Bio 106, Stark, Spring, 2002, Test 3 Answers

1. Root nodules in legumes apply to
(a) the carbon cycle.
*(b) the nitrogen cycle.
(c) the phosphorus cycle.
(d) the ozone layer.
(e) acid rain.

2. Cranial nerves plus nerves from the sacral portion of the spinal cord contrast with thoraco-lumbar nerves in defining
*(a) the parasympathetic vs. the sympathetic nervous systems.
(b) the afferent vs. the efferent nerves.
(c) white vs. gray matter.
(d) the sensory vs. the motor nervous systems.
(e) the central vs. the peripheral nervous systems.

3. Redwood trees are located in the
*(a) moist coniferous forest.
(b) taiga.
(c) alpine tundra.
(d) deciduous forest.
(e) tropical rain forest.

4. The physical stimulus for human pitch perception is measured in
(a) potential in Volts.
(b) wavelength in nanometers (nm).
*(c) frequency in Hertz (Hz) [cycles per second].
(d) color.
(e) photons absorbed by rhodopsin.

5. The term "climax community" refers to
(a) a stable dominance hierarchy in baboons.
*(b) ecological succession.
(c) the highest trophic level.
(d) when a population curve levels off.
(e) industrialized nations with a population structure favoring older people.

6. Polio and multiple sclerosis (MS) primarily affect
(a) synaptic transmission.
(b) the sodium-potassium pump (ATPase).
(c) the retina.
(d) the lateralization of speech and language to the left side of the brain.
*(e) peripheral and central nervous system myelin.

7. The seasonal concentration of wild flowers in Spring in temperate deciduous forest is most closely related to
(a) rainfall causing annual seeds to germinate.
(b) when the permafrost allows such growth.
(c) the pelagic zone.
*(d) sunlight and shade from the changing canopy.
(e) conifers being evergreens.

8. Which is the muscle protein that binds to ATP?
(a) actin
*(b) myosin
(c) troponin
(d) tropomyosin
(e) myoglobin

9. The term "demographic" is most likely to be applied to
(a) instinctual behaviors.
(b) predator-prey relations.
(c) terrestrial geography and biomes.
(d) ecological succession.
*(e) the age structure of human populations in various countries.

10. Infrared receptors function to
(a) help male moths find female moths.
(b) help salmon find their home stream.
*(c) help snakes find their prey.
(d) help bats find insects in the dark.
(e) help fish that live in muddy waters determine electrical properties around them.

11. The aphotic zone would be most likely found in
*(a) the abyssal zone.
(b) an estuary.
(c) a coral reef.
(d) the continental shelf.
(e) a stream.

12. What specific feature speeds the velocity of propagation of action potentials to over 100 m/s in mammals?
*(a) saltatory conduction from one node of Ranvier to the next
(b) synaptic transmitter substances
(c) intercalated disks
(d) the resting potential
(e) potassium ions

13. What chemical, low because of loss of brain cells that produce that substance, is deficient in Parkinson's disease?
(a) endorphins
*(b) dopamine
(c) acetylcholine
(d) a peptide
(e) nitric oxide (NO)

14. At any location as the action potential hurries down the axon, it triggers the action potential ahead of it. What keeps the action potential from also triggering an action potential behind it which would then travel backwards (toward the cell body)?
(a) the opening of the calcium channel
(b) the parasympathetic nervous system
(c) the sodium-potassium pump
*(d) the refractory period
(e) norepinephrine

15. Bird song
(a) is learned in the first day of life in precocial species.
(b) was made famous in Konrad Lorenz's work on imprinting.
(c) is learned by operant conditioning.
*(d) was shown sometimes to require exposure to the conspecific's song during a late critical period in altricial species.
(e) is always purely innate.

16. Rigor mortis is caused by
(a) a loss of joint flexibility.
(b) too much calcium.
(c) a lack of action potentials.
(d) tetanus.
*(e) a lack of ATP.

17. You would find troops of baboons in
(a) chapparal.
*(b) savanna.
(c) tundra.
(d) deciduous forest.
(e) coniferous forest.

18. "Botox," (botulism from Clostridium botulinum) is now sometimes administered to people
(a) to dilate the pupils of the eye for ophthalmological examination.
(b) to control Parkinson's disease symptoms.
*(c) to prevent face wrinkles since it blocks neurotransmitter vesicle release.
(d) to relieve pain since it is a narcotic analgesic.
(e) because it has hallucinogenic effects that some people find pleasurable.

