1. The terms "autotroph" vs. "heterotroph" relate most closely to
*(a) the food chain and the food web.
(b) eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes.
(c) The Hershey ­p; Chase experiment.
(d) entropy.
(e) catabolic vs. anabolic.

2. The term "homology" is most closely associated with
(a) binomial nomenclature.
(b) whether the offspring of a mating is fertile.
*(c) divergent evolution from a common ancestor.
(d) organs working together as an organ system.
(e) parasitism.

3. What is a bacteriophage?
(a) an RNA-containing virus
*(b) a virus that attacks a bacterium
(c) a type of bacterium
(d) a member of the kingdom protista
(e) a member of the domain archaea

4. Biologists use the normal distribution because
(a) by using it they will not be wrong.
(b) by using it, they can prove the law of evolution.
(c) it has been used ever since comparative anatomy introduced that methodology.
*(d) sample means are distributed by the normal distribution.
(e) it is a way to substantiate a model.

5. When we want to make inferences about the population, we use the sample mean (average) as well as the
(a) independent variable.
(b) controlled variables.
(c) dependent variable.
(d) strong inference.
*(e) standard deviation.

6. Regarding the double helix, who was excluded from involvement in collecting the original data or proposing the structure of DNA?
(a) James Watson
(b) Francis Crick
(c) Rosalind Franklin
(d) Maurice Wilkins
*(e) Linus Pauling

7. Atomic weights are not even numbers (integers) because of
(a) different numbers of electrons.
(b) different numbers of double bonds.
*(c) isotopes.
(d) covalent bonds.
(e) fluorescence.

8. What is the difference between chlorine (the neutral atom) and chloride (the charged ion)?
*(a) the number of electrons
(b) the number of neutrons
(c) the number of protons
(d) the number of double bonds
(e) the number of covalent bonds

9. The pH scale
(a) tells us the half-life of a radioactive element.
(b) relates to evaporative cooling by water.
(c) has a value of 14 for 14C.
*(d) has values ranging from 1 to 6 if the solution is acidic.
(e) is measured in units of calories.

10. What makes a fatty acid different from a hydrocarbon
(a) There is no difference.
*(b) the -COOH
(c) the number of amino acids
(d) Fatty acids have an alpha helix while hydrocarbons have a beta pleated sheet.
(e) Hydrocarbons are converted to fatty acids by hydrolysis.

11. Which is not a chain of monosaccharides?
(a) lactose
(b) glycogen
(c) cellulose
(d) starch
*(e) hemoglobin

12. The dehydration synthesis combines [A] to [B] in peptides.
(a) [A] carbohydrate; [B] water
*(b) [A] one amino acid; [B] another
(c) [A] urea; [B] ammonia
(d) [A] glycogen; [B] glucose
(e) [A] glycerol; [B] fatty acids

13. In order to destroy an ingested bacterium, a white blood cell packages enzymes into
(a) a cilium.
(b) a mitochondrion.
(c) a microtubule.
*(d) a lysosome.
(e) an antibody.

14. Which would be in bacteria but not in eukaryotes
(a) centrioles
(b) nucleus
*(c) plasmids
(d) mitochondria
(e) chloroplasts

15. What would be visible in the transmission electron microscope that would distinguish rough endoplasmic reticulum from smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
*(a) ribosomes
(b) DNA
(c) apoptosis
(d) plasmodesmata
(e) microtubules

16. Which of the following justified using the human adult red blood cell in the first demonstration that membranes have enough phospholipids to make two layers?
(a) Red blood cells have hemoglobin.
(b) Red blood cells have carbonic anhydrase.
*(c) Red blood cells have no organelles.
(d) Red blood cells are responsible for most of the oxygen transport.
(e) Red blood cells assist in carbon dioxide transport.

17. Double bonds in fatty acids of membrane phospholipids
(a) cannot be broken down in carriers of Tay Sachs disease.
(b) can be visualized using freeze-fracture light microscopy.
(c) lead to atherosclerosis.
*(d) make the membrane more fluid.
(e) emulsify fats in the duodenum.

18. Coated pits might be used by a cell for
*(a) endocytosis.
(b) phosphorylation
(c) autoradiography.
(d) freeze-fracture.
(e) carrying an electrical potential from one myocardial cell to another.

