The King asked
The Queen, and
The Queen asked
The Dairymaid:
"Could we have some butter for
The Royal slice of bread?"
"You'd better tell
His Majesty
That many people nowadays
Like marmalade
The King sobbed, "Oh, deary me!"
And went back to bed.
He whimpered,
"Could call me
A fussy man;
I only want
A little bit
Of butter for
My bread!"

-Alan Alexander (AA) Milne



Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Chapter 34, Specified figures elsewhere

Today's musical selection
Jim Backus and Phyllis Diller Delicious (you tube: lyrics

It is worth mentioning that hunger and satiety are complex
In old work on brain lesions, the hypothalamus was thought to have hunger and satiety centers,
Hypothalamus is important in many motivated behaviors including thirst and sex drive
Now it is known that there are hormones like leptin

Figure (chapter 34 opener)
Your case study describes Carre Otis who, like many others, suffered pathological weight loss
anorexia nervosa
bulemia nervosa
(or taking laxatives)


Energy (calories - kilocalories)
2000-3000/day 250 extra/day add 25 lb/yr regulation
do not lose calories in feces, urine (except diabetes)
sweat (all systems efficient)

Table 34-1
Calories of food and calories burned by various activities

Amino acids

"Precursors" building blocks 9 essential amino acids
corn very low in lysine and isoleucine,
beans low in tryptophan and methionine

Figure 34-2
Kwashiorkor - Africa - disease of child new baby born
some essential fatty acids
even cholesterol essential to life, essential in insect diet


Table 34-3
Vitamins not synthesized (in most cases), and are not metabolized
Fat soluable
A is usually considered to be the "chromophore" (pigmented portion) of the visual pigment (rhodopsin)
retinoic acid and steroid hormone receptors act by regulating transcription (into mRNA) of specific genes
Some of my main research interests concern vision and vitamin A: see site 1, site 2, site 3, and site 4

Personal reflection:
The main source of vitamin A in the diet is carotenoids. For 10 years, I have attended a special interest dinner at the vision meeting: "Nutrition" (carotenoids) and I am happy to report that the food they serve is high in carotenoids (note the bright colors)

E (antioxidant) Oxygen is a necessary evil. fat soluable
K (coagulation), normally made by gut bacteria, can have hypervitaminosis which would cause thromboses

Special note:
You are in the Doisy College, and the generosity of the Doisy family to Saint Louis University has been great. Edward A Doisy was SLU's only Nobel Prize winner, and he shared the 1943 Nobel Prize "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K."
D - also like a hormone, affects bone,

Figure 34-2c
D deficiency leads to a disorder in young people known as rickets with skeletal abnormalities witnessed as bowleggedness, sunshine creates vitamin D in the skin, and hence the expression "sunshine vitamin D." Rickets was in cool climate areas where people are dressed and/or indoors. Now the problem is solved by adding vitamin D to milk, but in the old days thay gave cod liver oil, and fish (especially livers) are high in the fat soluable vitamins most notably A and D

Water soluable
C colds? The Nobel Prize winning chemist Linus Pauling (later in his career) became a strong advocate of the wonders of vitamin C. Does it help for cancer? Scurvey is the name of the vitamin C deficiency, and all sorts of things go wrong. On voyages, sailers were deprived of fresh fruits and came down with scurvey. In the1700's the British figured this out and stocked the ships with citrus fruits and hence British sailers were called "Limeys"
B complex there are 12 B vitamins and some are Kreb's cycle coenzymes, hence these vitamins are important in metabolism
Beriberi - B1 thiamin deficiency

Figure 34-2b
pellagra niacin deficiency


Ca - used in bone, but really importantly in muscle and nerve
P - phosphate - used in ATP etc.
Na, Cl, K - electrolytes which regulate cell electrophysiology
Iodine - used in the hormone thyroxine -

Figure 37-9
deficiency causes goiter (thyroid gland in neck gets very big), iodine is in seafood so deficiencies used to be found mainly inland, now iodine is added to iodized salt
Iron, cobalt, copper - hemoglobin - anemia
Zn is an important mineral (but otherwise some heavy metals like lead and mercury are very toxic

Questions used in 2007 & 2008 related to this lecture

Why is cholesterol NOT considered to be essential in the human diet
(a) It contributes to atherosclerosis.
(b) It serves no useful function.
(c) There is actually a "good" kind of cholesterol, namely LDL (low density lipoprotein).
*(d) Our bodies would biosynthesize cholesterol even if we do not eat any.
(e) It is bad for you.

