Bio 106, Stark, Spring, 2002, Test2

1. Dilation of the cervix to 10 centimeters occurs during
(a) labor.
(b) fertilization.
(c) ovulation.
(d) gastric emptying.
(e) diastole.

2. If an athelete is accused of taking anabolic steroids, (s)he is taking
(a) aldosterone.
(b) ACTH.
(c) androgens.
(d) growth hormone.
(e) mineralocorticoids.

3. The tricuspid and bicuspid valves that are between the atria and the ventricles would snap shut
(a) when the ventricles begin to contract.
(b) when the ventricles finish their contraction.
(c) at the end of ventricular systole.
(d) when the atria begin to contract.
(e) when the SA node initiates the heart beat.

4. The sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system would be involved in all of the following except
(a) increasing epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla.
(b) increasing glucose availability.
(c) decreasing blood flow to kidneys and intestines.
(d) dilation of arterioles feeding the corpus cavernosum.
(e) speeding the heart beat.

5. Which is part of the clotting cascade?
(a) fibrin
(b) complement
(c) perforin
(d) pyrogen
(e) eosinophils

6. When would you make monoclonal antibodies?
(a) when you are vaccinated
(b) for research or medical applications which require assaying a particular protein
(c) when memory cells are converted to plasma cells
(d) when you regulate your cytotoxic (killer) T lymphocytes
(e) when you turn monocytes into macrophages

7. Spermatogonia are [A] and spermatids are [B]
(a) [A] haploid; [B] haploid.
(b) [A] haploid; [B] diploid.
(c) [A] diploid; [B] diploid.
(d) [A] diploid; [B] haploid.
(e) [A] locked at the first meiotic prophase; [B] polar bodies.

8. Which is NOT under the trophic control of the anterior pituitary in its function as the "master gland of the body?"
(a) thyroid hormone
(b) glucocorticoids
(c) estrogen
(d) insulin
(e) testosterone

9. The human egg is usually fertilized in the
(a) ovary.
(b) uterus.
(c) oviduct (Fallopian tubes).
(d) vagina.
(e) corpus luteum.

10. Emphysema affects the
(a) liver.
(b) alveoli.
(c) beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.
(d) glomeruli.
(e) heart valves.

11. Why do they recommend aspirin to prevent a heart attack?
(a) It increases LDL.
(b) It prevents the buildup of cholesterol.
(c) It lowers blood pressure.
(d) It inhibits clotting.
(e) Its action on the parasympathetic nervous system is useful.

12. The EKG (ECG) is
(a) a means of measuring blood pressure non-invasively.
(b) a way to hear the heart sounds.
(c) a way to start the heart if the event of fibrillation.
(d) a way to keep the brain alive if the heart has stopped.
(e) a way to record the electrical properties of the heart beat for diagnostic purposes.

13. Which of the following statements is false?
(a) Upon ovulation, meiosis is complete.
(b) After puberty, women have no oogonia.
(c) Dizygotic twins result from multiple ovulations.
(d) The intrauterine device prevents implantation.
(e) Progesterone maintains the endometrium during the cycle.

14. Osmoregulation in fish is achieved by
(a) bringing in salt by the gills in salt water fish.
(b) bringing in salt by the gills in fresh water fish.
(c) concentrating the urine in all fish by the kidneys just as in the human.
(d) excretion of dilute water in the urine of salt water fish.
(e) production of hypertonic urine in fresh water fish.

15. The portal vessel from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
(a) returns blood from the lungs to the heart.
(b) increases blood flow to the muscle at times of stress mediated by the sympathetic nervous system.
(c) carries releasing hormones.
(d) carries insulin into the blood stream.
(e) is present only in animals with a two-chambered heart and gills.

16. The breakdown of the endometrium
(a) is accelerated by human chorionic gonadotropin.
(b) is what causes ovulation.
(c) is what prevents fertilization by more than one sperm cell.
(d) is witnessed as menstruation.
(e) signals the onset of labor.

17. Goiter is from
(a) too much growth hormone as an adult.
(b) the same defect in glucocorticoid-ACTH regulation which made former Prsident Kennedy look so Sun-tanned.
(c) too little iodine in the diet.
(d) too little vitamin D as a child.
(e) deficiency as a child of the same hormone which, if there is excess as an adult, causes acromegaly.

18. The blood flowing toward the legs leaves the heart from the
(a) left ventricle.
(b) right ventricle.
(c) vena cava.
(d) right atrium
(e) left atrium.

19. Right after a surge of lutenizing hormone (LH),
(a) the primary oocyte begins to develop as the follicle secretes estrogen.
(b) implantation of the ootid occurs as the amnion's peptide hormones replace those of the posterior pituitary.
(c) the replenishment of oogonia by mitoses ceases.
(d) the cleavage divisions are responsible for forming the primary oocyte and the polar bodies.
(e) ovulation of a secondary oocyte occurs as the follicle turns into the corpus luteum.

