The protista lecture

Protista


Protists and the origin of eukaryotes Campbell, chapter 28
Appendix 3 and Glossary

Here is a web site on eukaryotes concentrating on Protista

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 7.7 Animal cell to remind you about nucleus and organelles
Note the flagellum and how it is different from flagellum in bacteria

Protista (Eukaryotes) Heterotrophs and Autotrophs

Interestingly, what is classified as Protista has changed recently, ugh! even again between Campbell's 4th, 5th, and 6th editions! TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.8
As a professor, I wonder if stuff that is different next year is fundamental enough to trouble freshmen with. On the other hand, it should give you an appreciation that there is active scholarship, not just old names.

Organelles, endosymbiote hypothesis TRANSPARENCY 28.4
TRANSPARENCY 28.6 mitochondria earlier than plastids.

A simple view - 3 groups:
Protozoans - "first animals"
Phytoplankton (floating plants) ["phyto" as in "phytonutrients" (from "plants")]
Ones like fungi

are they Phyla or Divisions? now they are called "candidate Kingdoms"

Diplomonadida, Parabasala (ancient - lack mitochondria) - Giardia causes diarrhea TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.9)

Euglenozoans --
little green fungus-like animals chloroplasts, eye, flagellum TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.3
Trypanosoma - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.11-African sleeping sickness, tsetse fly

Alveolata--

Now, formerly, the following would have been algae, not close to protozoa:
Dinoflagellata 2 flagella photosynthetic, armor TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.12
red tides, blooms fill fish, make shellfish poisonous
Luminescent - Gonyaulax

Protozoans:

Apicomplexa - Sporozoites - malaria (Plasmodium) mosquitos
red blood cells rupture (Life cycle) TRANSPARENCY 28.13
selection in Blacks for sickel cell anemia
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 5.19 molecule and blood cell

Ciliates Ciliophorans - Paramecium TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.14c), Didinium,
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.15 - conjugation, autogamy very useful for genetics
Really interesting use of different nuclei for cell function and heredity
"behavior genetics" - paramecia swim, mutants like "pawn" - like the chess piece, it can only swim forward

protozoa "of less certain taxonomic affinities"

Rhizopods TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.1A also 28.26) amoeba, pseudopods (phagocytosis)
some cause dysentery
Actinopods TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.27) among the plankton
Radiolarins (marine)
Helozoans (fresh water)
Foraminifera have limestone shells, TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.28)
Foramin - with windows
Petroleum accumulation (centered in Carboniferous period is from deposits of microscopic organisms and is often associated with deposits of foriminifera.
white cliffs of Dover

Myxomycota plasmodial slime mold
Acrasiomycota Cellular Slime molds - amoeba-like, fruiting body, spores
Dictyostelium lack cell wall (Fig. 28.30 TRANSPARENCY)
life cycle, pheromone, spores

Stramenopila - Phytoplankton (floating plants) Algae--

Chrysophyta - golden algae (fresh water) TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.18

Bacillariophyta Diatoms TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.17 (also 28.1B)
Pastures of the sea
Diatomacious earth, gives fish that fishy taste
A diatom home page

Oomycota "egg fungi"
ex: Irish potato famine (late blight)1845-1847
8 million to 4 million, 1 million die, emmigrate
dangers of monocrop agriculture
Chytridiomycota - simple
like fungi and fungi may have evolved from them

There is an emphasis on the various life cycles - alternation of generations, with same terminology as for plants, Sporophyte (to make spores) and Gametophyte (to make gametes)

Phaeophyta Figs. 28.21 TRANSPARENCY
Brown algae have holdfasts, air-filled floats
Giant kelp - divers can get stuck
Xanthophyll is the accessory light harvesting pigment

Rhodophyta Red algae (Fig. 28.22) chloroplasts like cyanobacteria - filaments,
sheets, mostly in oceans;
deep - use green light - phycobilins are the accessory pigment
frame for coral reefs; used to make agar (used in research and Chinese deserts)

Chlorophyta Green Algae - fresh water, land
filaments and sheets - sea lettuce
Chlamydomonas TRANSPARENCY 28.24, sexual and asexual repro.
syngamy=isogmy
Colonial Volvox and others (Fig. 28.23) multicellularity
Spirogira - pond scum dog days
Chlorella used by Calvin for photosynthesis
Ancestors of land plants
Chlorophyta - Lichens mutualism


SLIDES

amoeba with pseudopods
red blood cells
sickle cell anemia distribution in Africa
Paramecium
Didinium
eating Paramecium SEM
Euglena
diatom

this page was last updated 12/27/02




The plant diversity lecture

Plants

I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey work of the stars
-Walt Whitman (Leaves of Grass)

Campbell and Reece chapters 29 and 30

naive - weeds hard to kill, flowers hard to grow - but seriously, there are organisms in 4 of the 5 kingdoms which are plant-like in some ways

KINGDOM DIVISION

Monera Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

(recall, "algae" is a term for aquatic plants)

Protista:
Euglena
Diatoms and Golden algae
Dinoflagellates
Red algae
Brown algae
Green Algae

Fungi - actually any similarity to plants is contrived, "animal-centric point of view"

The plant kingdom Chap. 29

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 29.6
Considerable emphasis will be on reproduction.
Human reproduction is hard enough to understand -- plants reproduction is ridiculous.
Alternation of generations.
This is more than just haploid gametes (sperm and eggs) vs. adult form as in human.
In alternation of generations, each form is multicellular
sporophyte is diploid makes spores
(diploid = 2 copies of each gene)
male and female gametophytes are haploid make sperm egg
(haploid = one copy of each gene)

TRANSPAERNCY from an earlier book (I'll show you the one from this book later), note:
(1) diversity of species in each division or class (Angiosperms are by far most numerous)
(2) that algae (protists) were considered to be plants in that (earlier) book

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 30.13)
flower:
male part-stamen: anther, filament
female part-carpel: stigma, style, ovary
TRANSPARENCY (another book) - see how pollen grain grows to tube to deliver sperm
that is the gametophyte

Kingdom, Phylum, class
(I won't give all the scientific name)

PLANTS

Transition to land required
(1) O2 -> O3 (ozone) to block UV (ultraviolet light) that damages proteins and DNA
(2) Vascular system (like your circulation) - xylem (for water) and phloen (for sugar)
(3) support
(4) sexual reproduction that does not rely on water

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 29.16
Phylum Bryophytes (transitional land plants, mosses, liverworts)
The "Plant" that you see is gametophyte which is unusual (also seeFig. 29.15 (C))
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 30.1 makes this comparison for moss, fern and flowering plant

Vascular plants (tracheophytes)

Phylum Pteridophytes (seedless)
Primitive Horsetails
Club mosses (carboniferous forests, now small)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 29.23
Ferns Plant is diploid- sporophyte
makes spore
Fern with sori, clusters of sporangia (also see Fig. 29.24)
Spore makes haploid gametophytes
these are aquatic
these make sperm and eggs
Gametes fuse to zygote
grows to plant (vascular)
Frequently flooded swamp forests in carboniferous create "reducing" (in the chemical sense of the word) conditions, and coal is formed from lots of ferns back then.