Some people take an aspirin a day, and it decreases the chance of heart attack. Which vitamin has the opposite effect on blood clotting?
(a) A
(b) C
(c) D
(d) E
*(e) K

Beta carotene, present in green, yellow and red vegetables,
*(a) renders vitamin A, used in rhodopsin, our visual pigment.
(b) causes kwashiorkor.
(c) is a heavy metal, but, unlike lead, it is not toxic.
(d) prevents colds according to chemistry Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling.
(e) causes anemia.

Goiter, a hypertrophied thyroid gland
(a) results from lack of "sunshine" vitamin D.
(b) is treated with cod liver oil.
*(c) results from iodine deficiency.
(d) was a problem until biotechnology created golden rice.
(e) leads to acromegaly.

Leptin is produced
(a) from a precursor called pellagra.
*(b) by adipose tissue.
(c) by the hypothalamus.
(d) only in people with anorexia nervosa.
(e) in the posterior pituitary.

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil is
(a) what they give people who have rickets.
*(b) used in some fried food and bad for you.
(c) another expression for omega-3 fatty acids.
(d) good for you and present in sea food.
(e) the reason that olive oil is good for you.

Which of the following would prevent rickets?
*(a) sunshine
(b) adrenalin
(c) Prozac
(d) fibrinogen
(e) dopamine

(a) is the major extracellular protein of connective tissue.
(b) is what actin is made of.
(c) decreases surface tension in alveoli.
*(d) is a glucose polymer that humans cannot hydrolyze.
(e) is created when hemoglobin is recycled by the liver.

(a) is caused by over-activity of the brush border.
*(b) would be prevented by cod liver oil.
(c) are the sounds coming from leaky heart valves.
(d) can be prevented by vitamin K.
(e) happens when alveoli are clogged with viscous mucus.

Iodine is added to salt
A) to help hemoglobin to carry oxygen.
B) as a chromophore so that light is absorbed by the pigment we see with.
*C) for adequate thyroid hormone.
D) to improve bone health.
E) because it assists osteoclasts in their regulation of blood calcium.

What would happen if you had too little vitamin K?
*A) You would have excessive bleeding.
B) Your bones would be depleted of calcium.
C) You would get osteoporosis.
D) Your cells would be damaged by oxidation.
E) Your eyesight would not be good.

Which is a water soluble vitamin that, according to chemistry Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling, is good against the common cold?
A) A
B) B
*C) C
D) D
E) E

The main dietary source of vitamin A is
A) iodine.
B) tocopherol.
*C) carotenoids.
D) trans fats.
E) scurvey.

People used to take cod liver oil because it was rich in
A) essential amino acids.
*B) vitamin D.
D) sodium chloride.
E) cholesterol.

Doisy won a Nobel Prize for
A) proposing that vitamin C cured the common cold.
B) showing that the B complex vitamins were involved in the Kreb's cycle.
C) studies of the importance of thyroid hormone.
*D) research on a lipid soluble vitamin involved in blood clotting.
E) revising the "food pyramid."

"Sunshine" is a term applied to
A) retinoic acid.
B) anemia.
C) monosaturated fatty acids.
D) rhodopsin.
*E) vitamin D.

Adequate caloric intake but protein malnutrition leads to
*A) kwashiorkor.
B) goiter.
C) diuresis.
D) hemorrhage.
E) rickets.

As a food item, corn is notorious for
A) being high in saturated fats.
B) being the cause of pellagra.
C) causing an increase in LDL.
D) being responsible for anorexia nervosa.
*E) lacking several essential amino acids.

Questions used in 2003 related to this outline

A disorder of too little iodine intake as an adult is
(a) cirrhosis.
(b) polio.
(c) cystic fibrosis.
*(d) goiter.
(e) schizophrenia.

Which is a fat soluable vitamin that functions in vision and is related to retinoic acid, an important regulator of development?
*(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
(e) E

Which would be most likely to slow the development of osteoporosis?
(a) vitamin A
(b) iodine
*(c) vitamin D
(d) magnesium
(e) organophosphates

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