1. What could not have occurred until after photosynthesis came into existence?

(a) metabolism that resembles fermentation

(b) enclosing molecules in to primordial cells, protobionts

(c) reactions that chemists would refer to as ³reducing²

*(d) protection of terrestrial life from ultraviolet light

(e) formation of organic molecules


2. Why do most scientists feel that humans are responsible for global warming?

(a) There would be no oxygen in the atmosphere if it were not for humans.

*(b) Burning fossil fuels increases carbon dioxide.

(c) By human activity, N2 has been increasing.

(d) Freon leaked from air conditioners changes the atmosphere.

(e) There were no anaerobic heterotrophs until the origin of Homo sapiens.


3. ³Anaerobic predatory prokaryotic cell engulfs an aerobic bacterium² is hypothesized as the origin of

(a) life on earth.

(b) eukaryotic cells with diploidy.

*(c) eukaryotic cells with mitochondria.

(d) eukaryotic cells that are metazoans.

(e) the basal lamina.


4. What was concluded when, in the 1600¹s, Redi compared meat in jars covered with cheesecloth vs. uncovered?

(a) Proteins and DNA are damaged by ultraviolet (UV) light.

(b) Flies are autotrophs.

(c) He determined how things would have been if there had not been any oxidation.

(d) Flies have a closed vascular system, but maggots use trachea instead.

*(e) Spontaneous generation does not occur.


5. Water vapor is considered to be a greenhouse gas, but there is certainly a lot more concern about what other greenhouse gas?

*(a) carbon dioxide

(b) hydrogen

(c) nitrogen

(d) oxygen

(e) carbon monoxide


6. The earliest heredity may have been based on

*(a) RNA.

(b) DNA.

(c) protein.

(d) methane.

(e) protobionts.


7. Which would have come first?

(a) diploid organisms

*(b) heterotrophic prokaryotes

(c) eukaryotes with mitochondria

(d) photosynthetic prokaryotes

(e) the invasion of land


8. How would you know when a rock solidified from molten lava?

(a) Rocks were made in the Carboniferous Period.

(b) By dating the foraminifera that are found near rocks.

(c) By analyzing the amount of iridium in the rock.

*(d) Because a radioactive substance with a long half-life is trapped when rock solidifies.

(e) That is when fossils of the mammoth were trapped in the rock.


9. The Permian extinction

(a) was during the ice age.

(b) was what killed off the mammoths.

(c) occurred before there were living cells.

(d) killed off the dinosaurs.

*(e) was when Pangaea was formed.


10. Which is a ³charismatic megavertebrate

(a) the ferns that formed coal

(b) the organisms that formed petroleum

*(c) the panda

(d) cyanobacteria

(e) the first eukaryotic cell


11. A major feature of the Mesozoic era was

(a) the extinction of Homo florensciensis.

(b) frequently flooded swamp forests of ferns.

(c) the origin of eukaryotic cells.

*(d) the success of dinosaurs.

(e) Lucy.


12. Dinosaurs became extinct

(a) when coal was formed.

(b) and their flesh melted into petroleum deposits.

*(c) because of an impact from an asteroid.

(d) because ocean habitat was lost when smaller continents merged to form a supercontinent.

(e) because of the Cambrian explosion.


13. Which is most similar to Homo sapiens?

*(a) chimpanzee

(b) shrew

(c) spider monkey

(d) New World monkey

(e) prosimian


14. Assuming four kingdoms of eukaryotes, amoeba

(a) belongs to a kingdom where the cells have walls with chitin.

(b) is a gametophyte.

*(c) belongs to the same kingdom as the organism that causes malaria.

(d) is a gymnosperm.

(e) is NOT in the same kingdom as phytoplankton.


15. Assuming five kingdoms, the Irish potato famine was caused by a member of

(a) monera

*(b) protista

(c) fungi

(d) plants

(e) animals


16. Assuming five kingdoms, giant kelp (brown algae) found off the coast of northern California are a member of

(a) animals

(b) plants

(c) fungi

*(d) protista

(e) monera


17. A monocot (monocotyledon)

(a) is the haploid portion of the life cycle.

