starfish and giant foams
greet us with a smile
-Jimi Hendrix


Animals

Assignment

Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Chapter 23 and 34, references to Chapters 33 & 41

Today's musical selection
Simon and Garfunkel At the zoo

here is a comprehensive site on animal diversity

Former view: Protozoans vs Metazoans.
Oversimplification (but close to the truth): vertebrates and invertebrates

The overall diversity is awesome, much more than you might want to know, so simplification is important to show fundamental points

Major developments with multicellularity:

Instead of just saying each type of organism and its characteristics, the invertebrate coverage will use examples to discuss these developments.

The first 3 slides pertain to the gut arrangement

Figure 23-5
primitive: sponges

Figure 23-7
two way: cniderans, flat worms

Figure 23-13
one way: (two openings) roundworms & up, Mollusk is shown

Figure 23-2
symmetry: none, "radial" (even star fish is bilateral), bilateral

Figure 23-11
cephalization (not shown in figure, but there is a tendency for nervous system to concentrate in head)

Figure 23-3
body cavity (coelom with peritoneum) acoelomates vs pseudocoelomates
body cavity seen above roundworms

Figure 41-3
Embryology
Zygote, Cleavage, Ball, Infold,- gastrulation
protostome: molluscs, annelids, arthropods
blastopore becomes mouth
deuterostome: echinoderms, chordates
blastopore becomes anus

Figure 23-1
All in one figure Animal diversity
(even though arthropods and molluscs can be high, comparative embryology tells us that echinoderms are closer)

When you're big, you need:also need:

Figure 23-5
body support (example - spicules in sponge)

Figure 23-11
(example-earthworm)
vascular
gut
excretion
integration: nervous system and hormones

Figure 33-4
respiration

Disorders caused by invertebrates:

flatworms -

Figure 23-10
- tapeworms

flukes (parasites) Shistosoma 1 Trematoda Snails water Africa

Roundworms-

Caenorhabditis elegans genetics

Figure 23-26
parasites
Trichinella (pork)
dog heart worms

Some other major points about invertebrates:

Figure 23-11 (Earthworm)
Segmentation is very important

Molluscs (we eat them)
Gastropod (stomach - foot) snails
Pelecypoda (clams and bivalves)
Cephalopoda squid octopus

Figure (chapter opener) and case study
squids can be biggest invertebrates

Figure 23-21
Arthropods (insect example)
2/3 species are insects
many are pests
Departments of Entomology in large universities
Fruitfly Drosophila is very useful in genetics

Figure 23-18
Exoskeleton must molt
made of chitin, a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide also found in fungus cell walls


Chordates -

Figure 24-1
major developments
notochord (becomes support usually), dorsal nerve, pharyngeal gill slits, tail

Figure 41-4
Famous "straw man"
"Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" gills, tail, etc

Figure 24-4
jawless fish - lampreys

Figure 24-5
cartilagenous fish

Figure 24-6
ray finned fish.
most diverse vertebrates

Figure 24-8
Amphibia metamorphosis interest in development

Figure 24-9
Reptiles internal fertilization.

Figure 24-11
Birds -separate evolution from reptiles.

Mammals
Bottleneck
Mammals (named after mammary glands) adaptive radiation from reptiles

Figure 24-13
Monotremes (egg, platypus)

Figure 24-14
Marsupials (pouch) (opposums, kangaroo)

Figure 24-15
Placentals

Questions used in 2007 & 2008 related to this outline

Protostomes and deuterostomes differ with respect to what dichotomy?
(a) whether the mature organism is a gametophyte or a sporophyte
(b) whether the organisms are self-feeders or other-feeders
*(c) whether the blastopore becomes the mouth or the anus
(d) whether meiosis makes gametes or spores
(e) whether cells have a nucleus or not

Which shows cephalization?
(a) mosses
(b) lichens
*(c) earthworms
(d) sponges
(e) kelp

Trichinosis, contracted by people if they eat undercooked pork, is caused by
(a) fungi.
(b) staphylococci called MRSA.
(c) deuterostomes.
(d) chordates.
*(e) roundworms.

Lampreys are
(a) invertebrates but not chordates.
(b) ray-finned fish.
*(c) jawless fish, predatory to fish.
(d) terrestrial plants that do not have vascular tissue.
(e) mutualistic symbiotic relationships between algae and fungi.

A monotreme is
(a) a cartilaginous fish, and the ray is an example.
*(b) a mammal, and the platypus is an example.
(c) a reptile and the tadpole is an example.
(d) a placental mammal and the opossum is an example.
(e) a marsupial and the shark is an example.

Which of the following animal phyla is distinguished by a lack of tissues?
A) echinoderms
B) flatworms
C) annelids
D) roundworms
*E) sponges

What DON'T earthworms have?
A) cephalization
B) a coelom
*C) radial symmetry
D) a digestive system
E) segmentation

Why do they call the cavity of a jellyfish a "gastrovascular" cavity?
A) because it is the same as the intraperitoneal cavity
B) because it is a one-way gut with a mouth and an anus
*C) because it serves for circulation and digestion
D) because the jellyfish is famous for having 5 hearts
E) because jellyfish are bilaterally symmetric

What the blastopore eventually becomes is most relevant to
A) whether the fish have jaws.
*B) whether the animal is classified as a protostome or a deuterostome.
C) whether the animal is a parasite.
D) whether sexual reproduction can only be achieved in water.
E) whether the animal is a chordate or a vertebrate.

Why do insects need to molt their cuticles (exoskeletons)?
A) to dispose of their nephridia
B) so their blood can continue to transport oxygen in a closed circulatory system
C) if they did not, they would not have mesoderm
D) that is how ectoderm and endothelium develop
*E) to grow

Which of these groups is characterized by having a true coelom?
A) sponges
B) jellyfish
*C) insects
D) flatworms
E) roundworms

A tadpole is a(n) _________.
A) bony fish
B) cartilaginous fish
C) jawless fish
*D) amphibian
E) invertebrate

Which of these groups is characterized by having a pseudocoelom?
*A) roundworms
B) annelids
C) arthropods
D) chordates
E) cnidarians

The Trichinella worm, which causes trichinosis, is a(n) ________.
A) autotroph.
B) prokaryote.
C) chordate.
*D) roundworm.
E) protostome.

Sharks and rays are _________.
A) bony fish
*B) cartilaginous fish
C) jawless fish
D) amphibians
E) invertebrates

A marsupial is a(n) _________.
A) amphibian
B) reptile
C) bird
*D) mammal
E) mollusk

Protostomes and deuterostomes differ with respect to what dichotomy?
A) whether the mature organism is a gametophyte or a sporophyte
B) whether the nervous system is mostly in the head or not
*C) whether the blastopore becomes the mouth or the anus
D) whether meiosis makes gametes or spores
E) whether the animal is a protozoan or a metazoan

Questions used in 2003 relating to this outline

Trichinella are
(a) larvae (maggots) of holometabolous flies.
(b) parasites in the kingdom Protista.
*(c) nematodes.
(d) chordates.
(e) deuterostomes.

Chitin, a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, is present in arthropod exoskeleton and
(a) loose connective tissue.
*(b) cell walls of fungi.
(c) the cytoplasm to bind calcium ions.
(d) xylem.
(e) meristems.

Protostomes and deuterostomes differ with respect to what dichotomy?
(a) whether the mature organism is a gametophyte or a sporophyte
(b) whether there is a lateral meristem or not
(c) whether the blastopore becomes the mouth or the anus
(d) whether meiosis makes gametes or spores
(e) whether both sexes or only one sex are housed within one mature plant


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