Did you know,
that your baby boy has walked where angels trod?
When you kiss your little baby,
you've kissed the face of God.

Kenny Rogers (also other singers, Mary, did you know?)



Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Chapter 41, references to Chapters 13 & 40, "whose blood is it, anyway?"

Today's musical selection
Cream Mother's lament

Uterus, fertilization, and early development

Figure 40-16
anatomy of ovary, and relation of ovulation to fimbriae of uterine (Fallopian) tubule
Tubal ligation (laparoscopy) 100% effective. Reverse?
Cervix (diaphragm, cervical caps, foam, spermicidal jelly)

Figure 40-17
Fallopian tube fimbria capture ovulated egg - Sperm meets,

Figure 40-18
2nd meiosis makes ootid 3 polar bodies discarded nucleii

Figure 41-9
Division in Fallopian tubes
Blastocyst (trophoblast, blastocoel, inner cell mass)

(trophoblast - >chorion -> placenta)
(inner cell mass -> embryo -> fetus)
IUD prevent implantation, irritate, after previous child, not for everybody legal question
if inner cell mass divides, Monozygotic (identical) twins MZT (2 amnions, 1 chorion), 30% of twins

Figure 41-10
Shows trophoblast, implantation and a little development

While I have this up, I will talk about "stem cell research"

Stem cell research

Because cells lose their pluripotency, researchers have focussed on their discovery that embryonic stem cells are better at differentiating into cells that can repair cell damaged areas such as in the case of spinal cord injury; the issue is very controversial because it may encourage practitioners to create and destroy human embryos for no other purpose than to harvest stem cells. Of note, there may be "left-overs" (it is hard to find a diplomatic euphemism) from in vitro fertilization after a couple has had all the children they want (that might go to "waste"). For this reason, for humans, only the use of some 60 cell lines that are already in culture was dictated in the US by President Bush.

Several colleagues and I are collaborating to cure blindness in a mouse mutant with cells that started as embryonic and were induced to become precursors of nerve cells; identified by green fluorescent protein, here is a cell that has been put into the retina and is beginning to show a neuron-like phenotype.

RMKline "whose blood is it, anyway?"
Stem cells from placenta can be useful in treating blood disorders in the same individual, a sibling, or an unrelated individual with a good tissue type match.
There are too many legal and ethical issues to list - go read the paper.
Some people want to bank their child's cord blood

After implantation

Figure E13-5
trophoblast implants becomes chorion -
make HCG 2 wks - 4 mo (pregnancy test) [maintains corpus luteum and progesterone production]
to maintain corpus luteum
Chorionic villus biopsy - early genetic testing
Amniocentesis-later genetic screening

Figure 41-3
Eventually get 3 cell layers:
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

Table 41-14
eventually get placenta - exchange, diseases like rubella, alcohol, drugs

Figure 41-8
Humn development

Figure 41-15

Questions used in 2007 and 2008 related to this outline

The "lining" (inside layer) of the uterus is called the
(a) amnion.
(b) morula.
(c) blastocoel.
*(d) endometrium.
(e) notochord.

Which is a way to test for chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo?
(a) gel electrophoresis
(b) administering dopamine
(c) using rubella
(d) testing for chorionic gonadotroin
*(e) chorionic villus sampling

A blastocyst
A) is a type of cancer men get in the prostate.
B) is filled with enzymes and is at the tip of a sperm cell.
C) is the type of cell that undergoes meiosis to make an egg.
D) is the name of the structure from which the egg is ovulated.
*E) is found in the uterine tube.

After implantation, what will develop into the placenta?
(a) the inner cell mass
*(b) the chorion
(c) the ectoderm
(d) the gamete
(e) the zygote

Embryonic stem cells come from
*(a) the inner cell mass
(b) the chorion
(c) the mesoderm
(d) the gamete
(e) the endometrium

What chemical would a pregnancy test assay?
(a) a steroid from the ovary
(b) amnionic fluid
(c) prostaglandins from the seminal vesicles
(d) rubella from the placenta
*(e) a peptide from the chorion

Why are stem cells potentially useful in research and medical practice?
(a) They can be used to help infertile couples have children.
(b) They have more genes than cells of the later adult.
*(c) They are pluripotent.
(d) They are used routinely to test for chromosomal abnormalities.
(e) They are an enduring source for primary spermatocytes.

The word for the early cell divisions after the zygote is formed.
(a) inhibin
(b) bulbourethral
(c) fraternal
(d) epididymis
*(e) cleavage

What is it that becomes the chorion
A) the inner cell mass
B) the amnion
C) embryonic stem cells
*D) the outer cell layer of the blastocyst
E) the corpus luteum

Which technique allows screening for genetic and chromosomal abnormalities?
A) gastrulation
B) ovulation
C) cleavage
D) implantation
*E) amniocentesis

A ball of cells that will form ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm is called
A) the notochord
*B) the blastula
C) the IUD
D) the placenta
E) the fimbriae

Any DNA that might be in mitochondria of the zygote comes from
*A) the egg
B) the sperm
C) the sertoli cell
D) semen
E) the prostate

Questions used in 2002 relating to this outline (and other outlines)

This question is about implantation. [A] What is implanted? [B] Where is it implanted?
*(a) [A] blastocyst; [B] endometrium.
(b) [A] sperm; [B] vagina.
(c) [A] fetus; [B] womb.
(d) [A] amnion; [B] cervix.
(e) [A] follicle; [B] ovary.

On its way to fertilize a human egg, a sperm cell does not have to pass through which of the following?
(a) oviduct
(b) uterus
*(c) corpus luteum
(d) epididymis
(e) cervix

To induce stronger uterine contractions, a synthetic version of what hormone is given?
(a) androgen
(b) estrogen
(c) progesterone
*(d) oxytocin
(e) FSH

When (or where) is meiosis complete for the human "egg?"
(a) in the ovary before birth.
(b) in the primary follicle before FSH.
(c) in the blastula after cleavage divisions.
(d) in the secondary oocyte just when ovulation occurs.
*(e) when sperm attach in the oviduct.

Upon pregnancy, the hormone that supports the corpus luteum and that is assayed for in pregnancy tests comes from the
(a) hypothalamus.
(b) ovary.
(c) zygote.
(d) pituitary.
*(e) chorion.

Which is destined to become the placenta?
(a) amnion
*(b) trophoblast
(c) archenteron
(d) the "organizer" of Spemann and Mangold
(e) notochord

Which is a way to test for genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities?
(a) plasmogamy
(b) by using the precursor of dopamine
(c) by using phytochrome
(d) using organophosphates like malathion
*(e) amniocentesis

This page was last updated 8/20/09

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