "Darwin's finches" have become a classic example because they demonstrate
(a) sexual selection.
(b) genetic drift.
(c) Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
*(d) divergent evolution.
(e) mimicry.

13. "Surrogate mother" is a term applied to
(a) the lay-down of a protein gradient in a Drosophila egg.
(b) the way nuclear transplantation was used to make a tadpole from a somatic nucleus.
(c) an egg cell into which the nucleus of a somatic cell has been injected.
(d) the use of stem cells in research to cure diseases.
*(e) the host for implantation of the early embryo in mammalian cloning.

14. It is thought that the first hereditary molecule (in the history of life) was
(a) 14C.
(b) protein.
*(c) RNA.
(d) DNA.
(e) oxygen.

15. Malthus was
(a) the evolutionary theorist who suggested that use and disuse influenced heredity.
(b) the prosecuter at the Scope's "monkey trial."
(c) the person who proposed a theory of evolution much like Darwin's at about the same time as Darwin.
*(d) the author of the Essay on the Principle of population that influenced Darwin.
(e) the geologist who suggested gradual change and influenced Darwin.

16. About 250 million years ago, between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras the world experienced the largest extinction, caused in part by
(a) radioactivity and the resulting ionizing radiation.
*(b) loss of ocean habitat as continents merged.
(c) depletion of ozone.
(d) emerging diseases.
(e) the origin of heterotrophs.

17. What is NOT true about the famous organism Clostridium botulinum?
(a) The endospores are only killed at high temperature.
*(b) It is a symbiote in the termite gut.
(c) It is anaerobic.
(d) Its toxin blocks neurotransmitter release.
(e) It is a danger in improperly canned foods.

18. Order these times of mass extinctions from early to late.
(a) late Devonian, end Ordovician, end Permian, end Cretaceous, end Triassic
(b) end Triassic, end Permian, end Ordovician, end Cretaceous, late Devonian
(c) end Cretaceous, end Triassic, late Devonian, end Ordovician, end Permian
(d) end Triassic, end Ordovician, late Devonian, end Cretaceous, end Permian
*(e) end Ordovician, late Devonian, end Permian, end Triassic, end Cretaceous

19. Before biology, when the chemical building blocks for life were thought to be accumulating, there was little or no
(a) water.
(b) reduction reactions.
(c) nitrogen-containing gas.
*(d) ozone.
(e) carbon (C) containing molecules.

20. Dinosaurs became extinct
(a) as Pangaea broke up.
(b) during the latest ice age.
(c) in the earliest of 5 major extinction periods.
(d) in the continental collision that created the Appalacian Mountains.
*(e) after a probable impact at the end of the Cretaceous period.

21. Cholera
(a) is a disease associated with deep puncture wounds which could lead to lock-jaw unless you are immunized and boosted every 10 years.
(b) was a common lung disease called "consumption" that is now on the upsurge because of AIDS and evolution of resistance to antibiotics
(c) is spread by the bite of a tick.
*(d) causes diarrhea by interfering with G-protein coupled signalling.
(e) has spread recently in the US because it is spread by mosquitoes and birds can be a host.

22. What is the correct order from early to late?
*(a) egg polarity genes -- segmentation genes -- homeotic genes
(b) segmentation genes -- egg polarity genes -- homeotic genes
(c) homeotic genes -- segmentation genes -- egg polarity genes
(d) segmentation genes -- homeotic genes -- egg polarity genes
(e) egg polarity genes -- homeotic genes -- segmentation genes

23. Homology is a term applied to
(a) the origin of eukaryotes.
(b) the definition of a species.
(c) the example that the viceroy butterfly looks so much like the monarch butterfly.
*(d) divergent evolution.
(e) the bottleneck effect.

24. A stain for peptidoglycan in the cell wall
(a) distinguishes archaea from bacteria.
(b) distinguishes halophiles from thermophiles.
*(c) distinguishes Gram-positive from Gram negative bacteria.
(d) is referred to as "TUNEL."
(e) distinguishes cyanobacteria from heterotrophic bacteria.

25. Which is NOT true about "programmed cell death?"
*(a) It is called necrosis.
(b) DNA gets cut up.
(c) Other cells phagocytose the remains without inflammation.
(d) The proteins get cut up by proteases.
(e) Control is by a signal transduction pathway involving the "suicide" proteins Ced-4 and Ced-3.

26. Bacteria involved in biodegradation
(a) are useful because they are the source of DNA polymerase used in thermocyclers for the PCR reaction.
(b) cause Lyme disease.
*(c) are chemoheterotrophs.
(d) are eukaryotic.
(e) have purple membranes composed of bacteriorhodopsin.

27. Coal was formed
(a) when the ice age preserved wood from flowering plants.
*(b) in frequently flooded swamp forests of fern-like plants of the Carboniferous period.
(c) from shells composed of calcium carbonate.
(d) from mats of blue-green algae during the Precambrian Era.
(e) from deposits of microorganisms including foraminifera during the Carboniferous period.

28. The curious nature of reproduction in the praying mantis was used as an example of
(a) sexual selection.
(b) cryptic coloration.
*(c) the importance of reproduction in the biological definition of "survival."
(d) the necessity of offspring to be fertile in one traditional definition of "species."
(e) altruism.

29. The outgroup applies to
(a) the Hardy-Weinberg "theorem."
(b) artificial selection for a trait with polygenic coding.
(c) the coevolution of insects and pollinators.
(d) mimicry.
*(e) constructing a phylogenetic tree using cladistic analysis.

30. Suppose that the red flower allele is dominant to the white flower allele and that the frequency of the red allele in the population is 0.8 while the frequency of the white flower allele is 0.2. What proportion of plants will have red flowers?
(a) 0.2
(b) 0.5
(c) 0.64
(d) 0.8
*(e) 0.96

31. What is not true about Drosophila development?
(a) Early mitotic divisions proceed without cytokinesis.
(b) Maternal effect genes set up anterior-posterior polarity.
*(c) Larvae lay their eggs through a vulva.
(d) Larvae house tissues determined to become adult structures before these structures differentiate.
(e) Like other holometabolous insects, they undergo a complete metamorphosis while in the pupal state.

32. There is a famous story about Mary Mallon in the early 1900's. Because of a lingering bacterial infection, and her job as a cook, she spread what disease before she was detained?
*(a) typhoid
(b) hepatitis B
(c) ebola
(d) west Nile encephalitis
(e) Lyme disease

33. Pangaea was
*(a) a supercontinent.
(b) a famous volcano.
(c) an extinct jawed fish.
(d) one of the eras.
(e) the time when the ice ages occurred.

34. Cyanobacteria
(a) cause diseases that are cured with broad spectrum antibiotics.
(b) are famous for being anaerobic.
(c) are eukaryotes.
(d) include methanogens, extreme halophiles and extreme thermophiles.
*(e) are photoautotrophs.

35. Regarding programmed cell death, a ladder indicates
*(a) DNA chopped into multiples of a certain length.
(b) the inhibition of Ced-4 by Ced-9
(c) the inflammation caused by the dying cell.
(d) the activation of proteases.
(e) the role of the anchor cell.

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