Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Chapter 33

Today's musical selection
Bobby "Boris" Pickett Monster Mash
Happy Halloween


Figure 33-7
Nasal - moisture (smell) sniffing
Pharynx - larynx
Vocal cords larynx (laryngitis) "voice box"
Equal time to creationism : "Adam's apple"
Further down cilia sweep mucus, bacteria, dust up
(histology picture of cilia)
Cilia sweep from pharynx to esophagus (where you can swallow "crud")
Smoking paralyses ciliary sweep (more crud, less sweeping, famously asbestos is worse in smokers)

Figure 33-11
Trachea - rings of cartilage to hold tube open like a vacuum cleaner hose
2 bronchi
Inflammation of the bronchi is called bronchitis.

Asthma bronchioconstriction, use epinephrine . Epinephrine was in inhalers. Terbutaline is an anti beta 2 drug. Singulair is an antileukotriene. Because inspiration helps to open the bronchioles, breathing out (this is counterintuitive) is most difficult.

Alveoli 600 million in human 50 x skin area
Here is a picture from our histology course showing how thin the cell layers of alveoli are.

Emphysema - alveoli merge, often results from smoking, increased muscular effort in breathing- smoetimes they have a hunch back from using back to help breathe. These are the people older than they look pulling a dolly of oxygen around with them.

Figure 33-9
Air sacs (alveoli) are close to capillaries.
Note, red vs blue for arteriole vs venule is reversed for pulmonary circulation, obviously.

Figure 33-2
Here is the cardio-respiratory system with blue blood and red blood


Figure 33-11
Inspiration - pressure in lungs is lower than atmospheric, obviously, and expiration, pressure is higher.
Mechanisms involved - move rib cage and diaphragm mostly, and others as well.

Figure 33-8
Heimlich maneuver

Figure 33-9
Water's surface tension would tend to collapse (close) alveoli. Alveolar cells secrete surfactant (surface active agent), phosphatidylcholine plus phosphatidylglycerol, that decreases surface tension. RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) aflicts premature babies since surfactant production does not start until late.

Figure E12-1
Cystic fibrosis is from mutation in CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator), a chloride channel, results in viscous mucus.

Control of ventillation

Introduction: The receptors that are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of CO2 and H+ are located within the arterial system and the medulla of the brain. Excitation of these receptors trigger neural reflexes which alter the respiratory rate and depth. Additionally, other parts of the nervous system influence the basic ventilation pattern established by the respiratory center.

Summary. A common misconception is that variation in the O2 levels within the system cause changes in the ventilation rate. Actually, the O2 concentration, under normal conditions, has little to do with the determination of respiratory rate. The critical determining factor is the level of CO2 and/or the level of free protons circulating in the blood. For example, an increase in CO2 or H+ levels will induce changes which result in an acceleration of the ventilation rate and volume until these levels return to the normal range. Conversely, conditions associated with alkalosis and lower than normal CO2 levels depress the ventilation rate.

Hyperventillation - blow off CO2 and desire to breathe less, can hold breath.

Transport of O2 and CO2

Figure 33-10
The trouble is that oxygen does not dissolve well in water, 66 x as much oxygen is in blood, with its hemoglobin, than in plasma.
Everyone should know that hemoglobin is composed of 2 alpha chains, 2 beta chains, and heme with iron in it.
From tissue to blood:
CO2 transported as bicarbonate, bound to hemoglobin, and dissolved in blood
CO2 dissolves better than O2 in water
Red blood cells CO2 + H2) -> (carbonic anhydrase)-> H2CO3 (carbonic acid).
then H2CO3 -> H+ and HCO3- (bicarbonate)

Questions used in 2007 & 2008 relating to this outline

What would you do if a person were choking?
(a) a stress electrocardiogram
(b) balloon angiography
(c) administer heme
(d) buy time in suspended animation
*(e) the Heimlich maneuver

Where are there cilia in the respiratory system?
*(a) in the trachea
(b) in the hemoglobin
(c) in the alveoli
(d) in the pharynx (Adam's apple)
(e) in the diaphragm

Why might you inhale epinephrine?
(a) to treat RDS (respiratory distress syndrome)
(b) to eliminate an embolism lodged in a coronary artery
(c) to decrease cholesterol build-up
*(d) in case of asthma
(e) to treat referred pain

Why would a premature baby have trouble breathing?
(a) too much LDL
(b) not enough precapillary sphincters.
*(c) no surfactant
(d) backslosh through semilunar valves.
(e) emphysema

Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood by being dissolved in plasma, bound to hemoglobin and (what)?
(a) as H+ in the medulla.
*(b) as bicarbonate.
(c) as phosphatidylcholine.
(d) as cholecystokinin.
(e) through a chloride channel.

Which is a genetic disorder caused by faulty chloride transport in the lungs?
(a) asthma
*(b) cystic fibrosis
(c) emphysema
(d) respiratory distress syndrome
(e) Parkinsons disease

Breathing is achieved by raising and lowering the rib cage and (what)?
(a) the AV node.
(b) bronchitis.
(c) peristalsis.
(d) gallbladder.
*(e) the diaphragm.

Which is bad for the lungs, especially the lungs of smokers?
*A) asbestos.
B) surfactant.
D) bicarbonate.
E) epinephrine.

Cystic fibrosis is a disease
A) of coronary arteries caused by cholesterol buildup.
B) of the liver caused by too much alcohol consumption.
C) of the kidneys caused by low aldosterone.
D) caused by duplication of the inner cell mass.
*E) of the lungs caused by faulty chloride transport.

Which of the following is part of the gas-exchange portion of the human lung?
*A) alveoli
B) pharynx
C) bronchi
D) bronchioles
E) larynx

Which structure prevents foods and liquids from entering the lungs?
A) larynx
B) pharynx
*C) epiglottis
D) bronchi
E) bronchioles

The highest percentage of carbon dioxide is transported
A) into the left ventricle.
*B) as bicarbonate ions in the plasma.
C) as carbon dioxide attached to hemoglobin.
D) as carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.
E) into the medulla as a high pH (alkaline) well-buffered fluid.

During inhalation, the diaphragm
A) contracts and is dome-shaped.
B) relaxes and is dome-shaped.
C) relaxes and is flattened.
*D) contracts and is flattened.
E) causes the belly to get smaller.

The cells lining the conducting portion of the human respiratory system secrete
*A) mucus.
B) hemoglobin.
C) epinephrine.
D) adrenalin.
E) carbonic anhydrase.

What decreases the surface tension of water in the alveoli?
A) asbestos.
*B) surfactant.
D) bicarbonate.
E) epinephrine.

Questions used in 2003 relating to this outline

Cystic fibrosis is a disease
(a) of coronary arteries caused by cholesterol buildup.
(b) of the liver caused by too much alcohol consumption.
(c) of the kidneys caused by low aldosterone.
(d) caused by duplication of the inner cell mass.
*(e) of the lungs caused by faulty chloride transport.

Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place between the capillaries in the lungs and the
(a) bronchi.
(b) larynx.
(c) trachea.
*(d) alveoli.
(e) pharynx.

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