1. A fragment of material a eukaryotic cell ingests is greeted by a lysosome which comes from the
*(a) Golgi apparatus.
(b) Microsomal fraction.
(c) Chromosome.
(d) Nucleus.
(e) Flagellum.

2. Like a plant cell, a bacterial cell has
(a) mitochondria.
*(b) a cell wall.
(c) plasmodesmata.
(d) a nucleus.
(e) a contractile vacuole.

3. A nuclear pore
(a) probably originated because animal cells incorporated bacterial cells.
(b) passes Y-shaped antibody molecules out to the blood stream.
*(c) passes mRNA to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
(d) carries proteins from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondrion.
(e) is present in the nucleus of prokaryotic cells.

4. In liver cells (hepatocytes), smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(a) is emulsified by digestive enzymes that come out of cells by phagocytosis.
(b) causes apoptosis of the prokaryotic flagellum.
(c) houses the chromatin.
*(d) is important in detoxifying substances like alcohol and barbiturates.
(e) has ribosomes.

5. Vesicles come into and go out of the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles carry
(a) mRNA (messenger RNA).
(b) ATP.
(c) osmium.
(d) the nucleolus.
*(e) protein.

6. Cilia and flagella have
*(a) microtubules.
(b) translation.
(c) polysomes.
(d) DNA.
(e) chloroplasts.

7. Why do cells in different organs of a metazoan have different proteins?
(a) They have different genes, a subset of the genes of the whole metazoan.
*(b) They express different genes even though they have the same genes.
(c) In mitosis, different genes go to each daughter cell.
(d) Non-self genes are destroyed by antigens.
(e) All possible proteins are made, but some are destroyed by mitochondria.

8. Which of the following is the only one that is contained within the cytoplasm of a red blood cell?
(a) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(b) ribosomes
*(c) hemoglobin
(d) platinum
(e) nucleus

9. Which would not be in a cell membrane?
(a) glycolipids
(b) receptor protein
*(c) water
(d) polar phospholipid
(e) cholesterol

10. Vitamin A
(a) is a hormone that regulates calcium ions.
(b) was in the isotonic solution used to make erythrocyte ghosts.
(c) is deficient in Tay-Sach's disease.
(d) is a bagel-shaped hole through the membrane.
*(e) is important in vision. - It makes the visual protein a light-absorbing pigment.

11. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and autoradiography were used
(a) to deliver energy to pump calcium ions across the membrane.
(b) to show you membrane proteins with freeze-fracture electron microscopy.
(c) carry electrical signals from one heart muscle cell to another.
*(d) to identify membrane phospholipids labeled with radioactive phosphate.
(e) to digest contents of phagocytic vacuoles and endocytotic vesicles.

12. Facilitated diffusion of chloride ions and water across the cell membrane
(a) is through the lipid bilayer.
*(b) is through a channel protein with a hydrophilic pore.
(c) is called phagocytosis.
(d) requires ATP.
(e) is called receptor mediated endocytosis and uses coated vesicles.

13. ATP
(a) is a catalyst.
(b) is almost all made in the cytoplasm.
(c) is made up of 2 acetyl coA molecules.
*(d) is composed of adenine, ribose and phosphate.
(e) is the same thing as BTU.

14. Enzymes
(a) have names that end in the suffix "-lysis."
(b) have 686 kcal/mole of energy.
(c) are nucleotides.
(d) have names that begin with the prefix "glyco-."
*(e) take reactants over an energy of activation to products over the progress of a reaction.

15. NADH and and FADH2, generated in the Krebs cycle, are delivered to
(a) glucose.
*(b) the electron transport chain.
(c) glycolysis.
(d) photosynthesis.
(e) pepsin and salivary amylase.

16. During maximum physical exertion (like during a 100 yard dash)
(a) 38 ATPs per glucose are made.
(b) metabolism is aerobic.
(c) pyruvate becomes acetyl coA.
*(d) a type of fermentation takes place in muscle.
(e) most of the ATP comes from mitochondria.

17. The term "reducing" in biological chemistry
(a) describes what happens when lactic acid is made in muscle metabolism.
(b) means the same as "homeotherm."
*(c) is the opposite of "oxidizing."
(d) refers to a situation when a sedentary adult woman eats more than 4000 kcal/day.
(e) refers to when glycogen is broken down in muscle and liver after a meal when blood glucose is high.