20. Names like "eosinophil" and "basophil" refer to
[A] and belong to the [B] category.
(a) [A] location where cells reside; [B] erythrocytes
(b) [A] location where cells were produced; [B] lymphocytes
(c) [A] function; [B] monocytes
(d) [A] phagocytosis; [B] macrophages
(e) [A] histological staining properties; [B] polymorphonuclear granulocytes

21. The corpus luteum is maintained by [A-trophic hormone] and puts out [B-hormone from corpus luteum]
(a) [A] estrogen; [B] gonadotropin.
(b) [A] peptide; [B] steroid.
(c) [A] TSH; [B] a protein.
(d) [A] ACTH; [B] glucocorticoid.
(e) [A] a releasing hormone (RH); [B] oxytocin.

22. When your water breaks, the fluid comes from inside the [A] and the afterbirth comes from what was once the [B].
(a) [A] acrosome; [B] cleavage.
(b) [A] chorion; [B] endoderm.
(c) [A] yolk; [B] blastopore.
(d) [A] amnion; [B] chorion.
(e) [A] archenteron; [B] notochord.

23. The sinoatrial (SA) node
(a) is a heart valve.
(b) is the site where blood pressure is measured.
(c) divides the atria and the ventricles.
(d) is the brain location for regulating the heart.
(e) is the heart's pacemaker.

24. Histamine is
(a) a blood protein.
(b) a mediator of inflammation.
(c) the part of the complement cascade which is involved in lysing the target cell membrane.
(d) the sort of signalling molecule used to communicate from helper to cytotoxic T-cells.
(e) an antibody.

25. The developing follicle is
(a) where sperm cells form.
(b) a steroid-secreting tissue.
(c) the same thing as the secondary oocyte.
(d) where testosterone is synthesized.
(e) in the uterus.

26. FSH release begins to increase in the human menstrual cycle because of
(a) stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary by estrogen and progesterone.
(b) inhibition of the hypothalmus-pituitary by lutenizing hormone.
(c) maintenance of the hypothalamus-pituitary by human chorionic gonadotropin.
(d) lack of inhibition of the hypothalamus-pituitary after the corpus luteum regresses.
(e) lack of feedback from the uterus after menstruation.

27. Why would too much insulin lead to coma?
(a) Blood sugar would be too low for brain cells.
(b) Blood sugar would be too high for heart cells.
(c) Too much sugar would be lost in the urine.
(d) Not enough glucose is converted into glycogen in the liver.
(e) The insulin would feed back to change a trophic hormone for insulin from the pituitary, and that pituitary hormone would cause coma.

28. Why would IgM be so good at agglutination?
(a) because it is a cytokine
(b) because it is a pentamer
(c) because it forms a membrane attack complex
(d) because it is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of an antigen presenting cell (APC)
(e) because it is on killer (cytotoxic) T cells

29. The type of diabetes most likely to afflict young people is thought to be an autoimmune disease which
(a) is correlated with overweight.
(b) destroys a membrane receptor on brain cells which binds the hormone insulin.
(c) destroys endocrine cells of the pancreas.
(d) runs in families.
(e) interferes with glucagon release.

30. ADH is synthesized [A-where?] and has its effects [B-where?]
(a) [A] sympathetic nervous system; [B] adrenal medulla.
(b) [A] anterior pituitary; [B] adrenal cortex.
(c) [A] anterior pituitary; [B] pancreas.
(d) [A] hypothalamus; [B] anterior pituitary.
(e) [A] hypothalamus; [B] kidney.

31. A leak of radioactive iodine from a reactor accident would have its primary effect on the
(a) hypothalamus.
(b) pituitary.
(c) thyroid.
(d) adrenal.
(e) ovary.

32. Which gland is involved in calcium regulation?
(a) parathyroid
(b) islets of Langerhans
(c) adrenal medulla
(d) posterior pituitary
(e) testes

33. Which of the following does NOT make a portion of the semen?
(a) prostate
(b) seminiferous tubule
(c) seminal vesicle
(d) bulbourethral gland
(e) interstitial cells

34. Gout is from
(a) an inflammatory response to uric acid.
(b) a condition in which the heart valves leak.
(c) too many monocytes.
(d) a bad LDL to HDL ratio.
(e) too much bicarbonate in red blood cells.

35. An important stimulus for breathing is
(a) lack of oxygen acting directly on the lungs that work automatically like the heart.
(b) nerve impulses from the larynx to the brain.
(c) carbon dioxide that makes the brain's cerebrospinal fluid more acidic.
(d) the high blood pressure in pulmonary veins.
(e) having less than 760 mm of Hg (mercury) in the lungs.

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