(b) is the malaria parasite.

(c) does not have a vascular system.

(d) causes African sleeping sickness.

*(e) is type of flowering plant.


18. In some flowering plants, cross-pollination is essential because of self-sterility caused by

(a) the naked seeds of the male pine cone.

*(b) inability of the male gametophyte to fully develop.

(c) red tides.

(d) lack of a vascular system.

(e) downy mildew.


19. Alternation of generations in plants involves

*(a) sporophyte vs. gametophyte.

(b) protostome vs. deuterostome.

(c) prokaryote vs. eukaryote.

(d) autotroph vs. heterotroph.

(e) protozoa vs. metazoa.


20. An important concept regarding the fairy ring is that

(a) fungi have photosynthesis.

(b) molds are the source of drugs like penicillin.

(c) mosses do not have a vascular system.

(d) lichens represent a symbiotic relationship of fungi and algae.

*(e) the mycelium is large and it consumes nutrients underground.


21. What is one difference between an earthworm and a roundworm?

(a) Roundworms have phytonutrients, earthworms do not.

(b) The earthworm is a protostome while the roundworm is a deuterostome.

(c) Earthworms are sporophytes, roundworms are not.

*(d) Whether they have a true coelom.

(e) The roundworm is haploid, the earthworm is diploid.


22. Entomology

(a) is the scientific field that introduced the concept of gastrulation.

*(b) is the scientific field that studies insects.

(c) is the term applied to animals that have the major portion of their nervous system in the head.

(d) is a kind of tissue that includes pseudostratified.

(e) is a scientific discipline that studies pastures of the sea.


23. A cavity in the Cnideria (e.g. jellyfish) has a gastric function and also

(a) has spicules.

(b) serves as a system of body support.

(c) has a notocord.

(d) has a ventral nerve cord.

*(e) is the vascular system.


24. A monotreme is

*(a) a mammal, and the platypus is an example.

(b) a cartilaginous fish, and the ray is an example.

(c) a reptile and the shark is an example.

(d) a placental mammal and the opossum is an example.

(e) a marsupial and prosimians are examples.


25. A tadpole is a(n) _________.

(a) autotroph.

(b) parasitic protist.

(c) animal that has no tissues.

*(d) chordate.

(e) invertebrate.


26. Gastrulation

(a) is the term applied to the largest ganglion of the nervous system being in the head.

(b) is how a sponge digests food

*(c) is an infolding occurring in the blastula.

(d) forms the trachea in insects.

(e) leads to the formation of the coelom.


27. What kind of cell helps to deposit mineral to maintain bone?

(a) collagen

(b) squamous

(c) stratified

*(d) osteoblast

(e) adipose


28. Which is NOT categorized as a connective tissue?

(a) blood

(b) cartilage

(c) adipose tissue

(d) bone

*(e) muscle


29. A dendrite is found in

(a) basal lamina (basement membrane).

*(b) a neuron.

(c) loose connective tissue.

(d) adipose tissue.

(e) osteoporosis.


30. Bone

*(a) does have some cells, but has a lot of extracellular material.

(b) represents an example of stratified epithelial tissue.

(c) is made stronger by parathyroid hormone.

(d) is made weaker by estrogen.

(e) is the tissue where you will find axons.


31. Osteoclasts

*(a) are affected by parathyroid hormone (PTH).

(b) are an ancient genus of hominids found in Indonesia.

(c) are involved in the set point for human temperature regulation.

(d) give the sponge some rigidity.

(e) are the cells of adipose tissue.


32. Rickets

(a) is the term applied to the noise leaky heart valves make.

(b) is the term applied to an inflammation of the larynx.

(c) leads to ulcers.

(d) are the cells where fat is stored.

*(e) would not be a problem if you had enough sunlight.


33. In the cornea of the eye, there is (are)

(a) platelets.

(b) chondrocytes.

(c) cilia.

*(d) transparent cells and proteins.

(e) ozone.


34. Atherosclerosis refers to

(a) hypertension.