18. What is unique about the enzymes of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
(a) They move hydrogen ions and electrons across the mitochondrial membrane.
(b) They function at the acidic pH of the stomach.
(c) They are present only in "warm blooded" animals.
(d) They are only present when lactose is present.
*(e) They were isolated from thermophilic bacteria of hot springs.

19. "Entropy tends to increase."
(a) This is why catalysts are needed.
(b) This statement applies to the need to dispose of nitrogenous waste if glucose is used as a source of energy.
(c) This refers to the process in which lactic acid is formed.
(d) This is true only if the electron transport process occurs under anaerobic conditions.
*(e) The statement refers to disorder and the directional flow of energy.

20. Electrons and H+ ions
*(a) are moved across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
(b) flow around the Krebs cycle.
(c) is what makes the alpha and beta chains of hemoglobin a pigment that binds iron.
(d) bind to the promoter of a gene to activate transcription.
(e) are moved across the membrane of the cell.

21. Which is needed for lagging strand replication of DNA but not for leading strand replication?
(a) reverse transcriptase
(b) RNA polymerase
*(c) DNA ligase
(d) acetyl CoA
(e) heme

22. The anti-codon is on what molecule?
(a) the protein
(b) the complementary (antisense) strand of DNA
(c) DNA at the redundant (degenerate) position.
(d) the DNA of a retrovirus
*(e) transfer RNA (tRNA)

23. When Griffith and Avery first showed that DNA was the hereditary molecule
(a) the genetic code was already known.
(b) they used virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
(c) lactose, bound to an operator, prevented the promoter from synthesizing new DNA.
*(d) DNA converted a non-lethal bacterium into a lethal one.
(e) the double helix structure of DNA was already known.

24. Where does translation occur?
(a) in the red blood cell
(b) in the Golgi apparatus
*(c) at the ribosome
(d) in the nucleus
(e) in HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus)

25. DNA can usually make a perfect copy of itself because
(a) A is across from U, and C is across from G.
*(b) A is across from T, and C is across from G.
(c) A is across from A, and C is across from C.
(d) RNA polymerase is very accurate.
(e) of the work of polysomes.

26. Introns are spliced out of
(a) the operator.
*(b) RNA.
(c) DNA on the complementary strand.
(d) protein.
(e) the promoter.

27. Jacob and Monod's Nobel Prize winning work on gene regulation pertained to
(a) the high incidence of sickle cell anemia in Caucasians from northern Europe.
(b) how each cell in your body has a different subset of genes from your genome.
(c) the fact that nonsense mutations have no effect on the protein that was coded for.
*(d) how bacteria utilize lactose only when it is present.
(e) how sequences in the coding sequence for a protein interact with hormones.

28. "The protein would still be made but the protein would be made with a different amino acid."
(a) The mutation would have no noticeable effect.
*(b) Sickle cell anemia is an example.
(c) This would result if there were an insertion or a deletion.
(d) It is called a nonsense mutation.
(e) A codon is changed to a stop codon.

29. "A tRNA is going to bind to the start codon and bring in the amino acid methionine."
(a) This has to do with splicing exons out of the DNA.
*(b) This is taking place in ribosomes.
(c) This is how RNA polymerase starts the work of transcription.
(d) This is how the poly-A tail is put onto the mRNA.
(e) This is taking place on the promoter.

30. "The gene is the sequence that codes for a particular protein."
*(a) True, but upstream and interspersed sequences may also be considered to be part of the gene.
(b) These genes are only on RNA molecules.
(c) This sequence is on the complementary strand but not the template strand.
(d) The "sequence" referred to is a sequence of amino acids.
(e) This is true for all living organisms except for prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

31. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used radioactive phosphorus and sulfur
(a) to determine the age of the Earth.
(b) to show that donkeys and horses are different species.
*(c) to label DNA vs. protein in viruses.
(d) to show that the bacteriophage belongs to one of the 5 domains of life.
(e) to show that viruses belong to one of the 3 kingdoms of life.

32. "The X axis is the abscissa and the Y axis is the ordinate" was stated in the first lecture regarding
*(a) a phylogeny (the "tree of life").
(b) the "hot dilute soup."
(c) autotrophs vs. hetgerotrophs.
(d) catabolic vs. anabolic metabolism.
(e) herbivores vs. omnivores.

33. A fungus is presently considered to be
(a) a prokaryote.
(b) photosynthetic.
(c) a plant.
*(d) a heterotroph.
(e) in the domain Archaea.