Seed plants Chapter 30

Gymnosperms (naked seed = no fruit)
Phyla:
Cycads
Gingkos (male and female plants are separate)
dioecious vs monoecious
Conifers (pine, spruce, fir, hemlock, redwood)
male & female cones
Life cycle TRANSPARENCY Fig. 30.9
adaptations to north
evergreen (except larch, bald cypress) (vs deciduous)
needles with cuticle
biomes - northern

Phylum Anthophyta Angiosperms (flowering plants) fruit
235,000 species (successful)
class - monocotyledons
class - dicotyledons (eudicots, a different term, a clade that is most of the dicots)

seed, plant, flower is diploid sporophyte
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 30.17 stamen: anther filament
carpel: stigma style ovary
male gametophyte (pollen)
female gametophyte
2 sperm, one to egg - zygote
other to polars - 3n endosperm

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 29.1
to summarize, evolution

SLIDES (and hyperlinked pictures)
Asexual reproduction:
(1) snake plant - "mother" (left) and "baby" (right) connected at root
(2) spider plant ("babies" hanging [center, bottom of picture])
and
(3) strawberry
(4) mother-in-law's tongue
(5) maternity plant
Pine - female and male cones
Corn male and female flowers
Impatiens - seed pod
Impatiens - seed pod explodes
(That is how impatiens gets its name. The exploding pod is also seen in the "touch-me-not.")
Marigold
Marigold seeds
My socks after I have taken the "scenic route" - seed dispersal

here is a fun site on carniverous plants

In SLU's biology department, there are several faculty members who specialize (and teach courses) in botany, Drs. Barber, Bernhardt, Leverich and Severson

this page was last updated 1/17/03




The fungus lecture

Fungi

Campbell, Chapter 31

Even though mushrooms stick out of the ground, fungi are not like plants. Especially, fungi are heterotrophic
Fungi usually filaments, except yeast; heterotrophs, chitin cell walls, sometimes parasitic, otherwise saprobic or mutualistic.
Reproduction by budding, fragmentation of hyphae (rows of cells), or spores

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 31.1 - mycelium (mushroom shown here, most underground, reproductive part emerges quickly above ground when it is moist. Composed of strands (hyphae).

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 31.2 shows hyphae including haustorium which penetrates into parasitized cells. This picture also shows the fungus that is predatory to a nematode (a round worm, covered later in the "lower" animals)

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 31.3) Generalized life cycle of fungi

Zygomycota "zygote fungi" ex: Rhyzopus - bread mold
Life cycle TRANSPARENCY Fig. 31.7
States: Haploid, diploid, dikaryotic
Processes: Plasmogamy & karyogamy

Ascomycota (sac fungi reproduce by spore sacs)
8 ascospores in ascus are neatly arranged for genetic "tetrad analysis."
Life cycle TRANSPARENCY Fig. 31.10
Morels & truffles
Neurospora - genetics
Chestnut blight
Dutch elm disease
Rye - ergot - hallucinations related to LSD

Basidiomycota "club fungi"
Life cycle TRANSPARENCY Fig. 31.12
Mushrooms (Agaricus) the reproductive structure is above ground, the rest is under ground
Corn smut
wheat rust
Poisons (Psilocybin)

"mold" refers to asexual stage (but they can also reproduce sexually)
Imperfect fungi - reproduction is asexual
Ringworm, Athlete's foot - parasites
Fungi predatory to nematodes - Fig. 31.2
Roquefort Camembert cheese, Brie
Penicillium Here is a picture, from the Microbe zoo (like Fig. 31.14)
(Antibiotic - 1928 Alexander Fleming found mold killed bacteria, later, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain developed)

Mycorrhizae (Zygomycota, Ascomycota or Basidiomycota) w/ roots of 80% of vascular plants
TRANSPARENCY (from a latr chapter) (Fig. 36.8)
Plants - absorption of water and nutrients

Yeasts Ascomycota, Basidiomycota or Deuteromycota
Saccharomyces brewers & bakers yeasts ascomycota
Candida problem in AIDS
vaginal infections

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 31.15 Lichens mutualism (or controlled parasitism) of fungus and algae

Here is an interesting web site for the North American lichen project

SLIDES landsat of Virginia
surviving chestnust
Truffles oak root pigs (and people) smell them out (SLIDE) - Fig 31.17
SLIDE fairy ring
tree shelves SLIDE - like Fig. 31.9b
SLIDE - fungi can be beautiful

SLU's Biology department's "mycologists," Drs. Keath and Kennell, are both molecular biologists specializing in fungal pathogenesis

this page was last updated 1/7/02



The animal diversity lectures

Animals

And has not such a Story from of Old
Down Man's successive generations roll'd
Of such a clod of saturated Earth
Cast by the Maker into Human mold?
--Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat, FitzGerald, Fifth Edition

