I have heard it was the opinion of others that it [the plague] might
be distinguished by the party's breathing upon a piece of glass, where,
the breath condensing, there might living creatures be seen by a microscope,
of strange, monstrous, and frightful shapes, such as dragons, snakes, serpents,
and devils, horrible to behold.
A Journal of the Plague Year, 1721
Our townsfolk were not more to blame than others; they forgot to be modest,
that was all, and thought that everything was still possible for them; which
presupposed that pestilences were impossible. They went on doing business,
arranging for journeys, and formed views. How should they have given a thought
to anything like plague, which rules out any future, cancels journeys, silences
the exchange of views. They fancied themselves free, and no one will ever
be free so long as there are pestilences.
I had a little bird,
Its name was Enza.
I opened the window,
-- Children's Skipping Rhyme, 1918
Audesirk, Audesirk & Byers part of Chapter 19,
Today's music selection
Huey "Piano" Smith Rockin'
pneumonia and the Boogie Woogie Flu
(conventional wisdom that DNA or RNA are required)
Figure (chapter 3 opener)
Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease (CJD) "Spongiform" (brain turns to
There were seemingly esoteric* cases of spongiform encephalitis.
* for instance afflicting Jews in Lybia who thought raw sheep eyeballs were
Kuru was a disease in New Guinea among cannibals.
D. Carleton Gadjusek (1976 Nobel
Prize) thought it was a slow virus.
Scrapie in sheep so named because they roll around with intense itching.
Personal reflection. Since we did a sheep brain dissection in physiological
psychology lab at Hopkins, I wondered if rubber gloves were necessary. Since
Baltimore was close to Bethesda, I called. Gadjusek was away, studying some
remote tribe, but I spoke with his coworker (Gibbs) who thought formaldehyde
might not kill the virus. Then I got on their mailing list and, once a month
or so, got an inch thick envelope full of case studies of diseases in far
away places. I had to move to Missouri (in 1979) to make it stop.
Stanley Pruisinger 1980's proposes "prion" (protenaceous infectious
That a disease could be transmitted without virus or bactera was heresy
at the time.
But he had strong evidence and won the 1997 Nobel
Normal protein (PrP-C [control]) is altered by altered form (PrP-Sc [scrapie])
In the 1990s when the term "mad cow disease," was applied to observations
in Britain, it seemed like a joke.
Now "BSE" (bovine spongiform encephalitis) is no laughing matter.
In meat industry, having matter from other animals in the feed is really
Can disease spread from animal to animal? (probably)
Can disease spread from animal to human? (probably)
Cases in Canada, mainland Europe, and even in the US are in the news.
Should "downers" ("cows" that have dropped to the ground)
be slaughtered for food?
How is it that meat from one downer can be sold in many different states
and, only later, the announcement is made that it had BSE?
not in 5 kingdoms (recall question on whether viruses are "alive")
makes it virtually impossible for an introductory textbook to have a good
place to cover viruses
These are electron micrographs
Being small (Protein and DNA) they pass through fine filters, hence an old
(review from first lecture)
Bacteriophage (phage-eat) protein and DNA
lytic cycle - bacterial cells lyse.
Viruses cause lots of disorders: measles, smallpox, chicken pox, mumps,
rabies, flu = influenza, herpes, AIDS, mononucleosis, polio, colds, rubella
(German measles), yellow fever, hepatitis
Some very fundamental terminology:
Antigen - non-self protein (e.g. virus coat)
Antibody to antigen made by B lymphocytes (white blood cells)
Vaccines - active immunity (like disease)
memory cells of immune system
Edward Jenner credited with "vaccination" -1796 "encowment"
Actually the English aristocrat Lady Mary Wortley Montague introduced the
Turkish technique of innoculating with weakened smallpox in the early 1700's
Smallpox is so completely eliminated that one issue is whether to get rid
of lab virus.
