Bio 106, Stark, Spring, 2003, Exam 3

1. Which of the following is true?
*(a) The cochlea projects to the temporal lobe.
(b) The visual system projects to a brain area immediately posterior to the primary motor area.
(c) The taste receptors for salt, sweet, sour and bitter in the human project to the olfactory bulb.
(d) Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are involved in smell.
(e) Semicircular cannals mediate the sense of gustation.

2. Food webs can support certain quantities (usually measured in mass or weight) of organisms at different trophic levels. Which is the proper order, from higher total mass to lower?
*(a) producers, primary consumers, carnivores
(b) producers, carnivores, herbivores
(c) roughly equal weights of producers, carnivores and herbivores
(d) herbivores, carnivores, producers
(e) carnivores, producers, herbivores

3. Why is there a transition from deciduous forest to grasslands as you go from Missouri into Kansas?
(a) There is more sunlight in Missouri.
*(b) Kansas has less rain.
(c) Kansas would be forest except for agricultural cultivation.
(d) More carbon dioxide has made Kansas cooler.
(e) There is a hole in the ozone layer over Missouri.

4. The autonomic nervous system
*(a) is composed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
(b) is localized in the gray matter of the brain.
(c) is the sensory input to the brain.
(d) mediates the knee jerk reflex.
(e) mediates respiration.

5. Multiple sclerosis is a disease that
*(a) scars central nervous system myelin.
(b) decreases transmission by dopamine.
(c) is treated by Prozac.
(d) causes hallucinations.
(e) would prevent action potentials to specific muscles.

6. Rigor mortis is caused by
(a) too much acetylcholine.
(b) too much calcium.
(c) a lack of action potentials.
(d) tetanus.
*(e) lack of ATP.

7. At the postsynaptic membrane of the dendrite or cell body, the synaptic electrical potential
(a) is all-or-none.
(b) is mediated by the sodium-potassium pump.
(c) propagates faster if Schwann cells are present.
(d) moves directly from the presynaptic cell since the cytoplasm of the two cells is contiguous.
*(e) are either excitatory or inhibitory and graded (of variable size) potentials.

8. Which would be the smallest?
*(a) G-actin
(b) sarcomere
(c) myofibril
(d) A-band
(e) muscle fiber

9. Fossil fuels
(a) are composed of carbon dioxide precipitated out in rock by chemical action.
*(b) are the remains of plants and animals of hundreds of millions of years ago.
(c) are the only form of carbon stored long-term by biological organisms long ago.
(d) deplete the ozone layer when burned.
(e) have caused an increase in atmospheric nitrogen when burned.

10. Which of the following communities could theoretically exist in isolation?
(a) heterotrophs
(b) decomposers
*(c) carnivores, herbivores and producers
(d) herbivores
(e) carnivores and herbivores

11. Why don't birds eat many viceroy butterflies?
*(a) Monarch butterflies make birds sick.
(b) Because of mutualism.
(c) Viceroy butterflies taste bad.
(d) Viceroy butterflies have cryptic coloration (camouflage).
(e) Birds do not share the same niche as viceroy butterflies.

12. Which is the only one of the following neurotransmitters that is a peptide?
(a) norepinephrine
(b) acetylcholine
(c) gamma amino butyric acid
*(d) met-enkephalin
(e) glutamate

13. The brain structure responsible for controlling the subconscious functions of salt and water homeostasis, sex drives, and hunger is the
(a) cerebral cortex.
(b) cerebellum.
(c) thalamus.
(d) medulla.
*(e) hypothalamus.

14. The Ca2+ -binding protein in muscle is
(a) myosin.
(b) actin.
(c) myoglobin.
*(d) troponin.
(e) cytochrome.

15. The abyssal zone is found in
(a) a stream.
(b) an estuary.
(c) a thermocline.
*(d) the deep ocean.
(e) the continental shelf.

16. Narcotic analgesics affect the body by
(a) interfering with the synthesis of prostaglandins from fatty acids.
*(b) altering synaptic transmission mediated by endorphins.
(c) altering the release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system.
(d) blocking the function of myelin.
(e) increasing the synthesis of nitric oxide.

17. The muscle protein that forms thick filaments is
(a) actin.
*(b) myosin.
(c) sarcoplasmic reticulum.
(d) troponin.
(e) tropomyosin.

