Bio 106 Stark, Spring, 2002, Final Answers

1. The blight that killed the American chestnut (in farms where the Shenandoah National Park is now) was caused by
(a) a bloom of Dinoflagellates.
*(b) Ascomycota, the sac fungus.
(c) a Nematode pest.
(d) an apicomplexan related to the malaria parasite.
(e) Oomycota, a fungus-like member of the kingdom Protista

2. Cephalization, a development for "higher" organisms, refers to
(a) support.
(b) mating without water.
*(c) the nervous system being localized in the head.
(d) transport of nutrients.
(e) how the coelom is formed.

3. In addition to whether the blastopore infolding becomes the anus vs. the mouth, radial vs. spiral cleavage distinguishes
(a) autotrophs from heterotrophs.
*(b) deuterostomes from protostomes.
(c) monoeceous from dioeceous plants.
(d) parasitic from mutualistic symbiotes.
(e) monocots from dicots.

4. What is NOT true about how human oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis?
(a) Upon ovulation, meiosis is not complete, while meiosis is complete for the ejaculated sperm cells.
(b) Each primary oocyte gives only one ootid (ovum) that can be fertilized while meiosis of the primary spermatocyte produces four sperm cells.
(c) Oogonia cease to exist in women but spermatogonia continue to be present in men.
(d) Usually one functional egg results in each monthly cycle in women while millions of potentially viable sperm cells are in each ejaculation.
*(e) FSH is necessary for meiosis in the egg while LH is the hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis.

5. Which vitamin is a well-known anticoagulant?
(a) A (b) B *(c) K (d) D (e) E

6. An "ancient" eukaryote, a member of the kingdom Protista that causes diarrhea, is
(a) Trypanosoma that causes African sleeping sickness.
(b) Plasmodium.
(c) the blood fluke Schistosoma.
*(d) Giardia.
(e) the leech.

7. Programmed cell death, especially important in development,
(a) is studied by vital dyes in a process called "fate mapping."
(b) is how the notocord forms.
(c) is the process mediated by hedgehog and retinoic acid.
(d) is what turned neurons black so that Golgi and Ramon y Cajal could draw the elaborate dendritic trees.
*(e) is called apoptosis.

8. In order for Batesian mimicry to work for the viceroy butterfly, it is important for the monarch butterfly to have
(a) camouflage.
(b) type I survivorship.
(c) deceptive coloration.
(d) cryptic coloration.
*(e) warning coloration.

9. What type of molecule are the hormones of the anterior pituitary?
*(a) peptides
(b) steroids
(c) amines
(d) pheromones
(e) amino acids

10. The axon of a spinal motor neuron connects to
(a) the sympathetic ganglia.
(b) the thalamus.
(c) the posterior pituitary.
(d) the SA (sinoatrial) node.
*(e) a group of striated muscle fibers.

11. This technique of obtaining fetal cells for purposes of diagnoses of genetic and chromosomal disorders has the disadvantage that it can only be performed when pregnancy is well underway.
(a) tubal ligation
(b) chorionic villus biopsy (sampling)
(c) vasectomy
(d) episiotomy
*(e) amniocentesis

12. Peristalsis is
(a) how urine is propelled through the loop of Henle.
(b) how blood is propelled through veins.
*(c) how food is propelled through the gut.
(d) how dust is swept from the trachea.
(e) how hormonal releasing factors move through the blood stream.

13. Which does NOT involve or influence calcium ions?
(a) parathyroid
*(b) gene transcription by steroids
(c) release of synaptic transmitter substance
(d) vitamin D
(e) contraction by sliding filaments in muscles.

14. Breakdown of what substance begins in the mouth?
*(a) starch
(b) nucleic acids
(c) cellulose
(d) proteins
(e) fat

15. Which is destined to become the placenta?
(a) amnion
*(b) chorion
(c) archenteron
(d) blastocoel
(e) mesoderm

16. A polymer of glucose that is used for structural support in plants and is digested, with the aid of symbiotes, in termites and ruminants:
(a) glycogen
(b) chitin
*(c) cellulose
(d) rhodopsin
(e) myosin

17. The developing follicle is
(a) where sperm cells form.
*(b) a steroid-secreting tissue.
(c) the same thing as the secondary oocyte.
(d) where fertilization takes place.
(e) in the uterus.