Passive immunity - give antibodies
Figure Chapter 36 opener
Case study Chapter 36 Fighting the flu (p. 721) snd revisited (p. 738)
Box on fighting influenza
change (mutate) also exchange with birds (ducks) and pigs
Humanities Gina Kolata, Flu: The story of the great influenza pandemic
of 1918 and the search for the virus that caused it, New York, Farrar Straus
and Giroux, 1999
1918 20-200 million died worldwide, H1N1 (hemagglutinin, neuraminidase)
1957 Asian bad H2N2
1968 Hong Kong bad H3N2 (70,000 died in 6 wks)
Worry in 1973 that there would be a swine flu pandemic
Worry now that there will be an avian (bird) flu pandemic H5N1
Not always does cell burst. Here you see how the virus takes over the cells
machinery to make its own DNA and to make proteins etc after transcription
of its DNA into RNA
Structurally (and chemically) not all viruses are as simple as bacteriophage,
and sometimes RNA is the hereditary material
The retrovirus, HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus that leads to AIDS, acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome) deserves special attention. Its hereditary material
is RNA. It is called a retrovirus because it comes pre-packaged with functional
reverse transcriptase enzyme to make DNA out of RNA. The DNA that is made
gets incorporated into the cell's own genome.
Figure (Chapter 18 opener)
Case study - origin of a killer, Chapter 18, p. 357
Case study revisited
Evolutionary relationships for HIV
2 of 3 domains
bacteria, also blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)
(algae = aquatic plants)
Penicillin, an antibiotic, kills bacteria
Penicillin was discovered by Fleming and developed by Florey and Chain.
They shared the 1945
Here is a picture
of E. coli (Escherichia coli), the most famous bacterium from
genetics and molecular studies - this picture was found at the microbe
prokaryote, (karyon as in "karyotype," refers to the nucleus)
genophore - bacterial chromosome
Reproduction by fission, "Multiply and Divide"
also DNA transferred: (1) transformation (earlier coverage, DNA from smooth
transforming rough) , transduction (from phage
conjugation (like mating)
Plasmids - little circles of DNA - very useful in molecular biology and
easy to identify since they carry antibiotic resistance
-diplococcus - two
-streptococci-string (e.g. strep throat)
-staphylococci-grapes (e.g. staph infections)
spirilla and spirochetes-spiral
One characteristic of monera is that they have a rigid cell wall made of
peptidoglycan. That means that they must absorb, they cannot ingest. The
chemiheterotrophs (saprobes) are therefore good at biodegradation because
they must put out "digestive" enzyme
Even though they are rigid, they have flagella (very different from eukaryotic
flagella), and organisms like the famous E. coli have positive and negative
Aerobic vs anaerobic -
The story about anaerobic bacteria that is so famous that everybody should
know it. It is about botulism toxin from Clostridium botulinum, endospores
killed only with high temperature. They are obligate anaerobes, and the
endospores survive in improperly canned goods, 1 g kill 15 million by blocking
release of vesicles that contain neurotransmitter substances. "Botox"
is used as cosmetic, injected into face, blocks muscles, less wrinkles.
Thermoacidophyles hot sulfur (heat stability important in enzymes used for
PCR, refer back to biotech lecture).
