Blood and antibodies


Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Chapter 36 (and part of Chapter 32) (a little from Chapter 5)

Today's musical selection
Foreigner Hot blooded

Overview of blood cell types

Table 32-1
plasma and hematocrit (formed elements), Buffy coat between

I. Plasma - (serum lacks fibrinogen) fluids, nutrients, O2, CO2, ions
proteins (synthesized in liver except gamma globulins)(clotting)

II. Hematocrit
Erythrocytes 5-6 million/ml
Leucocytes 5-10 thousand/ml
Platelets 250,000-400,000/ml formed from megacaryocytes
(antibodies) ions, wastes, hormones

Blood clotting

Figure 32-8c
Platelets 250,000/ml from megacaryocytes

Figure 32-12
Clotting Platelet adhesion then fibrin (from fibrinogen)
activated Hageman factor
prothrombin -> thrombin
fibrinogen ->fibrin
Hemophelia is famous disorder


Figure 32-8a
Red blood cells (corpuscles) (erythrocytes)
no nuclei
O2 transport, hemoglobin, anemia
last 120 days, made in marrow, recycled
iron recycling in liver is what makes feces dark (and skin yellow in jaundice [hepatitis]) - bile pigments

Polymorphonuclear granulocytes

Figure 32-8b
There are non-specific responses to injury

White blood cells (leucocytes as in leukemia)
Polymorphonuclear granulocytes (phagocytosis, etc)

neutrophil (60-70%) phagocytosis
here is a picture from our histology course of a neutrophil showing the complex nucleus
chemotaxis after 30-60 min
more synthesized especially in bacterial infection
reset thermostat (pyrogens)

eosinophil (1.5%) phagocytosis
allergic and parasitic inflamation

basophil (0.1%) histamine containing
like mast cells

Phagocytosis and review slides

Figure 5-15c
Phagocytosis (cell eating), fusion of primary lysosome, formation of secondary lysosome
white blood cell engulfing bacterium

Figure 36-4
macrophage eating E. coli


Figure 32-8b
Mononuclear cells
monocytes (5%) (as in mononucleosis) (phagocytosis)
late chemotaxis become macrophages
alveolar macrophages in lungs
Kupffer's cells in liver


Figure 36-5
Inflammation and phagocytosis
Triad redness, warmth, swelling
Histamine (from mast cells, platelets)


There are specific responses involving antibodies and other mechanisms

T-cells (80%) (thymus - near heart) cell
(transplant) cytotoxic, suppressor, helper (AIDS)
B-cells (20%) (bone marrow, actually bursa of Fabricius) (become plasma cells)

Active and passive immunity

When I was a kid, nearly everybody got measles, mumps, and chicken pox. We were presumably immune for life (active immunity). When we had the disease was part of out health record.

Vaccines - active immunity (like disease)
memory cells of immune system
Edward Jenner 1796 "encowment"
Farmers were less likely to get smallpox because they got a related disease, cowpox
When I was a kid, you could not enroll in school without the scar
Smallpox is so completely eliminated that one issue is whether to get rid of lab virus.

When I was a kid, there was (still) a polio epidemic.
A kid at a birthday party I went to got polio, so I went to the family doctor for gamma globulin, passive immunity
(1954 Salk vaccine injected, soon Sabin vaccine in sugar cube)


Humoral immunity - B cells

Figure 36-9
clones of plasma cells and memory cells derived from B cells for specific antigens

Figure 36-11
Another version of this figure

Figure 36-6
Antigen (virus or bacterial coat, usually not self)
2 long chains and 2 short chains, variable region at the end of all 4 makes it specific for antigen

Figure 36-8
An amazing mechanism where the gene is rearranged accounts for diversity.

IgG most abundant, monomer, cross placenta
Antibodies cross placenta, also in mother's milk, and late weaning covers until child's own antibodies are formed.

Figure 36-13
IgE allergy, bind to mast cells (histamine)


Figure 36-11
helper T cells express CD4
antigen presenting macrophage
MHC major histocompatability complex 20 genes 50 alleles each
Class II MHC only on macrophages (and B lymphocytes)
antigen presented by to B cell

Figure 36-10
cytotoxic (killer) T cells express CD8
Class I MHC - actually on lots of cells (including the infected cellsshown here)
[try to match MHC (tissue typing) for transplantation]

Questions used in 2007 & 2008 related to this outline

Phagocytosis is a term for
(a) self-induced vomiting to lose weight.
(b) the kind of inflammation mediated by histamine.
(c) the network of molecular transformations mediating blood clotting.
(d) histological staining with histamine.
*(e) eating of bacteria by white blood cells.