18. Travelling a little to the west of Missouri where it is somewhat drier, our temperate deciduous biome is replaced by
(a) savanna.
(b) conifers.
*(c) grasslands.
(d) chapparal.
(e) taiga.

19. When a honeybee visits one flower after another, it dusts [A] onto [B].
(a) [A] sporophytes; [B] ovaries.
(b) [A] diploid cells; [B] triploid cells.
(c) [A] gametes; [B] the anther.
(d) [A] megasporocytes; [B] microsporocytes.
*(e) [A] pollen; [B] the stigma.

20. To communicate location of a source of food, bees use
*(a) the Sun azimuth.
(b) the Sun arc, combined with their circadian and circannual rhythms.
(c) royal jelly.
(d) pheromones.
(e) queen substance.

21. The corpus luteum
(a) is the erectile tissue of the penis.
(b) is the part of the hypothalamus that sends releasing and inhibiting factors to the pituitary.
(c) is a large tract of axons connecting the two hemispheres of the brain.
*(d) secretes progesterone.
(e) is the endocrine portion of the pancreas.

22. In the eye, light
(a) stimulates the basilar membrane.
(b) is absorbed by acetylcholine.
(c) causes calcium ions to bind to troponin.
(d) is absorbed by phytochrome.
*(e) causes retinal to convert from the cis form to trans.

23. The origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, like the situation for lichens, is thought to be an example of
(a) succession.
(b) predation.
*(c) symbiosis.
(d) primary consumers.
(e) mimicry.

24. Blood pressure in the doctor's office is measured from the
(a) atria.
(b) veins
(c) lymph vessels.
*(d) arteries
(e) capillaries

25. The structure where xylem and phloem are organized in the root:
*(a) stele
(b) sclerenchyma
(c) cuticle
(d) tuber
(e) endosperm

26. The molecule used to absorb light for color vision is
*(a) composed of a form of vitamin A linked to a protein.
(b) chlorophyll.
(c) also used as the sex attractant pheromone in moths.
(d) the cause of glaucoma.
(e) decreased as people in their 40's start to need reading glasses.

27. A thermocline would be found in
(a) open ocean.
*(b) a lake.
(c) Arctic tundra.
(d) desert.
(e) a river.

28. A house plant that has flowers where you can clearly see carpels and stamens is
*(a) a sporophyte.
(b) an epiphyte.
(c) dioecious.
(d) non-vascular.
(e) a gymnosperm.

29. The increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is caused mainly by
(a) an increase in primary productivity.
(b) methane production by termites and bacteria
(c) release of freon.
*(d) the burning of fossil fuels and wood.
(e) an increase in atmospheric temperature.

30. Macrophages are likely to be found in [A] and are derived from [B].
(a) [A] stratified squamous epithelia; [B] the thymus
(b) [A] smooth muscle; [B] the sympathetic nervous system
(c) [A] bone; [B] T-lymphocytes
(d) [A] the basement membrane; [B] the thyroid
*(e) [A] loose connective tissue; [B] monocytes

31. The abyssal zone is found
(a) in the limb bud.
(b) under the canopy of a tropical rain forest.
(c) on the migratory route of the Pacific golden plover.
(d) at the bottom of an exponential population curve.
*(e) in the ocean.

32. Osmosis is
*(a) diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.
(b) diffusion of a solute throughout every part of a solution.
(c) the way water goes up the xylem to the top of a tall tree.
(d) a process that is unique to life; it cannot occur in an inert system.
(e) the process that gives rise to resting and action potentials.

33. Which is an enzyme involved in digesting proteins in the intestines?
*(a) chymotrypsin
(b) bile
(c) cholecystokinin
(d) bicarbonate
(e) amylase

34. A factor derived from blood platelets (Hageman factor) is
(a) a hormone regulating water loss from the kidneys.
(b) the protein that binds oxygen in the red blood corpuscle.
(c) the molecule that forms the complement-directed membrane attack complex.
*(d) involved in blood clotting.
(e) the emulsified fat ready for transport after absorption through the intestine.

