And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
-The first book of Moses, called GENESIS, Chapter 1, verse 31 one of those sticklike male insects I once watched in horror as a child which, even during the very act of mating, is calmly devoured by the female headfirst right down to his rutting abdomen...
-Michael Curtis Ford The ten thousand, a novel of ancient Greece


Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Selections from Chapters 14-16 & 18
plus (obviously) I had to shop around a lot for figures (in Chapters 1, 23, 26, 27 & 43)

Today's musical selection
Gene McDaniels One hundred pounds of clay

Evolution vs Intelligent design

Lamarck (1744-1829) use and disuse. Giraffe example

Figure E14-1
Darwin (1809 - 1882) survival of the fittest
(1) survival means to reproduce
(2) fittest may have as much to do with likelihood of reproducing as toughness

Voyage of HMS Beagle 1831 - 1836 Book 1839
Galapagos -
volcanic, 600 mi from Ecuador, 1 million yrs (young)
"tortoises" - Darwin was impressed with DIVERSITY (not so much in England)

Figure E43.3
(Islands are particularly interesting. For instance birds on islands w/o predators like dodo, have relaxed selection pressure until environment changes - humans with clubs arrive.)

Figure 14-5
Darwin's finches
13 species diversity
woodpecker finch - twig to get insects (tongue short)
(could not compete)
The idea is that the ancestor colonized these islands recently (relative to the geological time scale), and there has been divergent evolution to make different species that have different adaptations for survival in terms of feeding (like type of beak) or where they nest. There are niches that eventually get filled.

Influences on Darwin:
Malthus Essay on the Principle of Population 1798 (philosopher of gloom - population will grow exponentially, and resources will at best increase linearly so that eventually there will be a struggle for survival.
Lyell geology, earth changes slowly
Origin of species 1859 Alfred Wallace 1858

Voyage of HMS Beagle - Controversy, skipper Fitzroy commit suicide
Thomas Huxley (Huxleys) (vs. Bishop Samuel Wilberforce 1860)
British Asdsociation for the Advancement of Science
"would have rather been descended from an ape than from a cultivateed man who prostituted the gifts of culture and eloquence to the service of predjudice and falsehood"

Scopes (John) "monkey trial" Dayton Tenn. 1925
Clarrence Darrow
William Jennings Bryant silver-tongued orator, former Pres candidate, died after
Curtis of UMC was a witness
found guilty and fined $100
Humanities: Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee published their dramatized account of the trial in Inherit the Wind.

Power point slides
Creationism - from an early 1960's paper by George Wald on the Origin of life
Bible - note how short the story of creation is
Fundamentalism,equal time in text book controversies,
Now called "intelligent design"

SLU's Biology department felt the need to post a statement about evolution in answer to attacks from proponents of so-called "intelligent design."Evolution


Origin of the species
survival of the fittest,
Natural selection,
selection pressure,
adaptation for survival, homology
divergent evolution
adaptive radiation
convergent evolution, analogy

Origin of the species

(MANY) - 1.6 million known - maybe several million more
maybe 100 x as many in the past
mass extinctions, most past species gone

Figure 16-8
One species definition: Reproduce, fertile offspring
Tiger - lion: (different species)
there are many limitations to this theory (especially it only applies to sexually reproducing species)


Figure 26-10
think of survival of fittest
pack of wolves kill elk


Survival = Reproduce

Figure 23.18
(I just needed a picture)
Praying mantis
So predatory that the female eats the male' head first
the rest of the body completes copulation

Figure 15-12
Sexual selection

(Examples from chapter 27, community interactions [ecology])

Figure 27.5
camouflage - cryptic coloration

Figure 27.7
Warning coloration (opposite strategy of crytic coloration)

Figure 27-8
Mimicry - viceroy
Monarch, milk weed, digitalis 1 trial learning

Natural selection

As an extension of the idea of "natural selection", we should consider selection after human influences:

Figure (Chapter 15 opener)
(Chapter 15 case study, evolution of a menace, p. 295 and revisited p. 311)
antibiotic resistance

Not everything has a purpose

Figure (Chapter 14 opener)
(What good are wings on ostrich?)
(Case study - what good are wisdom teeth? chapter 14, p. 277 and revisited p. 292)
vestigial structures - human appendix, male nipples

divergent evolution

Figure 14-7
comparative anatomy (and embryology)

Figure 1-11
tree (on a grand scale)

Figure 18-6
tree (on an intermediate scale)

Figure E18-1
Tree (on a small scale)

convergent evolution

Figure 14-9
In addition to divergent evolution, there is convergent evolution (like insects and birds both have wings but not derived from a primordial anatomical structure in a common ancester) and coevolution, the latter being a topic at the interface between evolution and ecology (Chapters toward the end of the book)

(many possible examples)
based on symbiosis (living together)
Pollination, cross pollination - avoid inbreeding

Figure 43-17

Figure 43-16
(UV ultraviolet)

Figure 43-19
Hummingbirds, (red)
honey possom

Figure 43-20
Orchid - wasp (coevolution, mimicry)

Questions used in 2007 & 2008 relating to this outline

The idea that available niches will eventually get filled best describes
(a) the influence that Malthus had on Darwin.
*(b) the finches Darwin studied on the Galapagos.
(c) the infertility of a tiger-lion hybrid.
(d) cryptic coloration (camouflage) in the example of a moth that looks like a bird dropping.
(e) Lamarck's idea that acquired characteristics are inherited.