Campbell and Reece Chaps 32, 33 & 34 (a good bit of the semester)

here is a comprehensive site on animal diversity

Animals: Protozoans vs Metazoans.
naive: vertebrates and invertebrates

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 32.4
Major developments with multicellularity:
vascular and gut (then one way gut)
primitive: sponges - Parazoa vs. eumetazoa
two way: cniderans, flat worms
one way: (two openings) roundworms & up
symmetry: none, "radial" (even star fish is bilateral), bilateral - Radiata vs. bilateria
cephalization (not shown in figure, but there is a tendency for nervous system to concentrate in head)
body cavity (coelom with peritoneum) acoelomates vs pseudocoelomates
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 32.6 body cavity seen above roundworms
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 32.1 Embryology
Zygote, Cleavage, Ball, Infold,- gastrulation
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 32.7 (additional coelom mechanisms)
protostome: molluscs, annelids, arthropods
blastopore becomes mouth
spiral cleavage
deuterostome: echinoderms, chordates
blastopore becomes anus
radial cleavage
(even though arthropods and molluscs can be high, comparative embryology tells us that echinoderms are closer)
body support
because of organs, organ systems, need
nervous system (integration, also hormones)
symmetry (none, radial vs bilateral)
none - porifera
radial - cniderans and echinoderms
bilateral - others

I will not emphasize all phyla

CHAPTER 33 Invertebrates

Porifera - sponges - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.3
have some specialized cells:
choanocytes with flagella which beat
amoeboid cells digest and distribute
spicules of calcium carbonate (chalk)
or silica (glass)
no nerves

Cnideria (Coelenterates) - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.4
several layers, nervous system (net), radial symmetry, mouth only
medusa or polyp - tentacles, attached sea anemones, corals
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.7 - life cycle of hydrozoan
alternation of generations (medusa or polyp) in some cases
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 41.11 Cnidera look ahead to digestion chapter
One opening, food and waste must use that one opening

Platyhelminthes - flatworms - bilateral
Class - free living flatworms TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.10 Class Turbellaria
- flukes (parasites) Shistosoma TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.11 Trematoda
Snails water Africa
- tapeworms TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 33.12) class Cestoda

Phylum Nematoda
why is there so little coverage? (considering how important C. elegans is for genetics and development?)
2 ended gut, pseudocoelom, simple 300 nerves
free living (soil) Caenorhabditis elegans genetics
parasites
Trichinella (pork) US, not as bad as before (4 infested meals/yr) not in Europe (they have raw pork dishes, but they have mad cow disease). Pick trichinosis up from eating meat (muscle) with cysts.
hookworms, pinworms, dog heart worms

Mollusca 100,000 species, second largest phylum
Class Gastropod (stomach - foot) snails Escargo
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.16
Pelecypoda (clams and bivalves) New England & Manhattan clam chowder
Cephalopoda squid octopus nautilus - largest Calamari
Good digestion. very good nervous system
squids can be biggest invertebrates

Annelids TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.23 segmentation like arthropods
digestion with crop, gizzard, 5 paired hearts, coelom
earthworms - class Oligochaeta (oligo - a few)
"medicinal" leeches - class Hirudinea (Bogart Hepburn movie African Queen)
Polychaeta - marine worms

Arthropods- jointed legs largest phylum
Exoskeleton, chitin (fungus) molt soft shelled crabs
classes:
Chilopoda - centipedes
Diplopoda - millipedes
Crustacea - crabs, etc. TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.26
Arachnids
Insects
Study of insects is entomology, Dr. Camilo represents that field
Insects -TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.33
complex, metamorphosis - stages in fly life (egg, embryo, 3 larval instars, pupa, adult (imago)
2/3 species Entomology - TRANSPARENCY Table 33.6 lists orders
Brain hormone to prothoracic gland (molting hormone)
corpora allata (JH)
eclosion hormone
Fruitfly Drosophila is very useful in genetics, and Drs. Coulter and Tsubota do Drosophila genetics in their labs.

SLIDES
medussa - jellyfish SLIDE
Portuguese man of war SLIDE
free living flatworms SLIDE
tapeworms SLIDE
SLIDE: dog heart worms from mosquito, poison
Insects - complex, metamorphosis 4 SLIDES
insects that have complete metamorphosis are called "holometabolous"
SLIDE Limestone wall in "white campus" at Mizzou

Deuterostomes:

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.38
Echinoderms - spiny skinned sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers - starfish eat bivalves

Chordates - notochord (becomes support usually), dorsal nerve, pharyngeal gill slits, tail
"Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" gills, tail, etc
subphylum cephalochordata Lancets TRANSPARENCY 34.4A
subphyla:Tunicates - Urochordata TRANSPARENCY Fig. 34.3

Vertebrates

vertebrate diversification over geological time
TRANSPARENCY from another book emphasizes success, extinction

classes: Agnatha-jawless fish - lampreys
Placoderms - first jaw fish, extinct
Chrondrichthys - cartilagenous
Ostreichthys - bony fish. SLU's Biology Department has several people who are interested in fish, including Dr. Nordell, Dr. Mayden and Dr. Wood. Dr. Aspinwall teaches a course, BL A-428 Biology of fish.
Amphibia metamorphosis interest in development
Reptiles internal fertilization. Here is a nice site about reptiles. Dr. Aldridge is SLU Biology's herpetologist, and he teaches BL-A426 Herpetology. He is also the person to contact to find out about Tri-Beta, the biology "club."
Birds -separate evolution from reptiles. Dr. Valone teaches a course in Ornithology
Bottleneck
Mammals (named after mammary glands) adaptive radiation from reptiles
Monotremes (egg, platypus)
Marsupials (pouch) (opposums, kangaroo)
Placentals
Orders TRANSPARENCY Table 34.1
Insectivores moles, shrews
Rodents
Carnivora - cats, dogs etc
Artiodactyla - pigs, sheep, cattle, deer, giraffes
Perissodactya - horse, zebra, rhinoceroses
Sirenians - sea cows
Edenta - sloth, anteaters, armadillos
Chiroptera - bat
Langomorpha - rabbit
Proboscidea - elephant
Cetacea - whales
Primates

Primates TRANSPARENCY Fig. 34.35
Primitive primates (prosimians)lemurs, tree shrews
New world monkeys spider monkeys, prehensile tail
Old world monkeys baboons, macaques (rhesus) color vision
(rhesus used in research - centers)
(baboons - film of social life)
Great apes - Chimpanzee present controversy used in AIDS research
Gorilla - very different in zoos, Orangutan, Gibbon

