Bio 106, Stark, Spring, 2003, Test 2

1. Blood goes from the right ventricle to the
(a) pulmonary vein.
*(b) pulmonary artery.
(c) aorta.
(d) vena cava.
(e) right atrium.

2. Nuclear receptors
(a) should be found in the posterior pituitary.
(b) are on red blood cells.
*(c) are in cells responsive to most steroid hormones.
(d) are part of the blood clotting cascade.
(e) go through the portal vessel from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.

3. A dorsal lip transplanted from a donor amphibian embryo to an abnormal position in a recipient could result in the development of
*(a) a second notochord at the graft location.
(b) a mirror image limb.
(c) a second placenta.
(d) a fourth germ layer.
(e) a second inner cell mass.

4. Which is likely to be an autoimmune disease?
(a) acromegaly
(b) bronchitis
(c) myocardial infarction
*(d) diabetes
(e) cystic fibrosis

5. The SA node
(a) can have its lumen clogged by a thrombus in a heart attack.
*(b) initiates the electrical activity in the heart beat.
(c) requires a nerve connection, and the heart would stop in severe polio.
(d) is the part of the brain that stimulates breathing when O2 is low.
(e) connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.

6. Classic experiments in which the adrenal gland was removed in rats
(a) demonstrated that the adrenal gland produces an antipyretic substance and is thus the center for temperature regulation.
(b) eliminated problems associated with ingesting radioactive iodine.
(c) caused a decrease in helper T cells.
(d) resulted in increased muscle mass because of anabolic steroids.
*(e) showed that there is an increased salt appetite.

7. Which would cause the bones to release calcium?
(a) cortisol
(b) glucagon
(c) vitamin D
(d) calcitonin
*(e) parathyroid hormone

8. Vasodilation would occur
(a) during diastole.
(b) in laryngitis.
(c) during inhalation.
*(d) during the inflammatory response.
(e) when veins like the vena cava regulate blood flow to vascular beds.

9. The CD4 and CD8 proteins are expressed by [A] and [B] respectively.
(a) [A] steroid hormone cells; [B] peptide hormone cells.
(b) [A] adrenal cortex; [B] adrenal medulla.
*(c) [A] helper T cells; [B] killer T cells.
(d) [A] alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans; [B] beta cells in the islets of Langerhans.
(e) [A] erythrocytes; [B] leukocytes.

10. Which is delivered via the portal vessel from the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
(a) angiotensin
(b) thrombin
(c) bicarbonate
*(d) peptide releasing factors
(e) steroid hormones

11. Ovulation is triggered by a surge in
(a) a steroid from the posterior pituitary.
(b) a prostaglandin from the hypothalamus.
*(c) a peptide from the anterior pituitary.
(d) a steroid from the ovary.
(e) a peptide from the chorion.

12. Runner's high is attributed to
(a) anabolic steroids.
(b) nitric oxide.
(c) adrenalin.
*(d) endorphins.
(e) acidity in the cerebrospinal fluid.

13. CPR
(a) reduces HDL.
(b) reduces LDL.
(c) restores the heart beat.
*(d) circulates oxygenated blood to the brain.
(e) prevents atherosclerosis.

14. The oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve
(a) explains why shortage of oxygen makes you want to breathe.
(b) was proof that hemoglobin carries most of the carbon dioxide after oxygen dissociates from hemoglobin.
*(c) explains why oxygen is off-loaded from maternal to fetal circulation.
(d) can be abnormal which is the cause of heart murmurs.
(e) is improved after balloon angioplasty.

15. A disorder of too little thyroid hormone as an infant is
(a) dwarfism.
*(b) cretinism.
(c) rickets.
(d) laryngitis.
(e) emphysema.

16. Insulin shock
*(a) would happen when blood sugar gets too low.
(b) is from insufficient insulin.
(c) could only occur in untreated diabetics.
(d) is just another word for diabetes.
(e) commonly occurs when there are too many alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans.

17. On its way to fertilize a human egg, a sperm cell does not have to pass through which of the following?
(a) oviduct
(b) uterus
*(c) corpus luteum
(d) epididymis
(e) cervix

18. This question is about implantation. [A] What is implanted? [B] Where is it implanted?
*(a) [A] blastocyst; [B] endometrium.
(b) [A] sperm; [B] vagina.
(c) [A] fetus; [B] womb.
(d) [A] amnion; [B] cervix.
(e) [A] follicle; [B] ovary.