19. In metabolism, the term "oxidizing" refers to
(a) the type of reaction that allows yeast to make ethanol and muscle to make lactic acid.
*(b) losing electrons.
(c) the sort of reactions that allowed plant material to be preserved as coal.
(d) the same kind of reactions that are called "reducing."
(e) the sort of reactions that made organic molecules before there was life on earth.

20. ATP is made from ADP and phosphate when
(a) sodium is pumped by the proximal tubule of the kidney.
(b) pepsin causes hydrolysis of proteins in the mouth.
(c) muscle contracts.
*(d) H+ flows through a channel after electron transport.
(e) entropy is captured as useful work.

21. Regeneration of NAD+ from NADH accompanies
(a) the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
(b) all reactions in which products become reactants after catalysts overcome the activation energy.
(c) the conversion of pepsin to salivary amylase.
(d) the linkage of amino acids in a chain called glycogen.
*(e) lactic acid formation in anaerobic glycolysis.

22. Sometimes a change in the third position of a codon would not have any effect because
*(a) the amino acid in the protein would be the same.
(b) mRNA was made from the wrong strand of DNA.
(c) the complementary DNA strand is transcribed instead of the template strand.
(d) DNA ligase would correct the change in the third position.
(e) it takes four nucleotides in a row to determine one amino acid.

23. How many different amino acids do all the codons code for?
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 16
*(d) 20
(e) 64

24. "It is possible to change the sequence of bases from a triplet that codes for an amino acid to a stop codon."
(a) This is a missense mutation.
*(b) This is a nonsense mutation.
(c) Sickle cell anemia is an example.
(d) The Siamese cat is an example.
(e) No it is not possible.

25. Which is used in translation?
(a) the promotor
(b) introns
*(c) tRNA (transfer RNA)
(d) lactose
(e) the operator

26. The lactose operon was used as an example of
(a) the role of the ribosome.
(b) splicing.
(c) initiation, elongation and termination (in the synthesis of a peptide).
(d) how DNA reproduces itself accurately
*(e) regulation of transcription.

27. Eukaryotes have only a fraction of their DNA that codes for proteins.
(a) Some of the rest is in the poly-A tail.
(b) Some of the rest is in operators.
(c) Some of the rest is in plasmids.
*(d) Some of the rest is in introns.
(e) Some of the rest is in exons.

28. "Cdk's (cyclin dependent kinases) are always present in the cell." Why are they not active continuously?
(a) Since Cdk regulates crossing over, mitosis must be in progress.
(b) Sometimes there is a molecule for Cdk to break down; sometimes there is not.
(c) They are only active in cancerous cells.
(d) Cdk is only used in cells engaged in meiosis.
*(e) They need to be activated by cyclins.

29. At one point, a chromosome looks X-shaped, at another point, it does not (it is linear).
(a) This applies only to the sex chromosomes.
(b) They are X-shaped only during nondisjunction.
*(c) This would be seen at the metaphase plate vs. during anaphase.
(d) They are only X-shaped in sperm and eggs.
(e) They are X-shaped during interphase when chromosomes are unwound into chromatin.

30. "When it detects DNA damage, a protein called p53 blocks phosphorylation of a protein called Rb."
(a) This is why it is useful that the testes are housed in the scrotum and hence cooler than body temperature.
(b) This leads to cancer.
*(c) This relates to the G1 to S checkpoint in the cell cycle.
(d) This is essential for leading strand replication.
(e) This occurs in between metaphase and anaphase.

31. Gametes are haploid.
*(a) Sperm cells and egg cells are examples of haploid gametes.
(b) Haploid gametes are homozygous.
(c) For each chromosome, gametes have both homologues but only one sister chromatid.
(d) They can also be diploid
(e) So are all the cells of your body.

32. Because of crossing over (recombination)
(a) aneuploidies such as Down's syndrome occur.
*(b) there is a lot more variability in the possible gametes formed.
(c) stop codons would almost certainly be encountered as DNA reproduces itself.
(d) disorders like sickle cell anemia are common among African Americans.
(e) only one cell division is needed to produce haploid spermatozoa.

33. In alternation of generations in plants,
(a) spores can be either homozygous or heterozygous.
*(b) mitosis produces both haploid and diploid multicellular adults.
(c) gametes can be either heterozygous or homozygous.
(d) gametes are diploid.
(e) meiosis produces identical diploid daughter cells.