Man TRANSPARENCY Fig. 34.38 fossils not in good places
scavange, animals, native groups want buried
Australopithecus afarensis Lucy 2.8 - 3.6 MYA
walked upright before brain grew
Australopithecus africanus (tool use) East Africa

chimps Jane Goodall, Darwin's finch - tool
4 million yrs ago
Homo habilis (crude chipped stones) (stone age)
2 million yrs ago
Homo erectus (Java, Peking)
1.5 million yrs ago
Homo sapiens Neanderthal
200,000 yrs ago
Cro-Magnon paint in caves
30,000 yrs ago
Homo sapiens
brain change .05 cc/generation
future change may be influenced by social acceptance

this page was last updated 1/27/03




The plant structure and function lectures

PLANTS

What's in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet.
--William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet

on this outline:
Plant structure and growth Campbell and Reece Chapter 35
Transport in plants Campbell and Reece Chap 36
Plant nutrition Campbell and Reece Chap 37
Integrative systems in plants Campbell and Reece Chapter 39

(plant reproduction, chapter 38, is in a separate outline)

Tree trunk TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.23 - (***see also below) heartwood (old secondary xylem - resins clog)
and sapwood (functional secondary xylem, vascular cambium,
young secondary phloem and cork cambium)
annual growth rings - spring wood and summer wood
(stem TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.21)
this is secondary xylem

TRANSPARENCY (Fig 35.13) winter twig shows primary growth for contrast

Annual, biennial, perennial

Flowering plants (angiosperms) monocots and dicots TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.1 (+++see also below)

monocot, parallel veins, complex vascular bundles (in stems vs roots), fibrous roots, 3x flowers (corn)
dicot, net veins, vascular bundles in ring (in stem vs root), tap root, 4x or 5x flowers (bean)

Cell growth by size mostly of vacuole TRANSPARENCIES 7.8, 7.15 review
Development is continuous in plants - meristems
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.12 in book Meristems: Shoot apical, lateral and root
plant growth - indeterminant - meristems
stem node, internode, bud, terminal bud TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.2
apical meristems - primary growth
also from apical meristem of roots TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.14
lateral meristems - secondary
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.21 in book Anatomy of a woody dicot stem
not in most monocots, amazingly not in palm TRANSPARENCY Figure from another book.
Compare with TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.18b in book monocot young stem
lateral meristem is vascular cambium recall (*** see also above) (again) TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.23
makes vascular tissues, xylem and phloem
later become
bark - cork cambium and cells it makes

Plant cells and tissues
Review leaf TRANSPARENCIES 7.18, 10.2, 35.19
Parenchyma cell, generic TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.11
stem, root plastids with starch
flesh of fruit
Collenchyma - support
Sclerenchyma - strong support (cell walls so important in plants)
Vascular
review cell structure - cell wall, vacuole TRANSPARENCY 7.28, 5.8
Xylem - water transport (root, stem, leaf)
tracheids long thin, strong, connect at tapered ends
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 30.12 and 35.8
and vessel elements (evolved later) end to end
at maturity - empty (no protoplasm) cell wall
connected by pits with, e.g., plasmodesmata
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 35.9) phloem's sieve-tube members and companion cells

Water transport

Thanks to the comment from a perceptive student, I fixed incorrect wording here between the 1/17 and 1/31 versions of this outline:

Osmosis - water moves passively from where water is at a higher concentration (for instance pure water) to where water is at a lower concentration (where organic chemicals are dissolved in it) through a semipermeable membrane (i.e. a membrane which passes water but not the organic molecules).

In root: water is extracellular to endodermis where Casparian strip makes barrier (TRANSPARENCY Fig. 36.7) which forces water to move to intracellular
Minerals (like K+) by active transport (ATP and H+ pump)
very little "push" from roots Guttation
pump can lift water 34 feet, atmospheric pressure pushes
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 36.1 (in general, water goes up and sugar goes down, simple)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 36.11 water adhesion (to xylem), cohesion, capillary action
pulled by transpiration
transpiration up to 97% of water use
Adaptations for avoiding water loss
C4 photosynthesis
CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) take in CO2 at night
TRANSPARENCY (stomata Fig. 36.13, leaf Fig. 36.10)
corn 2 liters per day
maple tree 200 l / hr in summer
help to cool

Phloem - sugar transport - sieve tubes and companion cells
from leaves (source) to roots (sink)
seasonal sap flow

Recall TRANSPARENCY (again) Fig. 35.1 (+++see also above) variations
big vascular bundles, phloem outside in radial array:
dicot
small vascular bundles throughout monocot

Roots - taproot in dicot, fibrous in monocot
very branchy - 1 rye grass 4000 sq ft - root hairs extensive)
Osmosis
Root - epidermis & hairs
cortex (water around cell walls)
endodermis (casparian strip makes water thru cell)
regulate minerals
pericycle (root hair and secondary dev)
vascular bundles as one steele (vs in bundles in branch)
TRANSPARENCY Figs. 35.15
Mycorrhizae- fungus help nutrient uptake
see also TRANSPARENCY Figure from another book (like Fig. 36.8) that shows amazing extent
also root nodules (for nitrogen fixation, I'll show a slide later)
Unusual stems (TRANSPARENCY Fig. 35.64)-
stolon (strawberry)
rhizomes- iris, fern
tubers- potatoes - swelling in rhizome, Jerusalem artichoke
bulb - onion (modified leaves)
Parasitic plants like mistletoe tap into oak
vs. epiphytes like staghorn fern just use plant as substrate

Roots into "soil" - clay, sand, humus
problems of water retention and loss and compaction (aeration)
"no - till" agriculture
erosion
all nutrients except CO2
CO2 into carbohydrate, H2O split and only H2 into Carbohydrate
Chap 10 - carbon fixation - Calvin cycle
light reactions of photosynthesis split water

5 - 10 - 5 or 12 - 12 - 12
Nitrogen (guano), phosphorus (phosphate), potassium (potash)
NO3- nitrate, NH4+ ammonium, H2PO4- phosphate
root nodules of Rhizobium TRANSPARENCIES 37.9, 37.11
See root nodules on clover
also others, remember plants are "primary producers"
Be sure to look at table 37.1
Macronutrients
Magnesium in chlorophyll (epsom salt, magamp)
Sulfur in amino acids
Micronutrients
Iron in cytochromes (chelated iron)
Chlorosis if missing several nutrients, iron poor soil for evergreens
miracid

