Bio 106, Stark, Spring, 2002, Test1 Answers (for students with numbers 1-45)

1. Trypanosoma, the flagellate that causes African sleeping sickness and is spread by the tsetse fly, is most closely related to
(a) the organism that causes red tides.
(b) Rhizopus, the black bread mold.
(c) Trichinella, the parasite you might "catch" by eating undercooked pork.
*(d) Euglena, the "little green fungus-like animal."
(e) Schistosoma, the blood fluke spread to humans by snails.

2. Plasmodesmata are most fundamental to the function of
*(a) xylem.
(b) chitin.
(c) stomata.
(d) pollination.
(e) digestion in sponges.

3. In vertebrate histology, "simple squamous" applies to
(a) the coelom.
(b) blood.
(c) muscle.
*(d) epithelial tissues.
(e) connective tissues.

4. The dichotomy: sporophyte vs gametophyte
(a) is just plant jargon for "regular" (diploid) cells vs. gametes.
*(b) applies not only to plants but also plant-like Protista.
(c) applies to alternation of generations in animals as well as in plants.
(d) applies to the life cycle of Ascomycota, the sac fungi with 8 ascospores in the ascus.
(e) is quite general and applies to all kingdoms.

5. The sea anemone is
(a) an organism that looks like a plant but belongs to the Kingdom Protista.
*(b) a radially symmetric animal with a gastrovascular cavity.
(c) like a sponge in that it has no true tissues.
(d) an alga that was classified as a plant previously but is now assigned to Protista.
(e) a chordate but not a vertebrate.

6. What is NOT true about ferns?
(a) There are sporophyte and gametophyte generations.
*(b) They have seeds.
(c) They are like the ancient plants thought to contribute to today's coal reserves.
(d) They have vascular tissues.
(e) The big "plant," the one that you see and with which you are familiar, is diploid.

7. Which is the most successful group in terms of number of known species in the world today?
*(a) insects
(b) protistans
(c) gymnosperms
(d) angiosperms
(e) chordates

8. Which of these structures would you find in a monocot seed?
(a) microsporocyte
(b) lateral meristem
(c) rhizome
(d) vascular bundles
*(e) endosperm

9. The blastopore, the first opening from gastrulation in the blastula, ultimately becomes the mouth in (a) parazoa.
(b) protozoa.
*(c) protostomes.
(d) prokaryotes.
(e) bryophytes.

10. Which is a precursor of a digestive enzyme that is secreted from the pancreas?
(a) bile
(b) pepsinogen
(c) amylase
(d) gastrin
*(e) trypsinogen

11. The "medicinal" (blood-sucking) leech
(a) is a jawless fish.
*(b) is most closely related to the earthworm.
(c) is now extinct.
(d) is a larval form of a holometabolous insect.
(e) is a fluke related to the flatworm.

12. Haustoria are
*(a) specialized hyphae of parasitic fungi.
(b) male gametophytes of flowering plants.
(c) the fungi that help plant roots acquire water and minerals.
(d) the underground portion of a mushroom.
(e) a delicacy, a fungus associated with oak roots.

13. The trunk of a mature palm tree
(a) has rings that show its age.
(b) would look most like a cross section of a angiosperm tree trunk.
(c) is where you would find the Casparian strip.
*(d) would look most like a cross section of a monocot stem.
(e) has rings of cork cambium and vascular cambium responsible for secondary growth.

14. If you had learned zoology but no other biology, you might think that "mitosis makes daughter cells and meiosis makes gametes." With the broader background you have been given in biology, which of the following best summarizes why that statement is wrong?
(a) The development of a gametophyte from a spore involves meiotic divisions to make daughter cells.
(b) In addition to making gametes, mitosis can make spores.
(c) Repeated meiotic divisions are involved in the maturation of the gametophyte from the spore.
*(d) Meiosis can make spores and mitosis in gametophytes makes gametes.
(e) In fact, there is nothing wrong with that statement.

15. Paramecia swim fairly swiftly, for a unicellular organism, by means of
(a) pseudopods.
(b) spicules.
*(c) cilia.
(d) rhizomes.
(e) tentacles.

16. Products used to kill broadleaf weeds in lawns
(a) work like ethylene to produce root nodules.
(b) work like phytochrome to produce mycorrhizae.
(c) work like cytokinins to kill monocots.
*(d) work like auxins to kill dicots.
(e) close stomata and thus block growth.

17. Lichens are
(a) symbiotes that help ruminants digest.
(b) nonvascular plants.
*(c) symbiotic associations of fungi and algae.
(d) responsible for fairy rings.
(e) parasites that cause malaria.