35. How do you keep the brain alive if the heart stops before emergencey medical personnel can arrive with equipment to start it?
(a) with a high dose of LDL
*(b) with cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
(c) with balloon angiography
(d) using a myocardial infarction
(e) The brain is not a problem because its metabolism is insulin-dependent.

36. Which is a vascular system?
(a) the exoskeleton, with its chitin, in the arthropod.
(b) the axons that connect the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary for secretion of neuropeptides.
*(c) xylem and phloem
(d) the spinal cord
(e) the stomata of the leaf

37. Trypsinogen, the precursor of the enzyme used in digestion, is made by
*(a) the pancreas.
(b) the nephron.
(c) the liver.
(d) the stomach.
(e) the rumen.

38. There are only a few members of this superclass in existence, lampreys and hagfishes. The superclass is
(a) Placoderms
(b) Tetrapods
*(c) Agnatha
(d) Osteichthyes
(e) Chordates

39. Most ingested alcohol is removed from the system
(a) by the liver via the common bile duct out through the feces.
(b) through the kidneys by being filtered out and not pumped back.
*(c) by being converted to fat with acetic acid as an intermediate.
(d) by phagocytosis by monocytes.
(e) by being exhaled as vapor via the lungs.

40. A motor unit is
*(a) all the muscle cells innervated by one spinal motor neuron.
(b) all the myofibrils in the muscle fiber.
(c) all the microfilaments within a sarcomere.
(d) the combination of actin, myosin, tropomyosin and troponin.
(e) the electrical joining of cardiac muscle cells.

41. Collagen is
(a) a hormone controlling gastric emptying.
(b) part of a cascade in the non-specific defenses of the immune system.
(c) the distinguishing difference between smooth and cardiac muscle cells.
*(d) a common extracellular protein in connective tissue.
(e) the essential nutrient which is conspicuously absent in corn.

42. The need to localize any heavy components for food grinding near the center of gravity explains the function of the
(a) rumen.
(b) Malpighian tubules.
*(c) gizzard.
(d) Bowman's capsule.
(e) thymus.

43. Which of the following is most responsible for the voltage measured at the peak of the action potential?
(a) dendrites.
(b) the relatively high intracellular potassium ion concentration.
(c) the relatively high intracellular sodium ion concentration
(d) the relatively high extracellular potassium ion concentration.
*(e) the relatively high extracellular sodium ion concentration.

44. Embryonic stem cells are derived from the same structure that splits to make monozygotic (identical) twins, namely the
(a) acrosome.
*(b) inner cell mass.
(c) follicle.
(d) endometrium.
(e) trophoblast.

45. When calcium ion concentration is low what protein blocks the sites that allow binding together of the filaments that slide in striated muscle to mediate contraction?
(a) actin
(b) myosin
(c) troponin
*(d) tropomyosin
(e) myoglobin

46. When a precocial animal such as a a newly hatched goose learns to think that the first animal it sees is its mother, that is called
(a) habituation
*(b) imprinting
(c) classical conditioning
(d) operant conditioning
(e) altruism

47. Which is NOT a reason that DDT proved such a problem for pelicans?
(a) It is "magnified" at higher trophic levels.
(b) It interfered with calcium deposition in egg shells.
(c) It was resistant to biodegradation.
*(d) Its level was highest in producers.
(e) Since it was collected in fatty tissues, is was passed on to and concentrated in the bodies of predators.

48. Which of the following is a lymphocyte that produces antibodies?
(a) erythrocyte
(b) monocyte
(c) basophil
*(d) B cell
(e) mast cell

49. Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of
(a) Parkinson's disease.
*(b) myocardial infarction.
(c) asthma.
(d) type 1 diabetes.
(e) cretinism.

50. Where is dilute urine first formed by filtration of the blood?
(a) the proximal tubule
(b) the loop of Henle
(c) the Purkinje cell
*(d) the glomerulus
(e) the kidney's medulla

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