Integrative systems in plants Campbell and Reece Chapter 39

"motor" movements - fast, action potentials
fast movements-turgor changes-Mimosa Fig. 39.27
also Venus fly trap (Fig. 37.16)
also not so fast, introduce "tropism"
also "sensory"
statoliths in cells Fig. 39.25
geotropism (gravitropism) Fig. 39.25

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 39.2) shows general hormonal mechanism
TRANSPARENCY Table 39.1 hormones
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 39.17) growth mediated by blue light, cryptochromes and others
Auxins indole (3 acetic acid)
phototropism - Darwin expts.communication with tip for grass to grow to light
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 39.4 the early experiments
Went 1927 agar expts TRANSPARENCY Fig. 39.5
make cells grow more
apical dominance (pinch back flowers)
polar transport (active) from apical meristem of terminal bud
rooting hormones
weed-be -gone, ortho, scotts plus 2, 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T dioxin weed and feed
monocots resist, works on dicots, broad leafed
deadly agent orange

Ethylene - ripen fruit - kerosene heaters, blueberies, fruit rots
dropping of leaves in deciduous perennials
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 39.15) quite a bit of work including isolation of ethylene mutants
Cytokinins - contain adenine coconut milk- cell division
Miller expts on aged herring sperm - degraded DNA
interact with auxin in callus vs. root
" " " in apical dominance
Gibberellins - cell elongation - dwarf corn and peas lack
foolish [rice] seedling disease fungus
flower earlier, better Thompson seedless grapes
barley (cereal) seed germination - break dormancy
mRNA for a-amylase act through 2nd messenger
involved in "bolting" with huge internode
Abscisic acid - inhibit growth prepare for winter
rain washes out of desert seed thus germinate
Phytochrome - photodormant lettuce seeds germinate after 660,
not 730 - also photomorphogenesis
photoperiodism - dark period important
Pr->Pfr
daylight hits red, slow reconversion TRANSPARENCY Fig. 39.20
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 39.22) short-day (long night) plants and long day (short night) plants
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 39.23 red and far red in flowering
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 39.3) mechanism involves signal transduction (see chapter 11)
Florigen - timing of flowers in short and long day plants

SLIDES (and hyperlinks) to review major points:
SLIDE root nodules of Rhizobium See root nodules on clover
SLIDE - mum - pinch off buds (that inhibit branching by apical dominance) early and the plant gets fuller
SLIDE sunflower usually has flower at top, but here, the top got broken off in a wind storm and the flower is on a side branch

this page was last updated 1/31/03



The plant reproduction lecture

Plant reproduction and development

I sometimes think that never blows so red
The Rose as where some buried Caesar bled;
That every Hyacinth the Garden wears
Dropt in her Lap from some once lovely Head.
--Omar Khayyam, Rubaiyat, FitzGerald, Fifth Edition

Campbell and Reece Chapter 38

TRANSPARENCY 38.1
Alternation of Generations:
sporophyte, 2n, diploid -> gametophyte, 1n, haploid

VERY CONFUSING, so look back at Fig. 13.5 (meiosis chapter)
Bottom Line: Meiosos makes spores, not gametes

TRANSPARENCY 38.2
Also by way of review: Female=Carpel, Male=Stamen in "ordinary" flower
This would be a perfect flower
Imperfect flower
Staminate - male
Carpellate - female
Already mentioned:
monoecious (even in corn)
dioecious: blue "prince or boy" (right of figure) vs "princess or girl" (left of figure) holly, date palm

Inflorescences = clusters of flowers, like lupines
Composite flowers, like sunflowers, look at Fig. 38.3

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 38.4
Pollen sac is called sporangium
MALE microsporocyte is diploid and microspore is haploid
(of course, since meiosis is shown on diagram)
pollen grain is immature gametophyte
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 38.9
tube cell grows into pollen tube
generative cell makes two sperm nuclei
REMINDER the gametophyte makes gametes
FEMALE megasporocyte -> meiosis -> megaspore by analogy with male
only one survives
Develop. of female gametophyte is not quite as obviously diff. generation
embryo sac is female gametophyte 8 specified cells
haploid cells can have mitosis you may not have considered

Pollination (as mentioned when we talked about angiosperms)
cross pollination, coevolution of angiosperms and pollinators
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 38.7) self incompatible (pollen fails to develop)

Fertilization 1 sperm fertilizes egg.
other fertilizes two polar nuclei to make endosperm (3n).
monocot - endosperm is nutrient
dicot - endosperm goes into cotyledons

Embryology TRANSPARENCY Fig. 38.10
first division lays down up and down, basal cell becomes suspensor
In mature seed, embryp has shoot apex and root apex
plumule at top, hypocotyl between
radicle is embryonic root
beans and corn are examples in TRANSPARENCY Fig. 38.11

Ovary and parts of flower can contribute to "fruit"
cherry, bean pod: simple fruit
strawberry: aggregate fruit (one flower with several carpels)
pineapple: multiple fruit (inflorescence)

TRANSPARENCY Germination Fig. 38.14
monocot - coleoptile = cotyledon
foliage leaves vs. cotyledons
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 38.13
Dormancy, imbibation
embryo releases gibberellin
allerone (layer of cells) releases alpha-amylase
breaks down starch.

There's also asexual reproduction

Plant growth and development will not be emphasized

this page was last updated 2/5/03



The animal structure function lecture

An introduction to animal struture and function

Remembering on Black History Month

Emmett Till (July 25, 1941 - Aug. 28, 1955)
story
The Death of Emmett Till Lyrics by Bob Dylan

Birmingham Sunday Song and lyrics by Richard Farina and associated history about the church bombing September 15, 1963 that killed four girls, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley

Campbell and Reece Chap. 40

Higher levels of integration (later) ; populations, communities, ecology
and the biosphere

Animal organismal biology: Cells (like chief cells) -> Tissues (like gastric mucosa) -> Organs (like stomach) -> Organ systems (like digestive system)
(Chapters 41 - 49 will cover this material System by System)
(Cells were emphasized last semester)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 2.1 this hierarchy was introduced earlier

There are several general classes of tissues

Epithelial tissue TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.1
usually there are on a "basement membrane" - not a membrane in the cell membrane sense, but rather some extracellular material.
There are interesting junctions between cells which often make the sheet of cells into a good barrier.
Columnar, cuboidal and squamous
Simple, pseudostratified and stratified