"Analogy" is the term selected instead of "homology" to distinguish
(a) extinction of the dinosaur from the many periods of extinction over geological time.
(b) coevolution from warning coloration.
*(c) convergent evolution from divergent evolution.
(d) the wing of a bird from the human hand and arm.
(e) Darwin's theory from Lamarck's theory.

Ultraviolet (UV) light is most relevant to
(a) attraction of the peahen to the most extravagant peacock.
(b) birds avoiding viceroy butterflies when monarch butterflies are poisonous.
(c) real wings vs vestigial wings.
*(d) pollination of some flowers by bees.
(e) survival of the genes vs survival of the individual in the praying mantis example.

The story about big red flowers like columbine and trumpet vine relates to
(a) divergent evolution in an island system.
(b) mimicry used to avoid predation by birds.
(c) exponential vs linear growth curves.
(d) what defines a species when sexual reproduction is not relevant.
*(e) coevolution with the humming bird as a pollinator.

What term best relates the forelimb skeletons of birds, bats, and pterodactyl?
(a) convergent evolution
(b) coevolution
*(c) homology
(d) allopatric
(e) sexual selection

What is an example of a vestigial structure?
(a) islets of Langerhans
(b) taste buds
(c) the rumen of a cow
(d) a male peacock's tail
*(e) human appendix

Questions used in 2002 relating to this outline (and other outlines)

Who thought that characteristics acquired during life could be passed on to the next generation?
(a) Alfred Wallace, 1858 author
*(b) Lamarck
(c) the school teacher John Scopes
(d) the geologist Lyell
(e) Malthus, author of Essay on the Principle of Population

Numerous vacant niches are a model for the evolution of
(a) melanotic moths during the industrial revolution.
*(b) "Darwin's finches" on the Galapagos Islands.
(c) the Missouri mule.
(d) antibiotic resistance.
(e) the curious mating habits of the praying mantis.

When structures in two different species are evolved from a common ancestor, this is an example of
*(a) homology.
(b) coevolution.
(c) convergent evolution.
(d) sexual selection.
(e) altruism.

According to Darwin's theory of evolution, present day giraffes came to have long necks because
(a) genetic drift makes each individual giraffe's neck longer and this longer neck trait is then passed on to each giraffe's offspring.
*(b) long necked giraffes survive to reproductive age because they are better adapted to eat while short necked giraffes die young.
(c) use of the neck enlarges it and each giraffe passes on its neck characteristics determined by such use vs. disuse.
(d) all giraffes reproduce similarly, but, after the reproductive part of the life span is passed, long necked giraffes can live to an older age.
(e) the bottleneck phenomenon eliminated short necks.

All of the following organisms have forelimbs which are examples of homologous structures except which one?
(a) Whale
(b) Bird
(c) Bat
*(d) Insect
(e) Human

Exponential growth, when plotted as a graph,
(a) looks like a line.
*(b) is a curve with increasing upward slope.
(c) goes straight across.
(d) goes up, then down.
(e) goes down then up.

Some of Darwin's ideas on the struggle for survival developed only after reading
*(a) Essay on the Principle of Populations by Thomas Malthus.
(b) On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely from the Original Type by Alfred Wallace.
(c) Mendel's Laws of Segregation and of Independent Assortment.
(d) The play Inherit the Wind.
(e) The transcripts from the Scopes "monkey trial."

The peacock is a classic example of
(a) altruism.
*(b) sexual selection.
(c) sympatric speciation.
(d) mimicry.
(e) the bottleneck effect.

Which would be an example of "convergent evolution"?
(a) the similarity of your arm and a chicken wing
(b) the idea that present-day bacteria and people have a common ancester in a cell from long ago.
(c) the fact that trumpet flowers are pollinated by humming birds
(d) the carniverous behavior during mating in the praying mantis
*(e) the fact that bats and bees both have wings

How does a bee's ability to see ultraviolet light fit in with evolution?
A) It makes those bees more attractive (sexual selection).
B) Those bees filled one niche on the Galapagos Islands.
*C) It contributes to coevolution of pollinators with flowering plants.
D) Bees use ultraviolet light for camouflage (cryptic coloration).
E) Ultraviolet vision is considered vestigial.

The incorrect theory that "organisms can modify their bodies through use or disuse of parts, and that these modifications can be passed on to their offspring" was formulated by
A) Malthus.
B) Darwin.
*C) Lamarck.
D) Wallace.
E) Lyell.

When unrelated organisms living under similar environmental demands evolve superficially similar structures, it is called
A) adaptive radiation.
B) divergent evolution.
*C) convergent evolution.
D) coevolution
E) homology

Boa constrictor snakes have tiny pelvic girdles and leg bones within their bodies. Because these structures are nonfunctional "evolutionary baggage," they are called
A) convergent.
B) analogous.
C) adaptive.
D) homologous.
*E) vestigial.

Mimicry in the viceroy butterfly relies on
A) occupied niches.
*B) warning coloration.
C) exponential population growth.
D) adaptive radiation in an island habitat.
E) sexual selection.

This page was last updated 7/28/09

Return to Bio 110 Syllabus

return to Stark home page