34. Among your text's authors, Teresa Audesirk has no history of color blindness in her family while Gerald Audesirk is color blind. In the genetics lecture, I pointed out that their daughter was heterozygous. Later, I amended this statement by saying that
*(a) she is a mosaic of cells with X chromosomes that do or do not carry color blindness.
(b) half of the daughter's daughters must be color blind.
(c) she won't become color blind until she is about 50 years old.
(d) all of the daughter's sons must be color blind.
(e) alleles for color blindness vs. normal vision are equally dominant

35. When a cell has two different copies of each gene, these two copies are referred to as
(a) chiasma.
(b) a bivalent (tetrad).
(c) nonsense.
(d) aneuploidy.
*(e) alleles.

36. Cystic fibrosis
(a) is a lysosomal storage disease.
(b) causes sudden heart attack.
(c) is caused by a prion.
*(d) results in thick mucus in the lungs.
(e) confers resistance to malaria.

37. "Dosage compensation" for sex-linked genes is explained by
(a) the Sry gene.
(b) aneuploidy.
*(c) one X chromosome in each cell being inactivated into the Barr body.
(d) chorionic villus sampling.
(e) temperature sensitive missense mutations.

38. Why are aneuploidies of sex chromosomes so much more common than for autosomes?
(a) Autosomal aneuploidies are prevented by chorionic villus sampling.
*(b) There is a built in mechanism of dosage compensation for X chromosomes.
(c) Wolffian ducts become epididymus, vas deferens and seminal vesicles.
(d) Nondisjunction never happens for autosomes.
(e) Map location is based on cross-over probability (determined with a genetic cross).

39. Relates to sexual dimorphism:
*(a) Mullerian inhibiting factor.
(b) Amniocentesis.
(c) Genes that are on the same chromosome are referred to as "linked."
(d) Trisomies of large autosomes are likely to result in spontaneous abortions.
(e) Amniotic fluid is used for chorionic villus sampling.

40. A phylogeny of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) shows that it is related to
*(a) a similar virus in non-human primates.
(b) proteinaceous infectious particles.
(c) antibiotic resistance.
(d) a bacterium that infects cyanobacteria.
(e) the B lymphocyte.

41. Evolution of antibiotic resistance would be of particular concern for
(a) Turner's syndrome.
(b) Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease.
(c) herpes virus.
(d) swine flu.
*(e) diseases caused by bacteria.

42. The original demonstration that DNA is the hereditary molecule involved mice dying of pneumonia. Essential to this demonstration was
(a) a restriction enzyme.
(b) protenaceous infectious particles.
*(c) bacterial transformation.
(d) vaccination.
(e) penicillin.

43. Which would be used to insert a gene into a cell?
(a) restriction fragment length polymorphism
*(b) plasmid
(c) probe
(d) primer
(e) intron

44. You want to make many copies of John's gene for Protein A. There's just one thing you need to figure out first.
(a) where his restriction fragment length polymorphisms are
(b) which chromosome it is on
(c) how to get Agrobacterium tumefaciens to fuse with his cells
(d) the short tandem repeats
*(e) a short sequence at each end of the gene

45. You need to use the same restriction enzyme to cut
(a) exons and introns.
(b) the DNA polymerase and the reverse transcriptase.
(c) the DNA and the RNA.
*(d) DNA with the gene of interest and the plasmid.
(e) the egg and the sperm when you do in vitro fertilization.

46. A picture was shown of an animal that was a cross between a lion and a tiger
(a) because such a fierce animal is a perfect example of survival of the fittest.
*(b) as a reminder of the definition of a species.
(c) because the tiger ­p; lion comparison is a good example of mimicry.
(d) since this animal is one of nature's most successful predators because of its cryptic coloration.
(e) as an example of sympatric speciation.

47. The dodo
(a) was killed off by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
(b) evolved into 12 different species, filling niches on the Galapagos Islands.
(c) has beautiful tail feathers for courtship that make it an easy target for predators.
*(d) lived on an island without predators and lost its ability to escape.
(e) runs very fast and so it really does not need its wings.

48. Bees see near ultraviolet light
(a) while hummingbirds use sonar instead.
(b) which is used by religious fundamentalists as an example of intelligent design.
*(c) an adaptation for coevolution of flowering plants with pollinators.
(d) and their UV vision gives them camouflage.
(e) to find a mate in the dark.