cell wall, Gram stain
Gram positive-heavy wall, Negative-stain wash out
Antibiotics like penicillin G for Gram + like strep, gonorrhea, syphilis
Famous traditional STD's (VD's) gonorhea, syphilis (spirochete)
famous recent worry Lyme disease from ticks
recently understood that ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori
bubonic plague rats flea middle ages
Figure Chapter 15 opener
Tuberculosis TB consumption sanatoriums
Humanities suggestion - Eugene O"Neill Long day's journey into night
Current events - May 2007 - a patient with antibiotic resistant TB is quaranteened
diphtheria, some pneumonia, paratyphoid, scarlet fever
tetanus muscle clamp lockjaw anaerobic puncture (like botulism, toxin affects
whooping cough (pertussis) DPT vaccine (toxin very important in studying
strep throat (leads to rheumatic fever)
typhoid fever carriers*
cholera fatal diarrhea (toxin very important in studying signal transduction)
leprosy leper colonies,
Salmonella (food = "ptomane" poisoning),
(evolution of resistance in meat and eggs with antibiotics fed in animal
evololution of antibiotic resistance in syphilis (spirochete), gonnorhea
toxic shock (tampons)
Leigionnaires' (1970's Philadelphia, took several years to find cause)
Staphylococcus = acne,
some pneumonia, paratyphoid, scarlet fever, dysentery
chlamydia like virus common STD (VD)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever typhus (Rickettsia like virus)
mycoplasmas - smallest cells
Figure - chapter opener
(Case study- agents of death Chaspter 19, p. 371 and case study revisited
Anthrax (mostly cattle [also humans, mail terror attacks of Fall, 2001])
fire blight (apple, pear)
crown galls (plants)
*Typhoid Mary (Mary Mallon) Irish immigrant, in the 1900-1906 period, cases
involved in her being a cook until epidemiological investigation found her.
She had an infection in her gallbladder. Detained at Riverside Hospital
for 3 years. Later, released then detained again for the rest of her life
(25 years) - died in 1938. Caused 1300 cases of typhoid fever.
actinomycetes produce streptomycin, chloramphenicol,
tetracycline, cyanobacteria (blue-green) algae
nitrogen fixation nodules - alfalfa, soy clover
for rice blue green algae - cyanobacteria heterocysts
yogart, cheeze, saurkraut, coco
enzymes for industry
Chemisynthetic use sulfur, ammonia, nitrite,
put out sulfates and nitrates for soil.
cows sheep goats cellulose
make vit K and B12
For further study: Here is a site entitled "Communicable
Disease Surveillance and Response (CSR)" which is of relevance
to this and other chapters. And here is Disease
information from the Centers for Disease Control, also relevant to several
chapters, especially this one.
Questions used in 2007 & 2008 relating to this outline
Vaccination is more successful for smallpox than flu because
(a) passive immunity is conferred for smallpox.
(b) antibiotics work so well for smallpox.
*(c) evolution in animal hosts takes place in flu.
(d) smallpox is a bacterium while flu is a retrovirus.
(e) flu is caused by a proteinaceous particle.
Mad cow disease is most closely related to
(b) antibiotic resistance.
(e) the H1N1 strain.
Fleming accidentally dropped a colony of Penicillium onto a plate
One particular concern about rubella (German measles) is that
(a) it is killing all the chimpanzees.
(b) it killed over 20 million people in 1918 and it could strike again.
(c) even though eliminated worldwide, we should not eliminate the last repositories
of viruses in case terrorists have it in their possession.
(d) the DNA reverse transcribed from its RNA gets incorporated into the
host cell's genome.
*(e) it can cross the placenta.
An important laboratory test is the Gram stain. What structure does it target?
(a) alleles for purple flowers
(b) eukaryotic chromosomes at the metaphase plate
(c) DNA in gel electrophoresis
(d) protein coat of virus
*(e) cell wall of bacteria
It has recently been understood that Helicobacter pylori causes what
aliment in humans?
(a) sexually stransmitted diseases (STDs)
(b) Down syndrome
(d) Bubonic plague
(e) Turner's syndrome
What is the proper scientific nomenclature for rod shaped bacteria?
The lytic cycle applies to reproduction
(a) of DNA during the S phase of the cell cycle.
(b) of herpes virus.
*(c) of bacteriophage.
(d) of the karyotype.
(e) of bacteria.
Evolution of antibiotic resistance is of particular concern in
(b) polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
*(d) the meat industry.
(e) the digestion of cellulose by ruminants.
What disorder would you be avoiding by making certain that your home-canned
foods and the containers are hot enough?