19. Somotosensory and motor maps, on the post- and pre-central gyri respectively, show good correspondence with eachother
(a) in the cerebellum.
(b) in the basal nuclei (basal ganglia).
(c) in the thalamus and hypothalamus respectively.
(d) in the medulla oblongata.
*(e) in each hemisphere of the cortex of the cerebrum.

20. The autonomic nervous system
(a) mediates fundamental functions like respiration.
(b) is localized in the thalamus.
(c) is responsible for the fixed action pattern.
*(d) is a motor system controlling smooth muscles and glands.
(e) mediates the knee jerk reflex.

21. The antennae of a male moth are for a sense most similar to that
(a) involved in bat echolocation (sonar).
*(b) used by salmon finding their way back to their home stream.
(c) used by snakes finding prey in the dark.
(d) used by electric fish probing their surroundings with electric pulses.
(e) in your finger tips detecting a rough texture as you move them across a surface.

22. At the postsynaptic membrane of the dendrite or cell body, the synaptic electrical potential
(a) is all-or-none.
(b) is mediated by the sodium-potassium pump.
(c) propagates faster if Schwann cells are present.
(d) moves directly from the presynaptic cell across gap jumctions.
*(e) is either an excitatory or an inhibitory graded (of variable size) potential.

23. Intracellular calcium increases to regulate striated muscle contraction. It is released from
(a) myoglobin.
(b) mitochondria.
*(c) sarcoplasmic reticulum.
(d) spinal motor neurons.
(e) intercalated disks.

24. The Nobel Prize winning founder of ethology, famous for his studies of geese, was
(a) Sir Cyril Burt who also studied IQ of monozygotic twins raised apart.
(b) Watson who also founded behaviorism.
(c) Galton, a contemporary of Darwin, who founded the controversial discipline of eugenics.
*(d) Konrad Lorenz who also wrote the book On Aggression.
(e) Jensen whose 1969 paper expressing pessimism about the usefulness of equal opportunity in education rekindled the nature-nurture controversy.

25. A carnivore is
(a) a primary consumer.
*(b) a secondary or higher level consumer.
(c) an autotroph.
(d) a decomposer.
(e) a producer.

26. The waggle dance and the round dance are used by [A] to communicate [B].
*(a) [A] bees; [B] food sources
(b) [A] salmon; [B] home stream
(c) [A] butterflies; [B] Mullerian mimmicry
(d) [A] stickelbacks; [B] courtship
(e) [A] European starlings; [B] migratory routes

27. Drainage to relieve pressure of the aqueous humor is not very effective in
(a) diabetic retinopathy.
(b) myopia.
(c) far-sightedness.
(d) most people over about 40 years of age.
*(e) glaucoma.

28. The aggression in between male three-spined sticklebacks as they stake out territories is communicated by
*(a) visual cues that have been studied by sign stimuli.
(b) sonar (ultrasound).
(c) a species-specific song which has some learned components.
(d) the electric sense.
(e) habituation.

29. Which is the only one of the following neurtransmitters which is a peptide?
(a) norepinephrine
(b) acetylcholine
(c) nitric oxide (NO)
*(d) the endorphins
(e) glutamate

30. Baboons
(a) stake out and defend territories for individual mating pairs.
(b) do not like to touch eachother.
(c) are so aggressive that they kill eachother.
(d) present genitals only when mating.
*(e) yawn as a threat gesture.

31. In the greenhouse effect, greenhouse gasses
(a) increase the ultraviolet light coming from the Sun to Earth.
(b) increase the energy coming from the Sun to Earth.
*(c) decrease the radiation of heat from Earth into space.
(d) increase the infrared radiation from Earth to space.
(e) make us warmer by increasing the winds from the south.

32. When we refer to "dark meat," we are referring to
(a) smooth muscle.
(b) cardiac muscle.
(c) cell bodies in the nervous system (as opposed to myelinated axons).
*(d) muscle with aerobic metabolism.
(e) muscles loaded with creatine phosphate.

33. The difference between oysters, with high death rates among young, vs. humans, with low death rates among the young,
(a) is described by an exponential curve.
(b) is an example of symbiosis.
*(c) is shown in a survivorship curve.
(d) is a function of the carrying capacity.
(e) is related to the organism's trophic level.

34. A term that applies to algal blooms in lakes with organic pollution is
*(a) eutrophication.
(b) r-selection.
(c) demographics
(d) abiotic.
(e) succession

35. Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, applies to
(a) a "pumped" muscle appearance.
(b) the perception of pain.
*(c) what happens to the retina in diabetes.
(d) the mechanism of habituation.
(e) the utilization of ATP by muscle.

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