I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey work of the stars
-Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass)

What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet.
--William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet

I sometimes think that never blows so red
The Rose as where some buried Caesar bled;
That every Hyacinth the Garden wears
Dropt in her Lap from some once lovely Head.
--Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat, FitzGerald, Fifth Edition

Selections from Chapters 20-22, Figure from Chapter 4

Today's musical selection
The who, Boris the spider

"March through the kingdoms"

As a follow-up to evoltion and history of life, this outline introduces diversity of organisms. We already covered one kingdom (Prokaryotes), and I will cover animals in the next outline. That means we will hurry through 3 kingdomes in this outline. This would have been three or more lectures in a two semester course for biology majors. In special attention to feedback from Fall 2007 students (assessment), the coverage is abridged from the 2007 coverage. Also, we have gone to some lengths to integrate this coverage better with newly-developed laboratory coverage.


Figure 4-3
Animal cell to remind you about nucleus and organelles

Table 20-1
A staggering diversity
Heterotrophs and Autotrophs
A simple view - 3 groups:
Protozoans - "first animals"
Phytoplankton (floating plants) ["phyto" as in "phytonutrients" (from "plants")]
Ones like fungi

Figure 20-1
Amoebas are among the most famous

Figure 20-3
Giardia causes diarrhea

Figure 20-5
Euglena- little green fungus-like animals chloroplasts, eye, flagellum

Figure 20-6
Trypanosoma -African sleeping sickness, tsetse fly

Figure 20-10
Dinoflagellata 2 flagella photosynthetic, armor

Figure 20-11
red tides, blooms fill fish, make shellfish poisonous

Figure 20-12
malaria (Plasmodium) mosquitos
red blood cells rupture (Life cycle)
selection in Blacks for sickel cell anemia
molecule and blood cell

Figure 20-13

Figure 20-14
Paramecium , Didinium,

Figure 20-15A
Foraminifera have limestone shells,
Foramin - with windows
Petroleum accumulation (centered in Carboniferous period) is from deposits of microscopic organisms and is often associated with deposits of foriminifera.

Figure 20-8
Pastures of the sea - phytoplankton

Figure 20-7
Irish potato famine (late blight)1845-1847
8 million to 4 million, 1 million die, emmigrate
dangers of monocrop agriculture

Figure 20-9a
Brown algae have holdfasts, air-filled floats

Figure 20-9B
Giant kelp - divers can get stuck
Xanthophyll is the accessory light harvesting pigment

Figure 20-19
Red algae
sheets, mostly in oceans;
deep - use green light - phycobilins are the accessory pigment
frame for coral reefs; used to make agar (used in research and Chinese deserts)


What I thought when I was a kid - 2 types of plants -
nasty weeds hard to kill,
pretty flowers hard to grow

Figure 21-1
Considerable emphasis will be on reproduction.
Human reproduction is hard enough to understand -- plants reproduction is ridiculous.
Alternation of generations.
This is more than just haploid gametes (sperm and eggs) vs. adult form as in human.
In alternation of generations, each form is multicellular
sporophyte is diploid makes spores
(diploid = 2 copies of each gene)
male and female gametophytes are haploid make sperm egg
(haploid = one copy of each gene)

Figure 21-11
male part-stamen: anther, filament
female part-carpel: stigma, style, ovary
see how pollen grain grows to tube to deliver sperm
that is the gametophyte

Figure 21-2
evolution and diversity of plants
Angiosperms are by far most numerous

Transition to land required
(1) O2 -> O3 (ozone) to block UV (ultraviolet light) that damages proteins and DNA
(2) Vascular system (like your circulation) - xylem (for water) and phloen (for sugar)
(3) support (lignin)
(4) sexual reproduction that does not rely on water

Figure 21-4
Bryophytes (transitional land plants, mosses, liverworts)
The "Plant" that you see is gametophyte which is unusual
makes this comparison for moss, fern and flowering plant

seedless vascular plants

Figure 21-5 C
Ferns Plant is diploid- sporophyte
makes spore
Fern with sori, clusters of sporangia
Frequently flooded swamp forests in carboniferous create "reducing" (in the chemical sense of the word) conditions, and coal is formed from lots of ferns back then.