19. Macrophages are derived from
(a) a clone of memory cells.
(b) the pituitary.
(c) plasma cells.
*(d) monocytes.
(e) the thyroid.

20. Angiogenesis in the retina would most likely occur from
*(a) diabetes.
(b) vitamin D deficiency.
(c) Addison's disease.
(d) cretinism.
(e) cancer.

21. The endothelium
(a) is reduced in emphysema.
(b) is inflamed in asthma.
*(c) lines the capillaries.
(d) carries releasing hormones from the hypothalamus to the pituitary
(e) lines the uterus.

22. The epitope for a monoclonal antibody is most likely to be
*(a) a half dozen amino acids from an antigen.
(b) the MHC.
(c) a whole protein.
(d) the organizer of Spemann and Mangold.
(e) perforin.

23. Cystic fibrosis is a disease
(a) of coronary arteries caused by cholesterol buildup.
(b) of the liver caused by too much alcohol consumption.
(c) of the kidneys caused by low aldosterone.
(d) caused by duplication of the inner cell mass.
*(e) of the lungs caused by faulty chloride transport.

24. Right after ovulation occurs, the empty follicle
(a) is recycled to produce more eggs.
*(b) becomes the corpus luteum which also makes steroid hormones.
(c) becomes the chorion.
(d) breaks down, resulting in the menstrual flow.
(e) undergoes cleavage divisions.

25. To induce stronger uterine contractions, a synthetic version of what hormone is given?
(a) androgen
(b) estrogen
(c) progesterone
*(d) oxytocin
(e) FSH

26. ADH (antidiuretic hormone) affects
(a) the Malpighian tubules.
*(b) water recovery in the collecting duct.
(c) conversion of carbonic acid to bicarbonate in the blood stream.
(d) emergence of the adult insect from the pupa case.
(e) the transition from marine to fresh water physiology in salmon.

27. When a variety of B cells is first exposed to a specific antigen (to initiate differentiation into plasma cells and memory B cells), what molecule on the lymphocyte serves as the receptor for the antigen?
(a) thrombin
(b) complement
*(c) IgD
(d) histamine
(e) interleukins

28. Rickets can be prevented by supplements of
(a) steroids.
(b) insulin.
(c) growth hormone.
(d) T3 and T4.
*(e) vitamin D.

29. Beer and coffee cause excessive urination
(a) by stimulating glomerular filtration.
(b) just because of the water they contain.
(c) by activating angiotensin.
(d) by activating interstitial cell stimulating hormone.
*(e) by inhibiting a hormone from the posterior pituitary.

30. When (or where) is meiosis complete for the human "egg?"
(a) in the ovary before birth.
(b) in the primary follicle before FSH.
(c) in the blastula after cleavage divisions.
(d) in the secondary oocyte just when ovulation occurs.
*(e) when sperm attach in the oviduct.

31. Chemotaxis is a term applied to
*(a) monocytes and polymorphonuclear granulocytes migrating to the site of an injury.
(b) dilute urine moving from Bowman's capsule to the proximal convoluted tubule.
(c) the sperm being attracted to the egg.
(d) the forward flow of blood through veins.
(e) the transport of CO2 in the blood.

32. During atrial and ventricular diastole
*(a) AV valves (tricuspid and bicuspid valves) are open.
(b) semilunar valves are open.
(c) the QRS complex of the ECG is generated.
(d) ventricles contract.
(e) blood pressure measured with a cuff on the arm is highest.

33. Renin
(a) is produced by the notocord to regulate formation of somites.
(b) is produced by the hypothalamus and regulates ACTH.
(c) is produced by the posterior pituitary and regulates uterine contractions
(d) comes from the pancreas and opposes the action of insulin.
*(e) is produced by the juxtaglomerular apparatus and regulates angiotensin.

34. The zone of polarizing activity is located on
(a) the oocyte.
*(b) the limb bud.
(c) the chorion.
(d) the uterus.
(e) the corpus luteum.

35. The prescription drugs for osteoarthritis, Vioxx and Celebrex, work
(a) as narcotic analgesics.
*(b) by targeting conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by COX-2.
(c) by inhibiting pituitary release of endorphins.
(d) to regulate calcium homeostasis.
(e) to stimulate inflammation.

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