18. The gastrovascular cavity
(a) is only found in vertebrates.
(b) is found in gymnosperms and angiosperms.
(c) is only present in sponges.
*(d) would be found in jellyfish and flatworms
(e) is composed of connective tissue.

19. Wood in a perennial dicot
(a) is the site where mycorrhizae act.
(b) is from parenchyma cells and is used for storage of starch.
(c) develops from tubers by primary growth.
(d) has the property of being capable of further differentiation and is thus called a meristem.
*(e) is most closely related to xylem & originated from vascular cambium.

20. An interesting story pertains to single-celled organisms which, upon starvation, aggregate with the help of a pheromone (cAMP) to make a slug-like colony that matures to make a fruiting body and spores. The organism referred to is
(a) brown algae (kelp).
(b) Saccharomyces, the budding yeast, a member of the kingdom Fungi.
(c) the moss, a bryophyte of the kingdom Plantae.
*(d) Dictyosteliun, the cellular slime mold, a member of the kingdom Protista.
(e) Porifera (sponges)

21. Which is true about double fertilization?
*(a) Two sperm are discharged from the male gametophyte in angiosperms.
(b) Double fertilization is used by most ferns.
(c) The megasporocyte produces two eggs.
(d) After fertilization, all tissues are diploid.
(e) It results in two seeds.

22. Water can reach the top of a tall tree because of
(a) pressure from osmosis.
(b) atmospheric pressure.
*(c) cohesion in xylem and transpiration in leaves.
(d) capillary action.
(e) suction.

23. What is a lacteal?
(a) a digestive enzyme
(b) a hormone regulating stomach emptying
(c) an essential nutrient
(d) a liver secretion
*(e) a branch of the lymphatic system found in the intestinal villus

24. Which would you find in a leaf?
(a) Casparian strip
*(b) stomata
(c) endosperm
(d) apical meristems
(e) stolons

25. To which order do humans belong?
*(a) Primates
(b) Carnivora
(c) Diptera
(d) Lepidoptera
(e) Cetacea

26. The Irish potato famine, an important event in human history as well as in US immigration, was caused by
(a) a bloom of Dinoflagellates.
(b) Basidiomycota like the mushroom.
(c) a Nematode pest.
(d) an apicomplexan related to the malaria parasite.
*(e) Oomycota, a fungus-like member of the kingdom Protista

27. The dichotomy: protostome vs. deuterostome applies to
(a) organisms with vs. without alternation of generations.
(b) organisms with vs. without a nucleus in the cells.
(c) plants with vs. without two separate sexes.
(d) organisms that do vs. do not have photosynthesis.
*(e) an embryological difference among animals "high" enough to have a coelom.

28. Petroleum was formed
*(a) from accumulations of protistans including foraminifera.
(b) in frequently flooded forests of vascular plants.
(c) from cellulose in deposits of gymnosperms.
(d) from deposits fungi.
(e) entirely from angiosperms.

29. What hormone is released from the embryo to signal to the alerone to release a-amylase so that starch in the endosperm can be mobilized into sugar to nourish the embryo?
(a) auxins
*(b) giberellins
(c) ethylene
(d) abscissic acid
(e) cytokinins

30. What would you find in a root?
*(a) apical meristems
(b) cotyledons
(c) guard cells
(d) carpels
(e) anthers

31. The stomach
(a) produces bicarbonate to neutralize acid.
(b) is the site of most of the carbohydrate digestion.
*(c) inactivates amylase and produces a proteolytic enzyme.
(d) is the major site of nutrient absorption into the body.
(e) is where enteropeptidase converts several precursors from the pancreas into enzymes.

32. The general term for tissues that contribute to the continued development of plant stems is
(a) megaspores.
(b) sclerenchyma.
*(c) meristems.
(d) vascular bundles.
(e) tracheids.

33. In Paramecia, a cellular fusion called "syngamy" is a special version of "mating." By contrast, plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm) and karyogamy (fusion of nuclei) are the hallmark of sexual reproduction in
(a) gametophytes.
(b) dicotyledons.
*(c) fungi.
(d) deuterostomes.
(e) heterotrophs.

34. Which macronutrient element is essential to the function of chlorophyll and specific to chlorophyll?
(a) iron
(b) nitrogen
*(c) magnesium
(d) potassium
(e) water

35. Which is relevant to control of flowering in a short-day (long-night) plant?
(a) abscissic acid
(b) cytokinins
(c) auxin
(d) statoliths
*(e) phytochrome

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