49. A shrew uses its forelimb for grasping and a seal for swimming. This is an example of
*(a) homology.
(b) coevolution.
(c) convergent evolution.
(d) filling available niches.
(e) sexual selection.

50. A molecular comparison for the DNA sequence coding for cytochrome c, a mitochondrial protein, for human vs. mouse
(a) is ideal for analysis with the chi square distribution.
(b) places the divergence for animals with protostome vs. deuterostome development at 2 billion years ago.
(c) is the basis for the old saying "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny."
(d) explains why that protein is nonfunctional in the mouse.
*(e) explains how changes in nucleotides can be used to create a phylogeny.

51. The Hardy-Weinberg principle, applied to non-evolving populations, assumes all except
(a) a large population.
*(b) genetic drift.
(c) no natural selection.
(d) random mating.
(e) no migration.

52. What could not have occurred until after photosynthesis came into existence?
*(a) aerobic respiration
(b) formation of organic molecules
(c) reactions that chemists would refer to as "reducing"
(d) enclosing molecules in to primordial cells, protobionts
(e) metabolism that resembles fermentation

53. Why do most scientists think that humans are responsible for an increase in ultraviolet light reaching the surface of the earth?
(a) There would be no oxygen in the atmosphere if it were not for humans.
(b) Burning fossil fuels increases carbon dioxide.
(c) By human activity, N2 has been increasing.
*(d) Freon leaked from air conditioners depletes the ozone layer.
(e) Because of global warming, CO2 is increasing.

54. "Mitochondria-containing cell engulfs a photosynthetic bacterium" is hypothesized as the origin of
(a) eukaryotic cells that are heterotrophs.
(b) prokaryotic cells with nuclei.
(c) diploidy.
*(d) eukaryotic cells with chloroplasts.
(e) terrestrial life that did not have to live under water.

55. Among his many contributions, Louis Pasteur is known for
(a) publishing a theory much like Darwin's at about the same time.
(b) prosecuting the Scopes "monkey trial."
*(c) a classic experiment disproving spontaneous generation.
(d) developing a way to distinguish bacteria with different cell wall-membrane geometry.
(e) visiting the Galapagos Islands.

56. A major feature of the Precambrian era was
(a) the conquest of Neanderthals by Homo sapiens.
(b) the ice age that brought glaciers as far south as Missouri.
(c) the breakup of Pangaea.
(d) the extinction of the dinosaurs.
*(e) the origin of the first autotroph.

57. There is a consensus that humans originated
(a) in Europe.
(b) in Indonesia.
(c) in the Jurassic period.
(d) in Pangaea.
*(e) in Africa.

58. Penicillin is derived from
(a) phytoplankton.
(b) a protostome.
*(c) a fungus.
(d) a gametophyte.
(e) an autotroph.

59. "Meiosis makes haploid gametes, while mitosis makes diploid daughter cells." This statement is, of course, not entirely correct. Which is the only correct statement, an example of why that statement is wrong?
*(a) Sometimes haploid cells have mitosis.
(b) In plants, meiosis makes diploid cells.
(c) Plants do not have meiosis.
(d) Sometimes haploid cells have meiosis.
(e) Plants do not have sperm.

60. "Forests" of giant kelp off the coast of Monterrey, CA are
(a) sporophytes.
*(b) protists.
(c) gymnosperms.
(d) predators.
(e) monocotyledons.

61. One animal does not even have tissues.
(a) sea star
(b) Trichinella
(c) flatworm
(d) giant squid
*(e) sponge

62. What is a difference between a jellyfish and a roundworm?
(a) Jellyfish have tissues while the roundworm does not.
(b) Jellyfish are Monotremes while roundworms are Placentals.
*(c) Whether the gut has one opening vs. both a mouth and anus.
(d) Jellyfish are tadpoles while roundworms have a notochord.
(e) The jellyfish forms a fairy ring, the roundworm does not.

63. Shistosoma are a human parasite transmitted by snails in Africa and belong to
*(a) the animals.
(b) the dicotyledons.
(c) the protozoa.
(d) the insects.
(e) the bacteria.

