An introduction to animal struture and function


Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers Chapter 31
From Chapter 39, Health watch (p. 810) and Case study (Hidden hazards of space travel, p 797 & 810)

Today's musical selection
Weird Al Yankovic Like a surgeon


Figure 1-1
levels of integration
Animal organismal biology:
Cells (like chief cells) -> Tissues (like gastric mucosa) -> Organs (like stomach) -> Organ systems (like digestive system)

Figure 31-3
A simplified Organism
Emphasis: Cells -> Tissues -> Organs
Note that topographically, digestive system is outside body.

Table 31-1
Organ systems
(Chapters 32-39 will cover this material System by System)
(Cells were emphasized earlier this semester)

There are several general classes of tissues

Close relationship with week 10 lab, histology

Figure 31-4
Epithelial tissue
Usually there are on a basal lamina - extracellular material.
Columnar, cuboidal and squamous
Simple, pseudostratified and stratified

(work I did with researcher at Lions eye bank on preservation of cornea for transplantation)
There are interesting junctions between cells which often make the sheet of cells into a good barrier.

Figure 31-9
Striated (striped) muscle (voluntary, skeletal) - Cardiac muscle - Smooth muscle (run by the autonomic nervous system)

Figure 31-10
To coordinate, there will need to be systems of integration (nervous and hormonal systems)

There are several classes of Connective Tissue:

Figure 31-7

Figure 31-8

Figure 31-5

Figure 31-6
Importance of extracellular material - chondroitin sulfate

On the topic of extracellular material
Some SEMs and TEMs I made some years ago from cornea of human eye donors showing neatly arranged alternating directions of collagen fibers (recall that cornea is transparent - proteins should not absorb visible light)


Figure 31-2
negative feedback - set point (like how you set a thermostat) - "servo mechanism"
how thermostat works in the body

Suspended animation

Figure (chapter 31 opener)
Ground squirrels hybernate near freezing, metabolism drops by 97%
Several cases of people being revived after being chilled to life-stopping temperatures
Open heart surgery, lower body temp to 65 degrees F


Figure (chapter 39 opener)
Figure E39-2
Famous issue - did the woman fall and break her hip or did a him fracture make her fall?
Astronauts lose bone mass
Estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women increases risk of heart attack (2002 Women's Health Initiative)
(1) better drugs
(2) better diagnoses (of bone mineral density)
(3) new appreciation of genetic factors
Turnover of calcium is normal in regulating blood calcium levels by hormones
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) works with osteoclasts to increase blood calcium by borrowing it from bone.
Vitamin D, fat soluable, (complicated but involves sunlight) helps calcium absorption from the gut.
Rickets is a bone deformation in infants from low vitamin D
Osteoclasts degrade bone (formed from macrophage)
Drugs like Fosamax interfere with osteoclasts
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is protein from a gene that interferes with osteoclasts
Osteoblasts add mineral (formed from stromal cell)
Estrogen promotes these cells
Considerable attention given to factors regulating cell development
SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator)
ANGELS (activators of non-genomic estrogen-like signalling)

Demonstration of LabScribe and iWorx

Questions used in 2007 & 2008 related to this outline

All of the following are considered the four types of tissue except
A) epithelial tissue.
B) connective tissue.
C) muscle tissue.
D) nerve tissue.
*E) mesoderm tissue.

The pads that line joints are formed from
A) bone.
*B) cartilage.
C) adipose tissue.
D) fat.
E) dendrites.

Blood is considered to be a connective tissue and so is (are)
*A) bone.
B) basal lamina.
C) endoderm.
D) metazoa.
E) simple squamous cells.

*A) are affected by parathyroid hormone (PTH).
B) are an ancient genus of hominids found in Indonesia.
C) are involved in the set point for human temperature regulation.
D) give the sponge some rigidity.
E) are the cells of adipose tissue.

Groups of tissues that function together
*A) form an organ.
B) would be exemplified by the digestive system.
C) are composed of columnar epithelial cells.
D) have the individual as the next higher level of organization.
E) make up the basement membrane.

In the cornea of the eye, there are
A) axons.
B) servo mechanisms.
C) hypothalamic control centers that regulate the set point.
D) pigments that absorb visible wavelengths of light.
*E) transparent cells and proteins.

The concept of the set point is used to describe
(a) the stripes seen in skeletal muscle in the microscope.
(b) squamous connective tissue.
(c) where to put the stethoscope when measuring blood pressure.
*(d) negative feedback in physiological systems.
(e) different levels of integration from cell to organ system.

Dendrites are a component of
(a) chondroitin sulfate.
(b) the apical (top) surface of cells lining the trachea.
(c) platelets.
(d) a columnar epithelial layer.
*(e) nerve cells.

Estrogen replacement therapy was a standard treatment
(a) for the fibrillin mutation that caused Olympic medalist Flo Hyman's aorta to rupture.
(b) to cure heart murmurs.
*(c) to prevent osteoporosis.
(d) for vitamin B deficiency.
(e) myocardial infarction.

Temperature maintenance in animals is controlled by
*A) the hypothalamus.
B) oxytocin.
C) positive feedback.
D) the cerebellum.
E) the cerebral cortex.

Which would NOT have a positive or negative effect on bone density?
A) weightlessness in space travel
B) estrogen
C) vitamin D
D) osteoclasts
*E) the thalamus

"Simple squamous" is a term applied to
A) tissue layers after gastrulation.
B) the cell walls of fungi.
*C) animal epithelial tissues.
D) the theory that a prokaryotic symbiote evolved into a eukaryotic plastid.
E) a life cycle stage unique to protista.

Questions used in 2003 relating to this outline

"Simple squamous" is a term applied to
(a) plant cells with a function of support.
(b) the cell walls of fungi.
*(c) animal epithelial tissues.
(d) the theory that a prokaryotic symbiote evolved into a eukaryotic plastid.
(e) a life cycle stage unique to protista.

The basal lamina
(a) has plasmodesmata.
(b) closely resembles the cell walls of fungi.
(c) forces extracellular water into cells in plant roots.
(d) is the structure specialized for water excretion in fresh water protistans.
*(e) is an extracellular layer juxtaposed to epithelia.

Which would cause the bones to release calcium?
(a) cortisol
(b) glucagon
(c) vitamin D
(d) calcitonin
*(e) parathyroid hormone

Rickets can be prevented by supplements of
(a) steroids.
(b) insulin.
(c) growth hormone.
(d) T3 and T4.
*(e) vitamin D.

Which would be most likely to slow the development of osteoporosis?
(a) vitamin A
(b) iodine
*(c) vitamin D
(d) magnesium
(e) organophosphates

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