Connective TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.2
Adipose, Blood, Cartilage, Fibrous, Loose, and Bone
Figure gives a few examples of cell types.
Importance of extracellular material - chondroitin sulfate
TRANSPARENCY Some SEMs and TEMs I made some years ago from cornea of human eye donors showing neatly arranged alternating directions of collagen fibers (recall that cornea is transparent - proteins should not absorb visible light)

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.4 Muscle
Striated (striped) muscle (voluntary, skeletal) - Cardiac muscle - Smooth muscle (run by the autonomic nervous system)

A simplified Organism TRANSPARENCY 40.8
Note that topographically, digestive system is outside body.
Multicellularity requires getting cells near fluid
Physiology and histology - of the systems shown in this diagram will be the topics of upcoming chapters

Division of labor
- systems of integration
Homeostasis negative feedback - set point (like how you set a thermostat) - "servo mechanism"
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.9a
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.9b - how thermostat works in the body

To coordinate, there will need to be systems of integration (nervous and hormonal systems)

Dr. Aldridge teaches Comparative Anatomy BL A342 (4 credits, including lab)
Dr. Bode teaches General Physiology BL A346 (3 credits) and its lab BL A347 (2 credits)

Dr. Schreiweis, the Director of SLU's Preprofessional Health Studies, teaches "Vertebrate Histology" (BL A-444) and has developed a web site for this course

this page was last updated 2/05/03



The digestion - nutrition lectures

Digestion and nutrition
Campbell and Reece Chap. 41

DIGESTION (breakdown) AND NUTRITION

break down long chain proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids into monomers
recall hydrolysis (opposite of dehydration synthesis) (hydro-water lysis-break apart)
if not broken down, proteins which are non-self would make a big antigen invasion


Although human is covered in detail, a course called "biology" must cover comparative aspects.
In sponge, Choanocyte TRANSPARENCY Fig. 33.3
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 41.11 In Hydra and flatworm, gastrovascular - digestive and circulatory systems are combined

Tube - Alimentary canal TRANSPARENCY Fig. 41.12 (worm, grasshopper, bird)
birds have gizzard - stones to break up seeds, sort of a lapidary device (this is why you give pet bird gravel),
gizzard is near the stomach and near the bird's center of gravity -- not only do birds need to be light to fly but also balanced, and teeth, which are heavy and in the mouth, would upset the center of gravity
Crop is used for storage in birds

One emphasis will be on how the human digestive system invests many juices (hydrolases = enzymes which catalyse hydrolysis)
Some glands have ducts and these are called exocrine glands.
This is in contrast with endocrine glands (ductless, for hormones, which are also involved in digestion)

800 g food IN per day
1200 ml water
/
/ 7000 ml GLANDS
/
50 g solid OUT
100 g water

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 41.13
Mouth - teeth, lubrication, salivary amylase to disaccharide maltose - starch tastes sweet (only starch in mouth)
-ase enzymes
Pharynx swallowing
Esophagus - bolus, peristalsis
Cardiac oriface
An interesting story: rats cannot vomit. They are very good at learning in one trial to avoid tastes which make them sick and can only be poisoned by chemicals with a delayed reaction like warfarin which is an anticoagulant.

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 41.15) Stomach - gastric mucosa - mucus protect
from parietal cell: HCl kill bacteria
stop amylase
From chief cell: pepsinogen ---(HCl, pepsin))--> pepsin (proteolytic)
(Inactive forms called zymogens)
Heartburn, antacids, ulcer (although it is now known that a specific bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is associated with ulcer)
very little absorption in stomach - exceptions: aspirin, alcohol

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 41.22)
Rumen - bacteria - ruminants - chew cud not acid - pensive "ruminate"
fermentation then feed to other chambers

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 41.16)
Pyloric sphincter regulates emptying of acidic gastric juice to duodenum
there bile from liver and bicarbonate and enzymes from pancreas add to enzymes from small intestine

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 6.16) interesting review point from last semester
optimum pH for pepsin is 2 while for trypsin, it is 8

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 41.19)
Small intestine - intestinal enzymes:
In intestine: lactase, maltase, sucrase, others
In intestine, mitosis is frequent since cells digest themselves
food and water absorbed
Signalling by G-protein involving cAMP (covered last semester) is disrupted by cholera toxin - a life-threatening diarrhea, must replace fluids - salts and glucose (as in the electrolyte coctails athletes drink) facilitate water absorption

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 41.18)
Pancreas
Bicarbonate (alkaline)
Protease (enteropeptidase makes trypsin which, in turn, makes chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase
notice "pro..." and "...ogen" cut off a peptide fragment from a larger precursor to make final enzyme - there will be many examples of this sort of thing in biology
lipase
Amylase, nuclease
(most of enzymes)
The pancreas is also an endocrine gland producing Insulin (whose defect is diabetes) and Glucagon, both involved in sugar metabloism (covered later in the course)

Common bile duct
Liver gall bladder
Bile - emulsify fats,
erythrocyte iron recycling: turn feces dark
Hepatitis (disorder which spills bile into blood) - turns skin yellow (jaundice)
very few enzymes
also, via hepatic portal vein (see below absorption) microsomal (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) enzymes to detoxify
Portal blood veins (circulatory system "wired" in series is unusual, another famous example being the hypothalamus of the brain which feeds to the pituitary gland, covered later in hormones.