Seed plants

Figure 21-9
Gymnosperms (naked seed = no fruit)
male & female cones

Figure 21-10
Angiosperms (flowering plants) fruit
235,000 species (successful)
class - monocotyledons
class - dicotyledons (eudicots, a different term, a clade that is most of the dicots)


Even though mushrooms stick out of the ground, fungi are not like plants. Especially, fungi are heterotrophic
Fungi usually filaments, except yeast; heterotrophs, chitin cell walls, sometimes parasitic, otherwise saprobic or mutualistic.
Reproduction by budding, fragmentation of hyphae (rows of cells), or spores

Figure 22-3
(Evolution) diversity

Figure 22-10
Fairy ring
mycelium (mushroom shown here) most underground, reproductive part emerges quickly above ground when it is moist. Composed of strands (hyphae).

Figure 22-5
Zygomycota "zygote fungi" ex: Rhyzopus - bread mold
Life cycle
States: Haploid, diploid, dikaryotic
Processes: Plasmogamy & karyogamy

Figure 22-6
Ascomycota (sac fungi reproduce by spore sacs)
8 ascospores in ascus are neatly arranged for genetic "tetrad analysis."

Figure 22-7B

Figure 22-8
Basidiomycota "club fungi"
Life cycle
Mushrooms (Agaricus) the reproductive structure is above ground, the rest is under ground
Corn smut
wheat rust
Poisons (Psilocybin)


Ringworm, Athlete's foot - parasites

Figure 22-16
Candida (yeast) problem in AIDS


Penicillium Here is a picture, from the Microbe zoo
(Antibiotic - 1928 Alexander Fleming found mold killed bacteria, later, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain developed, 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine)
Saccharomyces brewers & bakers yeasts ascomycota

Figure 22-13
Mycorrhizae w/ roots of 80% of vascular plants
Plants - absorption of water and nutrients

Figure 22-11
Figure 22-12
Lichens mutualism (or controlled parasitism) of fungus and algae

Questions from 2007 & 2008 relating to this outline

An example of a gametophyte is
(a) the cellular slime mold.
(b) sperm.
(c) the dinoflagellate that causes red tides.
*(d) pollen.
(e) the Trypanosomes transmitted to humans by the tsetse fly.

The mosquito transmits (what?) to humans?
*(a) Plasmodium, the parasite that causes malaria
(b) diatoms
(c) sporopyhtes
(d) phytoplankton
(e) sickle cell anemia

Ciliates belong to the kingdom of
(a) archaea.
*(b) protists.
(c) fungi.
(d) plants.
(e) animals.

Which productive autotrophs are called "pastures of the sea?"
*(a) diatoms
(b) Giardia
(c) trypanosomes
(d) amoebas
(e) cephalopods

Euglena is referred to as an autotroph because
*(a) it has photosynthesis.
(b) it belongs to the plant kingdom.
(c) it cannot move.
(d) it vanished in a mass extinction.
(e) it is a gametophyte.

A vascular system exists for ferns but not for
(a) any chordate.
(b) monocotyledons.
(c) earthworms.
(d) people.
*(e) bryophytes.

How the mycelium obtains its nutrition explains
*(a) the fairy ring.
(b) the gastrovascular cavity.
(c) anabolic steroid abuse by some athletes.
(d) the bird's gizzard.
(e) autotrophs.

In the microscope lab, you saw (or tried to see) an amoeba and a paramecium. What kingdom (assuming 5 kingdoms) did they come from?
A) monera
*B) protista
C) plants
D) fungi
E) animals

What do mosses lack that is present in ferns and seed plants?
A) protostomes
B) alternation of generations
C) sexual reproduction
D) membership in the plant kingdom
*E) true vascular tissue and lignin

What kingdom (assuming 5 kingdoms) did coal come from
A) monera
B) protista
*C) plants
D) fungi
E) animals

Fossil remains of (what?) are found in association with petroleum deposits.
A) saprobes
*B) foraminifera
C) mammoths
D) dinosaurs
E) monera

15. "Animal-like protista" would
A) be in one of the two domains of prokaryotes.
B) accumulate and eventually become the coal deposits of today.
*C) be heterotrophic.
D) have cell walls made of chitin.
E) be called metazoa.