If you are given an injection of antibodies, this is called
(a) active immunity.
*(b) passive immunity.
(c) vaccination.
(d) major histocompatability complex.
(e) histamine.

How does a B lymphocyte help after infection?
*(a) It makes antibody.
(b) It makes antigen.
(c) It destroys infected cells.
(d) It causes inflammation.
(e) It expresses CD8 and hence activates killer T cells

How can so many antibodies be made against the vast array of possible antigens?
(a) Each different antibody is coded by a different gene in your genome.
(b) Alternative splicing of RNA.
*(c) Recombination on chromosomes produces different antibody genes.
(d) That's what histamine is used for.
(e) Different antibodies come from different polymorphonuclear granulocytes.

Which does not apply to blood clotting?
(a) hemophelia.
(b) fibrin.
(c) prothrombin.
*(d) mast cells.
(e) platelets.

A newborn baby might have some immunity because
(a) memory cells cross the placenta.
(b) cytotoxic T cells cross the placenta.
*(c) antibodies cross the placenta.
(d) Hageman factor crosses the placenta.
(e) of active immunity in the baby's own neutrophils.

(a) are used for dialysis.
(b) are peptide hormones.
(c) make antigens.
(d) are histamine-secreting cells.
*(e) are the source of platelets.

Which is a lymphocyte?
(a) an osteoblast
(b) Paramecium
(c) a T cell
(d) the glomerulus
(e) macrophage

Upon the first exposure to non-self proteins, what does the immune system do to allow quick antibody production the next time?
(a) The erythrocyte engulfs the bacterium.
(b) Pyrogens are secreted from the thymus.
(c) Mast cells are converted to red blood cells.
*(d) Antigens bind to B-cells.
(e) Killer-plasma cells attack and kill infected cells.

Fibrinogen is involved in
A) cell-mediated immunity.
B) humoral immunity.
C) inflammation.
*D) blood clotting.
E) antibody formation.

Why might an infant, at the moment of birth, have some of the mother's immunities?
A) because of prothrombin
B) because of platelets
*C) because of IgG
D) because of killer T cells
E) because of megakaryocytes

Some macrophages present viral antigens on their surface. How did they get those antigens?
A) by using pyrogens
*B) by phagocytosing the virus
C) by using eosin
D) by releasing histamine
E) These macrophages were memory cells, so they "remembered" the antigens.

Plasma cells are derived from
A) polymorphonuclear granulocytes.
B) mast cells.
C) basophils.
D) erythrocytes.
*E) B lymphocytes.

"Antibodies on only one B cell can bind an antigen," according to one figure. What happens then?
A) Prothrombin gets activated to thrombin.
B) Erythrocytes get recycled in the liver.
*C) Some become memory cells to jump start a future response.
D) Phagocytic cells mop up the debris.
E) Helper T cells kill the B cell.

Helper T cells are involved in
*A) cell-mediated immunity.
B) humoral immunity.
C) inflammation.
D) blood clotting.
E) chemotaxis.

83. Which is a phagocytic white blood cell?
A) plasma cell
*B) neutrophil
C) platelet
D) interstitial cell
E) Purkinje cell

Questions used in 2002 relating to this outline (and other outlines)

The CD4 and CD8 proteins are expressed by [A] and [B] respectively.
(a) [A] steroid hormone cells; [B] peptide hormone cells.
(b) [A] adrenal cortex; [B] adrenal medulla.
*(c) [A] helper T cells; [B] killer T cells.
(d) [A] alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans; [B] beta cells in the islets of Langerhans.
(e) [A] erythrocytes; [B] leukocytes.

Macrophages are derived from
(a) a clone of memory cells.
(b) the pituitary.
(c) plasma cells.
*(d) monocytes.
(e) the thyroid.

Chemotaxis is a term applied to
*(a) monocytes and polymorphonuclear granulocytes migrating to the site of an injury.
(b) dilute urine moving from Bowman's capsule to the proximal convoluted tubule.
(c) the sperm being attracted to the egg.
(d) the forward flow of blood through veins.
(e) the transport of CO2 in the blood.

Vasodilation would occur
(a) during diastole.
(b) in laryngitis.
(c) during inhalation.
*(d) during the inflammatory response.
(e) when veins like the vena cava regulate blood flow to vascular beds.

Which cells are most depleted by infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)?
(a) erythrocytes
(b) eosinophils
*(c) helper T cells
(d) monocytes
(e) macrophages

.A highly variable region is the hallmark of which of the following?
*(a) an antibody molecule
(b) pro-opiomelanocortin
(c) the cervix
(d) the cardiac orifice
(e) the vascular cambium

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