Liver not just exocrine gland, but recycling and detoxifying center for circulation: e.g. hemoglobin
Portal blood flow picks up from small intestine to liver
detoxify alcohol (metab, fat, scar, cirrhosis), drugs,
dump wastes (into feces)

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 41.17 to summarize digestive enzymes, but use caution since this table does not show where secretions come from

local hormones control digestion - Many found later in other places
from stomach:
food stimulates gastrin which, in turn, stimulates gastric juice until there is a low (acidic) pH
from duodenum:
Cholecystokinin (CCK) - liver and pancreas
Secretin for bicarbonate release
Enterogastrones to slow gastric emptying

It is worth mentioning that hunger and satiety are complex
In old work on brain lesions, LH (lateral hypothalamus) was called the hunger center, while the VMH (ventromedial hypothalamus) was considered to be the satiety center, but it never turned out to be so simple.
Hypothalamus is important in many motivated behaviors including thirst and sex drive
Affect (the aspect of perception of goodness or badness of a stimulus) is linked through the nigrostriatal tract (bundle of nerve axons) which uses the neurotransmitter dopamine and which is deficient in patients who have Parkinson's disease. Now it appears that there is a hormone which is called leptin which is released by (well-fed) fat cells which causes the brain to decrease apetite.
Specific appetite for salt after adrenalectomy eliminates aldosterone

so far DIGESTION. also ABSORPTION
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 41.19)
here is a micrograph from our histology course dramatizing the tremendous increase in apical surface area of intestinal cells caused by the microvillar brush border
blood vessels and lacteals
fats - globules called chylomicrons or lipoproteins
fats with carrier proteins important

Large intestine
bacteria make vitamin K and some B vitamins
hydrogen, methane (gas "flaming")
feces
E. coli in gut, molec. biol. NIH regulations.
Superinfection if broad spectrum antibiotic

NUTRITION

Energy (calories - kilocalories)
2000-3000/day 250 extra/day add 25 lb/yr regulation
do not lose calories in feces, urine (except diabetes)
sweat (all systems efficient)

"Precursors" building blocks 8 essential amino acids
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 41.4)
corn very low in lysine and isoleucine,
beans low in tryptophan and methionine
Kwashiorkor - Africa - disease of child new baby born
some essential fatty acids
even cholesterol essential to life, essential in insect diet

Vitamins not synthesized (in most cases), and are not metabolized (in the sense of sugars being catabolized into carbon dioxide + water + energy
TRANSPARENCY Big table 41.1

A is usuaal considered to be the "chromophore" (pigmented portion) of the visual pigment (rhodopsin)
retinoic acid and steroid hormone receptors act by regulating transcription (into mRNA) of specific genes
zinc fingers are used by the retinoic acid binding protein to grab onto DNA, so Zn is an important mineral (but otherwise some heavy metals like lead and mercury are very toxic)
E (antioxidant) Oxygen is a necessary evil. fat soluable
K (coagulation), normally made by gut bacteria, can have hypervitaminosis which would cause thromboses
D - also like a hormone, affects bone, D deficiency leads to a disorder in young people known as rickets with skeletal abnormalities witnessed as bowleggedness, sunshine creates vitamin D in the skin, and hence the expression "sunshine vitamin D." Rickets was in cool climate areas where people are dressed and/or indoors. Now the problem is solved by adding vitamin D to milk, but in the old days thay gave cod liver oil, and fish (especially livers) are high in the fat soluable vitamins most notably A and D
C colds? The Nobel Prize winning chemist Linus Pauling (later in his career) became a strong advocate of the wonders of vitamin C. Does it help for cancer? Scurvey is the name of the vitamin C deficiency, and all sorts of things go wrong. On voyages, sailers were deprived of fresh fruits and came down with scurvey. In the1700's the British figured this out and stocked the ships with citrus fruits and hence British sailers were called "Limeys"
B complex there are 12 B vitamins and some are Kreb's cycle coenzymes, hence these vitamins are important in metabolism
Beriberi - B1 thiamin

Some of my main research interests concern vitamin A: see site 1, site 2, site 3, and site 4

TRANSPARENCY Minerals Table 41.2
Ca - used in bone, but really importantly in muscle and nerve
P - phosphate - used in ATP etc.
Na, Cl, K - electrolytes which regulate cell electrophysiology
Iodine - used in the hormone thyroxine - deficiency causes goiter (thyroid gland in neck gets very big), iodine is in seafood so deficiencies used to be found mainly inland, now iodine is added to iodized salt
Iron, cobalt, copper - hemoglobin - anemia

this page was last updated 1/20/03



The circulation lecture

Circulation

The first time ever I held you near
and felt your heart beat close to mine
I thought our joy would fill the world
and would last till the end of time, my Love.
--Peter, Paul and Mary

Campbell and Reece, Chapter 42

In multicellular metazoan, need a vascular system (also in plants)
Circulation : Cardiovascular system
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.2
Open circulation Blood = interstitial fluid - hemolymph is term for blood - most molluscs and all arthropods have open circulation
hemocoel is the space where the blood is
- important in insects that gas transport (via air filled trachea) does not rely on circulation being closed
Closed circulation - annelids, cephalopods, echinoderms, vertebrates

Chambers of heart - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.3
Fish have 2 chambers (gills and body "wired" in series)
The "circuit" is "in series" - heart -> gills -> body -> back to heart
Amphibia and reptiles have 3 chambers (2 atria, 1 ventricle)
As long as blood does not fully mix, there is some separation of non-oxygenated blood to the pulmonary circulation and of oxygenated blood to the systemic circulation

Birds and mammals have 4 chambers which maintains better separation
TRANSPARENCY Figs. 42.4
note that right is drawn on left as if looking into the chest of a supine subject
pulmonary valve (semilunar) feeds pulmonary arteries
aortic valve (also semilunar) feeds aorta
valves snap shut from arterial back pressure at the end of systole to make second heart sound- "dub"

Here is the circuit: LA - LV - Arteries (aorta, etc.) (blood pressure taken here) - Arterioles (regulate blood flow to muscles, brain, digestion, kidneys and skin) - Capillaries (near, exchange, WBC's) - venules - veins (no pressure, valves)- RA - RV - Pulmonary arteries - Lung capillaries - Pulmonary veins -

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.8) artery is like hose, regulation of arteriole emptying into vascular bed, capillary is one layer of endothelial cells

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.10 - blood spreads out as it goes from arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries (top of figure) and hence moves slower (second part of figure). Pressure goes down during movement arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries (bottom). Blood moves slowly and with very little pressure in veins. Movement in veins is mostly passive with a series of valves and where contraction of skeletal muscles assists TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.9)

TRANSPARENCY 42.5 Heart, TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.6 cardiac cycle
superior and inferior vena cava feed right atrium -> ventricle via tricuspid (atrio-ventricular) valve
pulmonary veins feed left atrium -> ventricle via bicuspid (atrioventricular) valve
tricuspid & bicuspid snap shut at start of ventricular contraction to make first heart sound- "lub"
backslosh through valves - - heart murmurs

