Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Chapter 33
Today's musical selection
Bobby "Boris" Pickett Monster
Nasal - moisture (smell) sniffing
Pharynx - larynx
Vocal cords larynx (laryngitis) "voice box"
Equal time to creationism : "Adam's apple"
Further down cilia sweep mucus, bacteria, dust up
Cilia sweep from pharynx to esophagus (where you can swallow "crud")
Smoking paralyses ciliary sweep (more crud, less sweeping, famously asbestos
is worse in smokers)
Trachea - rings of cartilage to hold tube open like a vacuum cleaner hose
Inflammation of the bronchi is called bronchitis.
Asthma bronchioconstriction, use epinephrine . Epinephrine was in inhalers.
Terbutaline is an anti beta 2 drug. Singulair is an antileukotriene. Because
inspiration helps to open the bronchioles, breathing out (this is counterintuitive)
is most difficult.
Alveoli 600 million in human 50 x skin area
Here is a picture
from our histology
course showing how thin the cell layers of alveoli are.
Emphysema - alveoli merge, often results from smoking, increased muscular
effort in breathing- smoetimes they have a hunch back from using back to
help breathe. These are the people older than they look pulling a dolly
of oxygen around with them.
Air sacs (alveoli) are close to capillaries.
Note, red vs blue for arteriole vs venule is reversed for pulmonary circulation,
Here is the cardio-respiratory system with blue blood and red blood
Inspiration - pressure in lungs is lower than atmospheric, obviously, and
expiration, pressure is higher.
Mechanisms involved - move rib cage and diaphragm mostly, and others as
Water's surface tension would tend to collapse (close) alveoli. Alveolar
cells secrete surfactant (surface active agent), phosphatidylcholine plus
phosphatidylglycerol, that decreases surface tension. RDS (respiratory distress
syndrome) aflicts premature babies since surfactant production does not
start until late.
Cystic fibrosis is from mutation in CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane
regulator), a chloride channel, results in viscous mucus.
Control of ventillation
Introduction: The receptors that are sensitive to changes in the concentrations
of CO2 and H+ are located within the arterial system and the medulla of
the brain. Excitation of these receptors trigger neural reflexes which alter
the respiratory rate and depth. Additionally, other parts of the nervous
system influence the basic ventilation pattern established by the respiratory
Summary. A common misconception is that variation in the O2 levels within
the system cause changes in the ventilation rate. Actually, the O2 concentration,
under normal conditions, has little to do with the determination of respiratory
rate. The critical determining factor is the level of CO2 and/or the level
of free protons circulating in the blood. For example, an increase in CO2
or H+ levels will induce changes which result in an acceleration of the
ventilation rate and volume until these levels return to the normal range.
Conversely, conditions associated with alkalosis and lower than normal CO2
levels depress the ventilation rate.
Hyperventillation - blow off CO2 and desire to breathe less, can hold breath.
Transport of O2 and CO2
The trouble is that oxygen does not dissolve well in water, 66 x as much
oxygen is in blood, with its hemoglobin, than in plasma.
Everyone should know that hemoglobin is composed of 2 alpha chains, 2 beta
chains, and heme with iron in it.
From tissue to blood:
CO2 transported as bicarbonate, bound to hemoglobin, and dissolved in blood
CO2 dissolves better than O2 in water
Red blood cells CO2 + H2) -> (carbonic anhydrase)-> H2CO3 (carbonic
then H2CO3 -> H+ and HCO3- (bicarbonate)
Questions used in 2007 & 2008 relating to this outline
What would you do if a person were choking?
(a) a stress electrocardiogram
(b) balloon angiography
(c) administer heme
(d) buy time in suspended animation
*(e) the Heimlich maneuver
Where are there cilia in the respiratory system?
*(a) in the trachea
(b) in the hemoglobin
(c) in the alveoli
(d) in the pharynx (Adam's apple)
(e) in the diaphragm
Why might you inhale epinephrine?
(a) to treat RDS (respiratory distress syndrome)
(b) to eliminate an embolism lodged in a coronary artery
(c) to decrease cholesterol build-up
*(d) in case of asthma
(e) to treat referred pain
Why would a premature baby have trouble breathing?
(a) too much LDL
(b) not enough precapillary sphincters.
*(c) no surfactant
(d) backslosh through semilunar valves.
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood by being dissolved in plasma,
bound to hemoglobin and (what)?
(a) as H+ in the medulla.
*(b) as bicarbonate.
(c) as phosphatidylcholine.
(d) as cholecystokinin.
(e) through a chloride channel.
Which is a genetic disorder caused by faulty chloride transport in the lungs?
*(b) cystic fibrosis
(d) respiratory distress syndrome
(e) Parkinsons disease
Breathing is achieved by raising and lowering the rib cage and (what)?
(a) the AV node.
*(e) the diaphragm.
Which is bad for the lungs, especially the lungs of smokers?
Cystic fibrosis is a disease
A) of coronary arteries caused by cholesterol buildup.
B) of the liver caused by too much alcohol consumption.
C) of the kidneys caused by low aldosterone.
D) caused by duplication of the inner cell mass.
*E) of the lungs caused by faulty chloride transport.
Which of the following is part of the gas-exchange portion of the human
Which structure prevents foods and liquids from entering the lungs?
The highest percentage of carbon dioxide is transported
A) into the left ventricle.
*B) as bicarbonate ions in the plasma.
C) as carbon dioxide attached to hemoglobin.
D) as carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.
E) into the medulla as a high pH (alkaline) well-buffered fluid.
During inhalation, the diaphragm
A) contracts and is dome-shaped.
B) relaxes and is dome-shaped.
C) relaxes and is flattened.
*D) contracts and is flattened.
E) causes the belly to get smaller.
The cells lining the conducting portion of the human respiratory system
E) carbonic anhydrase.
What decreases the surface tension of water in the alveoli?
Questions used in 2003 relating to this outline
Cystic fibrosis is a disease
(a) of coronary arteries caused by cholesterol buildup.
(b) of the liver caused by too much alcohol consumption.
(c) of the kidneys caused by low aldosterone.
(d) caused by duplication of the inner cell mass.
*(e) of the lungs caused by faulty chloride transport.
Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place between the capillaries
in the lungs and the
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