34. Negative feedback (a servo mechanism) is the term applied to
(a) anaerobic glycolysis.
(b) the interaction between a phage and a bacterium.
(c) catabolic steroids.
(d) anabolic metabolism.
*(e) homeostasis.

35. "Archaea" is a term associated with
*(a) a domain of bacteria.
(b) when an organism is a self-feeder (i.e. it has photosynthesis).
(c) muscle growth induced by steroids like testosterone.
(d) how your home's furnace and your body's temperature are regulated.
(e) the organic chemicals in the oceans before there were cells.

36. In the paper that I publish, I claim that my results are significant at the 0.05 level. This means that
(a) they are extremely important.
(b) there is a 5% possibility that the sample was not random.
*(c) there is a 5% possibility that these results happened by chance.
(d) there is a 95% possibility that the theory will eventually become a law.
(e) there is a 5% possibility that I had a conflict of interest.

37. "The wing of a bat and the flipper of a porpoise are homologous." This means that
(a) a carefully designed experiment showed they were similar beyond doubt.
*(b) they are derived, over divergent evolution, from a similar structure in a common ancestor.
(c) bats and porpoises belong to the same species.
(d) both are autotrophs.
(e) they are graphed by using the normal distribution.

38. The food chain was shown (again) in the scientific method lecture as an example of
(a) a hypothesis.
(b) a postulate.
(c) a theorem.
(d) a theory.
*(e) a model.

39. The area under the normal distribution
(a) is the null hypothesis.
(b) is referred to as the ordinate.
(c) depends on whether the sample is random.
*(d) is equal to one.
(e) equals the population.

40. My shirt looked blue when illuminated with an ultraviolet ("black") light because of
*(a) fluorescence.
(b) autoradiography.
(c) ions.
(d) protons.
(e) acidity.

41. One property of a radioactive isotope such as 14C is that it
(a) is basic.
*(b) has a half-life.
(c) has the wrong number of protons.
(d) loses an electron and becomes an ion.
(e) blocks short wavelength ultraviolet light from the sun that might damage our proteins and DNA.

42. I said that hydrogen and oxygen were covalently bound together in water then later described an exception to this generalization:
*(a) Water can ionize to OH- and H+.
(b) Water is hydrophobic.
(c) Water can lose a neutron.
(d) Vitamin E breaks water's covalent bonds.
(e) Water can be converted into ozone.

43. Which is only present in trace amounts in biological systems?
(a) oxygen
(b) hydrogen
*(c) zinc
(d) carbon
(e) nitrogen

44. Pineapple juice kept the potato slice from turning brown.
(a) It prevented radioactive labeling.
(b) It kept ADP from being converted to ATP.
(c) It converted hydrogen to tritium (3H).
*(d) It blocked an enzyme that caused oxidation.
(e) It does this because it has a neutral pH.

45. "Chopping" a functional protein (like the hormone insulin) from a larger precursor is an example of
(a) primary structure.
(b) secondary structure.
(c) tertiary structure.
(d) quaternary structure.
*(e) post-translational modification.

46. What is the difference between hydrocarbon and carbohydrate?
*(a) Whether it has oxygen.
(b) One has sulfur, and the other has phosphorus.
(c) One has an amine group and the other has an organic acid group.
(d)They are the same except the syllables are reversed.
(e) Carbon has 3 bonds in one and 4 in the other.

47. Sucrose is
(a) a combination of ribose and deoxyribose.
(b) not tolerated by many Asians and Africans.
*(c) a disaccharide.
(d) stored in liver and muscle after a meal and released during fasting (between meals).
(e) a small peptide.

48. Dehydration synthesis is used to
*(a) put component parts together in macromolecules.
(b) create the sea climate of a costal area.
(c) cool your body when you perspire on a hot day.
(d) break down macromolecules in the stomach.
(e) block ultraviolet light from reaching the surface of the earth.

49. Bacteria in cattle gut and zooflagellates in termite gut
(a) are responsible for compound dehydration synthesis.
(b) have a nitrogen-containing carbohydrate named chitin.
(c) are noted for lacking the essential amino acids tryptophan and methionine.
(d) are composed of two alpha subunits and two beta subunits with heme attached to each.
*(e) aid in the breakdown of cellulose into individual glucose subunits.

50. Two amino acids are different from each other (and have different names) because
(a) of whether they have ribose or deoxyribose in their backbone.
(b) of how they are attached to the glycerol backbone.
(c) of the number of double bonds.
*(d) of different R groups.
(e) the carbons have different numbers of bonds.

This page was last updated 9/17/09

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