Pollen is
*A) the male gametophyte.
B) the vascular system of tracheophytes.
C) very concentrated in blooms (red tides) of dinoflagellates.
D) underground in the fairy ring.
E) a lichen.

"Forests" of giant kelp off the coast of Monterrey, CA are
A) heterotrophs.
*B) protists.
C) gymnosperms.
D) predators.
E) monocotyledons.

All but one are associated with protists.
A) malaria
B) African sleeping sickness
C) diatomaceous earth
*D) penicillin
E) Euglena

Ringworm and athlete's foot come from what kingdom?
A) monera
B) protista
C) plants
*D) fungi
E) animals

Questions used in 2002 relating to this outline (and other outlines)

Trichinella are
(a) larvae (maggots) of holometabolous flies.
(b) parasites in the kingdom Protista.
*(c) nematodes.
(d) chordates.
(e) deuterostomes.

What is the closest approximation to fertilization found in the fungus?
*(a) karyogamy
(b) formation of the sporophyte
(c) mitosis
(d) formation of the megaspore
(e) fragmentation of hyphae

Which disorder is caused by an apicomplexan, transmitted to people by the mosquito, and involves infection of red blood cells by merozoites?
(a) ring worm
(b) cirrhosis
(c) ulcer
*(d) malaria
(e) red tide

"Meiosis makes haploid gametes, while mitosis makes diploid daughter cells." This statement is, of course, wrong. Which is an example of why it is wrong?
(a) Plants do not have sperm.
(b) In plants, meiosis makes diploid cells.
(c) There is no meiosis in the sexual reproduction of protistans.
(d) Sometimes haploid cells have meiosis.
*(e) Sometimes haploid cells have mitosis.

Penicillin is derived from
(a) red algae.
(b) diatoms.
(c) oomycotes, fungus-like protistans.
*(d) a fungus.
(e) the medicinal leech.

Which are productive autotrophs?
*(a) diatoms
(b) Giardia
(c) trypanosomes
(d) yeasts
(e) cephalopods

Mushrooms might be found in a circle because
(a) of the highly organized products of meiosis in the ascus.
(b) sperm can only fertilize eggs in the damp soil.
(c) of the mutualistic association of algae and fungi.
(d) the spores from the previous mushrooms land in a circle.
*(e) the mycelium expands outward as it exhausts organic matter.

Mushrooms might be found in a circle because
(a) of the highly organized products of meiosis in the ascus.
(b) sperm can only fertilize eggs in the damp soil.
(c) of the mutualistic association of algae and fungi.
(d) the spores from the previous mushrooms land in a circle.
*(e) the mycelium expands outward as it exhausts organic matter.

On the underside of a green fern leaf, you see sori where
(a) O2 and H2O goes out and CO2 goes in.
*(b) spores are formed.
(c) syngamy takes place.
(d) fertilization takes place.
(e) karyogamy takes place.

Which is an example of a pheromone-mediated aggregation of free-living amoeboid cells into a colony for the sake of producing spores?
(a) eumetazoa
(b) osteichthyes
(c) prosimians
(d) lichens
*(e) slime mold

Bryophytes differ from flowering plants in that they
(a) are dioecious.
(b) have naked seeds.
(c) are considered to be members of the kingdom Protista.
*(d) lack vascular tissue.
(e) are phytoplankton.

Chitin, a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, is present in arthropod exoskeleton and
(a) loose connective tissue.
*(b) cell walls of fungi.
(c) the cytoplasm to bind calcium ions.
(d) xylem.
(e) meristems.

The male portion of a complete flower that releases the pollen is the
(a) filament.
*(b) anther.
(c) ovary.
(d) stigma.
(e) style.

This page was last updated 8/7/09

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