*(b) a thickening (plaque) and rupture in the wall of a blood vessel.

(c) the junctions that hold heart cells together.

(d) the place where the electrical excitation of the heart is initiated.

(e) a vessel in the lymphatic system.


35. Right when the ventricles start to contract

(a) precapillary sphincters close.

(b) the last Korotkoff sound is heard.

*(c) the atrioventricular (bicuspid and tricuspid) valves close.

(d) blood flow in the brachial artery is turbulent.

(e) an embolism forms.


36. Blood pressure

(a) drives the blood forward in veins because it is so high there.

(b) can be recorded with electrodes on two wrists and an ankle.

*(c) is considered high if the diastolic value is over 95 mmHg.

(d) starts at the SA node and moves to the AV node.

(e) is responsible for heart murmurs.


37. Textbook artists draw an artery in blue.

(a) the systolic artery that is fed by the left atrium

(b) the vena cava

(c) the aorta

(d) the pulmonary vein that is fed by the left ventricle

*(e) the pulmonary artery that is fed by the right ventricle


38. Hemocoel is a term applied to

(a) the respiratory system of the insect.

(b) the open circulatory system of the earthworm.

*(c) the open circulatory system of the insect.

(d) the three-chambered heart of the fish.

(e) the human lymph nodes.


39. Assuming a person with normal blood pressure, what happens when the health care worker first pumps the cuff to 140 mmHg?

(a) The P-Q-R-S-T waves are displayed.

*(b) The brachial artery is closed off.

(c) The last Korotkoff sound is heard.

(d) The ³lub-dub² is heard.

(e) The systemic blood pressure is heard by a stethoscope on the chest.


40. Surfactant is deficient in

*(a) respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the premature baby.

(b) cystic fibrosis.

(c) emphysema.

(d) bronchitis.

(e) asthma.


41. You might administer epinephrine or an anti-inflammatory drug for

(a) respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the premature baby.

(b) cystic fibrosis.

(c) emphysema.

(d) bronchitis.

*(e) asthma


42. A mucus elevator is not functioning well

(a) if you hyperventilate.

*(b) if you smoke.

(c) if you have laryngitis.

(d) requiring the Heimlich maneuver.

(e) in hepatitis.


43. There is a narrow distance between blood and air created by alveolar cells and

(a) columnar epithelia with microvilli.

(b) emphysema cells.

(c) cystic fibrocytes.

*(d) endothelial cells.

(e) carbonic anhydrase.


44. Breathing in and out (ventilation) utilizes

(a) smooth muscle.

(b) the autonomic nervous system.

*(c) striated muscle.

(d) diastolic depolarization.

(e) asbestos.


45. Chymotrypsinogen is made in the

(a) liver.

*(b) pancreas.

(c) stomach.

(d) salivary glands.

(e) gizzard.


46. We have teeth for grinding. Birds that eat hard seeds that need to be crushed use

(a) collar cells.

(b) a rumen.

(c) a gastrovascular cavity.

*(d) a gizzard.

(e) a duodenum.


47. Why is salivary amylase of minimum value in digestion?

(a) Ruminants do not consume cellulose.

(b) Microsomes convert it to cirrhosis.

*(c) It is quickly inactivated in the stomach.

(d) It gets converted into gall stones.

(e) Most of the work of hydrolyzing lactose in the mouth is done by the canines.


48. One factor in formation of ulcers is

(a) peristalsis.

(b) smooth endoplasmic reticulum in hepatocytes.

(c) cholecystokinin.

(d) bicarbonate.

*(e) a bacterium.


49. A chronic alcoholic has liver damage

*(a) resulting from alcohol being converted to fat.

(b) resulting in gall stones.

(c) which causes reverse peristalsis across the lower esophageal sphincter.

(d) which is why some people get coronary bypass surgery.

(e) which decreases pepsin.


50. Hydrolysis is a term applied to

*(a) conversion of lactose to monosaccharides in the human mouth.

(b) breakdown of cellulose in the human esophagus.

(c) jaundice.

(d) how the liver contributes to carbohydrate digestion.

(e) islets of Langerhans.