64. The basal lamina
(a) conducts action potentials from one myocardial cell to another.
(b) is a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide in the cell walls of fungi and exoskeletons of arthropods.
(c) separates the presynaptic membrane from the postsynaptic membrane.
*(d) is an extracellular layer juxtaposed to epithelia.
(e) is made up of connective tissue cells.

65. Which does NOT relate to either bone density or to calcium homeostasis?
(a) estrogen
*(b) oxytocin
(c) weightlessness in space travel
(d) sunlight
(e) parathyroid hormone

66. "Pseudostratified" is a term applied to
(a) homeostatic control by negative feedback.
(b) the gradient of sodium ions in nerve axons.
*(c) animal epithelial tissues.
(d) loose connective tissue.
(e) the subcomponents of a striated muscle cell.

67. A coronary thrombosis refers to (what?), worse when there is atherosclerosis.
(a) coronary ­p; pulmonary resuscitation
(b) a heart murmur
(c) hypertension
*(d) a clot
(e) Purkinje fibers

68. In the electrocardiogram (ECG)
(a) you listen for Korotkoff sounds.
*(b) there are 5 waves, P, Q, R, S, and T.
(c) you obtain two values: diastolic and systolic.
(d) you open the coronary artery with a balloon.
(e) you graft a vein to bypass an obstruction.

69. Statins are drugs given to
(a) increase mitosis in myocardial cells after a heart attack.
(b) treat diabetes.
(c) keep the brain alive if the heart has stopped.
(d) reduce high blood pressure.
*(e) decrease cholesterol.

70. There are fewer alveoli in
*(a) emphysema.
(b) cystic fibrosis.
(c) respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the premature baby.
(d) bronchitis.
(e) asthma

71. The diaphragm belongs to which system?
(a) digestive
(b) circulatory
*(c) respiratory
(d) excretory
(e) endocrine

72. Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood by being dissolved in plasma, as bicarbonate and (what)?
(a) by being converted to basic pH in the medulla.
*(b) by being bound to hemoglobin
(c) as bilirubin.
(d) by platelets.
(e) by eosinophils.

73. Which does not produce enzymes (or precursors of enzymes) that contribute to hydrolysis of macromolecules?
(a) salivary glands
(b) stomach
(c) pancreas
*(d) liver
(e) small intestine

74. In digestion, bicarbonate
(a) is a paracrine hormone that regulates gastric emptying.
(b) is a digestive enzyme of the stomach.
(c) kills bacteria.
(d) emulsifies fats.
*(e) comes from the pancreas and neutralizes acidity.

75. What is the significance of the suffix "...ogen" as in the word "chymotrypsinogen?"
*(a) It is a precursor.
(b) It contributes to digestion of cellulose in ruminants.
(c) It contributes to peristalsis.
(d) It is a nutrient.
(e) It contributes to grinding of seeds in gizzards.

76. Cholesterol
(a) is a vitamin involved in blood clotting.
(b) cannot be biosynthesized in humans so you have to eat it.
(c) combines with iodine in the adrenal gland to influence growth.
*(d) is an important precursor of some hormones.
(e) is considered to be a mineral.

77. Cod liver oil could help you
(a) if you had not consumed all of the essential amino acids in your diet.
*(b) if you were deficient in vitamin D.
(c) if you did not have enough iodine in your diet.
(d) if you are bleeding because of insufficient beta carotene.
(e) if you had a leptin deficiency.

78. If you consume brightly colored vegetables, it is obvious that you are getting
*(a) vitamin A.
(b) iron.
(c) kwashiorkor.
(d) sodium.
(e) anorexia.

79. Which is involved in antibody-mediated immunity?
(a) basophils
(b) monocytes
*(c) B lymphocytes
(d) eosinophils
(e) erythrocytes

80. Passive immunity refers to
(a) giving a vaccination.
(b) the role of helper T cells.
(c) how a monocyte makes a clone of memory cells.
(d) the formation of plasma cells.
*(e) giving a person antibodies from another person who already had the disease.

81. An antibody molecule
*(a) is Y-shaped and is very variable at the top of the Y.
(b) is produced by megakaryocytes.
(c) is on the surface of a virus.
(d) is what a helper T cell uses to kill an infected cell.
(e) is released by a mast cell and mediates inflammation.