(a) west Nile encephalitis
Shortly after the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon,
there were mail attacks with what disease?
(b) avian flu
(e) fire blight
Plasmids are found in
*A) bacterial cells.
B) the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
D) hemaglutinin and neuraminidase.
What allows Clostridium botulinum to flourish in improperly canned
A) reverse transcriptase
Cyanobacteria are _____________ .
E) the cause of bovine spongiform encephalitis (mad cow disease).
Bacteria cause (or contribute to) which of these disorders?
A) tuberculosis (TB, consumption)
D) strep throat
*E) all of these
For which of the following diseases would antibiotics be useful?
C) H1N1 ("Spanish") influenza
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) is caused by
*A) a protenacious infectious particle.
B) an anaerobic bacterium.
C) viruses that can also live in swine and birds.
D) an RNA-containing virus.
Prions are known to cause
A) sickle cell anemia
*D) mad cow disease
A) have internal organelles such as mitochondria.
B) use the flagella to exchange sperm and eggs for sexual reproduction.
*C) can move toward attractants like nutrients.
D) are not considered to be officially "alive" by biologists.
E) are eukaryotes.
The bacterial cell wall contains
How do Gram-positive bacteria necessarily differ from Gram-negative bacteria?
A) how much they weigh
B) whether they have DNA or not
C) whether they translate RNA to DNA or reverse translate DNA into RNA
*D) staining properties
E) whether they have a nucleus or not
Which of the following may be contained in a virus?
Questions used in 2002 relating to this outline (and other outlines)
The first vaccination, in the late 1700's was against
(b) Asian flu.
*(c) small pox.
(d) a retrovirus.
(e) E. coli.
A Nobel Prize relates to mad cow disease, caused by a
Reverse transcriptase would work on [A] to form [B].
(a) [A] bacteria; [B] bacteriophage
(b) [A] pre-mRNA; [B] mRNA
(c) [A] mRNA; [B] protein
(d) [A] DNA; [B] PCR reaction products
*(e) [A] RNA; [B] DNA
Which enzyme is the hallmark of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) that
causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency virus)?
*(e) reverse transcriptase.
Vaccination confers active immunity by
*(a) stimulating your immune system to make antibodies.
(b) stimulating your immune system to make antigens.
(c) stimulating your immune system to make prions.
(d) stimulating your immune system to make transposons.
(e) giving a person antibodies made by another person when (s)he overcame
(a) is a methanogen, making swamp gas.
(b) was used by terrorists in Fall, 2001 in the US Postal Service.
(c) is a photoautotroph.
*(d) have a toxin that, although deadly, is used as a cosmetic.
(e) reproduces sexually but, since the offspring are not fertile, is not
considered to be a species.
Which live in salty areas like the Dead Sea?
(b) Helicobacter pylori
*(c) extreme halophiles
(d) E. coli
(e) the bacterium whose DNA polymerase is used in the PCR reaction
(a) causes ulcers
(b) is spread by the bite of a tick.
(c) caused the Black Plague in the Middle Ages.
*(d) comes from anaerobic bacteria.
(e) is a sexually transmitted disease
Mary Mallon, an Irish immigrant, worked as a cook in the early 1900's until
she was incarcerated and is believed to have infected 1300 people with
(b) small pox.
(c) hepatitis B.
(a) are drugs that kill bacteria.
(b) are made by your immune system to attack microbes.
(c) are the portions of the antigen that antibodies attack
(d) are on red blood cells and are responsible for ABO blood groups.
(e) should be used to treat disorders like influenza.
Some viruses use the mosquito as an intermediate host. Of the following,
this applies to the one causing
(a) Lyme disease
(b) small pox
(d) West Nile encephalitis
(e) Klinefelter's syndrome
Which is not caused by a virus?
(a) small pox
This page was last updated 8/1/08
Return to Bio 110 Syllabus
return to Stark home page