18. A taxis is
(a) a form of habituation.
*(b) orientation to a stimulus.
(c) the projection of the Sun onto the horizon.
(d) a form of imprinting.
(e) how geese learn to follow their mothers.

19. Organophosphates are known to
(a) accumulate in tertitory consumers.
(b) be released by the thoraco-lumbar nerves.
(c) cause global warming.
(d) be involved in nitrogen fixation.
*(e) potentiate the parasympathetic system so much that the heart would stop.

20. When muscle is not activated by spinal motorneurons, what prevents myosin from binding to actin?
(a) calcium
(b) lactic acid
*(c) tropomyosin
(d) tetany
(e) action potentials.

21. What changes across the cell membrane during the action potential?
(a) lipids
(b) water
*(c) voltage
(d) ATP
(e) proteins

22. Thomas Malthus contributed to Darwin's thinking by his discussions of
(a) terrestrial biomes.
(b) how niches are filled.
(c) global warming.
(d) ecological succession.
*(e) populations.

23. Saltatory conduction refers to
(a) the means by which ion channels at the postsynaptic membrane are opened.
(b) the way by which salt ions (sodium and potassium) are moved up their ion gradients by an ATPase.
(c) the way synaptic potentials are integrated in squid giant axons.
*(d) how the action potential jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next.
(e) the way calcium controls the release of synaptic vesicles.

24. Afferent neurons
*(a) include those from the muscle stretch receptor involved in the knee jerk reflex.
(b) carry impulses away from the central nervous system.
(c) are myelinated by oligodendrocytes and reside in the central nervous system.
(d) include the spinal motor neuron.
(e) are part of the autonomic motor output.

25. What does cGMP do in rod cells?
(a) It bends the cilia on the hair cells.
(b) It absorbs light.
*(c) It causes the channel in the cell membrane to open.
(d) It functions specifically in color vision.
(e) It is the neurotransmitter from the rod to the bipolar cell.

26. DDT accumulated to its highest levels in
(a) plants.
*(b) animals like pelicans.
(c) cattle.
(d) phytoplankton.
(e) producers.

27. The way ATP contributes to the resting membrane potential involves
(a) gating the sodium channel.
*(b) adding a phosphate to the sodium-potassium pump.
(c) ATP being converted into cyclic GMP.
(d) activation (opening of the door) of sodium and potassium channels.
(e) inactivating the potassium channel.

28. The ability of salmon to locate the stream in which they were spawned is dependent upon which sensory specialization?
(a) electric sense
(b) sensitivity to ultrasound
*(c) olfactory imprinting
(d) magnetic sense
(e) pheromones

29. Geese are [A] and are well known for [B].
(a) [A] allopatric; [B] operant conditioning
(b) [A] mutualistic; [B] habituation
(c) [A] an example of ecological succession; [B] being a model for behaviorism
(d) [A] altricial; [B] elaborate courtship songs
*(e) [A] precocial; [B] imprinting

30. The seasonal concentration of wild flowers in Spring in temperate deciduous forest is most related to
(a) rainfall causing annual seeds to germinate.
(b) when the permafrost allows such growth.
(c) a thermocline.
*(d) sunlight and shade from the changing canopy.
(e) conifers being evergreens.

31. Pavlov's classic experiments in which dogs salivated when a bell was rung were an example of
(a) positive reinforcement in a Skinner box.
(b) a fixed action pattern.
(c) habituation.
*(d) a type of associative learning called classical conditioning.
(e) imprinting.

32. Which of the following would have the highest productivity per unit area per year?
(a) tundra
(b) aphotic zone
(c) open ocean
*(d) estuary
(e) chaparral

33. The difference between oysters, with high death rates among young, vs. humans, with low death rates among the young,
(a) is described by an exponential curve.
(b) is an example of symbiosis.
*(c) is shown in a survivorship curve.
(d) is called demographics.
(e) is related to the organism's trophic level.

34. In the greenhouse effect, greenhouse gasses
(a) increase the ultraviolet light coming from the Sun to Earth.
(b) increase the ultrasound coming from the Sun to Earth.
*(c) decrease the radiation of heat from Earth into space.
(d) increase the infrared radiation from Earth to space.
(e) make us warmer by increasing the winds from the south.

35. Redwood trees are situated in the
(a) chapparal.
(b) savanna.
(c) alpine tundra.
(d) deciduous forest.
*(e) moist coniferous forest.

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