82. Applies to peptide hormones (but not to steroid hormones):
(a) helps the kidney to retain salt
(b) comes from the interstitial cells in the testes
*(c) binds to a receptor in the cell membrane that interacts with a G protein
(d) comes from the adrenal cortex
(e) comes from the follicle

83. The anterior pituitary makes trophic hormones to regulate all the following except for
(a) the adrenal cortex.
*(b) the islets of Langerhans.
(c) the thyroid gland.
(d) the ovarian follicle.
(e) the interstitial cells of the testes.

84. There would be terrible salt loss through the kidneys if you were lacking
(a) a steroid from the hypothalamus.
(b) a peptide from the testes.
(c) a steroid from the pancreas.
(d) a peptide from the ovaries.
*(e) a steroid from the adrenal gland.

85. Why do you give CPR (cardio pulmonary resuscitation) to a person who fell over from a heart attack?
(a) to jump start the parasympathetic nervous system
(b) to start the heart
(c) so that the person will have endorphins
*(d) to keep the brain oxygenated
(e) so that heart muscle cells are regenerated by mitoses

86. The sympathetic nervous system
(a) is localized in the medulla of the brain.
(b) innervates striated (skeletal) muscle.
(c) is responsible for rest and digest.
*(d) is a portion of the autonomic nervous system.
(e) uses dopamine as its neurotransmitter.

87. Which is considered to orchestrate both thirst and water regulation?
(a) the part of the brain that is damaged by polio
(b) the part of the brain that is not functioning in patients with Parkinson's disease
*(c) the part of the brain that is very near the pituitary
(d) the reflex arc in the spinal cord
(e) the cerebellum

88. Parkinson's disease
(a) is treated with Prozac.
*(b) results from a deficiency of dopamine.
(c) is a disorder of myelin in the peripheral nervous system.
(d) is a disorder of myelin in the central nervous system.
(e) is sometimes referred to as "runner's high."

89. A bat catches and eats a moth in the dark.
*(a) It uses sonar and ultrasound to do this.
(b) It uses its sensitivity to magnetism to do this.
(c) It uses pheromones to do this.
(d) It uses G protein coupled receptors to do this.
(e) It uses an electric sense to do this.

90. Which does NOT relate to auditory hair cells?
(a) tectorial membrane
(b) cochlea
(c) basilar membrane
(d) mechanoreception
*(e) free nerve endings

91. Which is the correct order from largest to smallest?
(a) microvillus, papilla, taste bud, receptor cell
*(b) papilla, taste bud, receptor cell, microvillus
(c) receptor cell, taste bud, papilla, microvillus
(d) taste bud, papilla, microvillus, receptor cell
(e) microvillus, papilla, receptor cell, taste bud

92. What propagates the action potential in to every sarcomere?
(a) troponin
(b) ATP
(c) vesicles filled with acetylcholine
*(d) T tubules (transverse tubules)
(e) superoxide dismutase (SOD)

93. What is the cause of rigor mortis?
(a) inability of actin to bind to myosin
(b) the motor unit
*(c) not enough ATP
(d) not enough Ca2+
(e) the sarcoplasmic reticulum

94. What chemical is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum to make muscles contract?
*(a) calcium ions
(b) ATP
(c) troponin
(d) acetylcholine
(e) nitric oxide

95. In the male, LH (luteinizing hormone) stimulates
(a) erection.
(b) ejaculation.
(c) negative feedback to the testes.
(d) the scrotum.
*(e) production of testosterone.

96. What is true about menstruation?
(a) It occurs after inhibin is released by Sertoli cells.
(b) It occurs because of a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH).
(c) It occurs because of ovulation.
*(d) It occurs because estrogen and progesterone decline.
(e) It occurs because human chorionic gonatotropin increases.

97. The significance of nitric oxide (NO) is in
(a) feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary.
(b) support of the chorion.
(c) support of the endometrium.
(d) support of the corpus luteum.
*(e) erection.

98. What dilates to 10 cm during labor?
(a) the uterine tube
*(b) the cervix
(c) the amnion
(d) the chorion
(e) the polar bodies

99. Embryonic stem cells
(a) are obtained by chorionic villus biopsy.
(b) are obtained by amniocentesis.
*(c) are pluripotent.
(d) are obtained from the fetus.
(e) are located in the blastopore.

100. The fertilized egg is called the
*(a) zygote.
(b) morula.
(c) blastocyst.
(d) chorion.
(e) placenta.

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