CO2 and O2 - hemoglobin (later in the respiration lecture)

Diastole (between heart beats), systole is during ventricular contraction, hence terms systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.11) close off artery, when it opens (systolic pressure), blood flow is turbulent and noisy, when it is always open (diastolic pressure), blood flow is no longer noisy
Blood pressure is measured in arteries arteries
hypertension 45 million Americans - salt intake is still debated, >140/95 high 140/70 normal
high diastolic is especially bad

Electrical - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.7 SA node (or electrical pacemaker) - spread - automatic
sympathetic nervous system speeds it up, parasympathetic nervous system slows it down

Heart attack - atherosclerosis (arteriosclerosis) (cholesterol, saturated fats) - coronary arteries myocardial infarction - coronary thrombosis - ischemia - bypass - fibrillation - CPR (keep brain alive, needs O2) - nitroglycerine - NO
1 million Americans die/yr reducing since 1971
bypass operations, replace coronary artery with vessel from somewhere else in the body, there are 100,000-200,000/yr operations - 30% may be unnecessary
LDL receptors take out cholesterol which otherwise deposits
HDL may lower deposition - excercise good for this

Myocardial cells not regenerate (by mitosis in the adult). This is why heart attack is so damaging. The same is true for the nerves in the central nervous system where similar damage is called stroke.

streptokinase thru catheter dissolve clot
tissue plasmogen activator dissolve vessel clots
catheter with balloon angioplasty

this page was last updated 1/30/03



The circulation lecture

Circulation

The first time ever I held you near
and felt your heart beat close to mine
I thought our joy would fill the world
and would last till the end of time, my Love.
--Peter, Paul and Mary

Campbell and Reece, Chapter 42

In multicellular metazoan, need a vascular system (also in plants)
Circulation : Cardiovascular system
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.2
Open circulation Blood = interstitial fluid - hemolymph is term for blood - most molluscs and all arthropods have open circulation
hemocoel is the space where the blood is
- important in insects that gas transport (via air filled trachea) does not rely on circulation being closed
Closed circulation - annelids, cephalopods, echinoderms, vertebrates

Chambers of heart - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.3
Fish have 2 chambers (gills and body "wired" in series)
The "circuit" is "in series" - heart -> gills -> body -> back to heart
Amphibia and reptiles have 3 chambers (2 atria, 1 ventricle)
As long as blood does not fully mix, there is some separation of non-oxygenated blood to the pulmonary circulation and of oxygenated blood to the systemic circulation

Birds and mammals have 4 chambers which maintains better separation
TRANSPARENCY Figs. 42.4
note that right is drawn on left as if looking into the chest of a supine subject
pulmonary valve (semilunar) feeds pulmonary arteries
aortic valve (also semilunar) feeds aorta
valves snap shut from arterial back pressure at the end of systole to make second heart sound- "dub"

Here is the circuit: LA - LV - Arteries (aorta, etc.) (blood pressure taken here) - Arterioles (regulate blood flow to muscles, brain, digestion, kidneys and skin) - Capillaries (near, exchange, WBC's) - venules - veins (no pressure, valves)- RA - RV - Pulmonary arteries - Lung capillaries - Pulmonary veins -

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.8) artery is like hose, regulation of arteriole emptying into vascular bed, capillary is one layer of endothelial cells

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.10 - blood spreads out as it goes from arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries (top of figure) and hence moves slower (second part of figure). Pressure goes down during movement arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries (bottom). Blood moves slowly and with very little pressure in veins. Movement in veins is mostly passive with a series of valves and where contraction of skeletal muscles assists TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.9)

TRANSPARENCY 42.5 Heart, TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.6 cardiac cycle
superior and inferior vena cava feed right atrium -> ventricle via tricuspid (atrio-ventricular) valve
pulmonary veins feed left atrium -> ventricle via bicuspid (atrioventricular) valve
tricuspid & bicuspid snap shut at start of ventricular contraction to make first heart sound- "lub"
backslosh through valves - - heart murmurs

CO2 and O2 - hemoglobin (later in the respiration lecture)

Diastole (between heart beats), systole is during ventricular contraction, hence terms systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.11) close off artery, when it opens (systolic pressure), blood flow is turbulent and noisy, when it is always open (diastolic pressure), blood flow is no longer noisy
Blood pressure is measured in arteries arteries
hypertension 45 million Americans - salt intake is still debated, >140/95 high 140/70 normal
high diastolic is especially bad

Electrical - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.7 SA node (or electrical pacemaker) - spread - automatic
sympathetic nervous system speeds it up, parasympathetic nervous system slows it down

Heart attack - atherosclerosis (arteriosclerosis) (cholesterol, saturated fats) - coronary arteries myocardial infarction - coronary thrombosis - ischemia - bypass - fibrillation - CPR (keep brain alive, needs O2) - nitroglycerine - NO
1 million Americans die/yr reducing since 1971
bypass operations, replace coronary artery with vessel from somewhere else in the body, there are 100,000-200,000/yr operations - 30% may be unnecessary
LDL receptors take out cholesterol which otherwise deposits
HDL may lower deposition - excercise good for this

Myocardial cells not regenerate (by mitosis in the adult). This is why heart attack is so damaging. The same is true for the nerves in the central nervous system where similar damage is called stroke.

streptokinase thru catheter dissolve clot
tissue plasmogen activator dissolve vessel clots
catheter with balloon angioplasty

this page was last updated 1/30/03



The respiration lecture

RESPIRATION

Campbell and Reece Chap 42

Strategies:
no special organ system (flat worms - skin)
gills (fish, starfish, marine annelids, crayfish)
trachea (insects) (Fig. 42.22 in book) trachea give eyeglow in moths. In the TEM, it looks like a corrugated hose.
lungs and skin (frogs) Frog lungs are like balloons. have blood vessels
lungs

Passageways: TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.23)
Nasal - moisture (smell) sniffing
Pharynx - throat (nose, mouth) - (larynx, esophagus)
further down cilia sweep mucus, bacteria, dust up
(histology picture of cilia)
goes from pharynx to esophagus
smoking paralyses ciliary sweep
Vocal cords larynx (laryngitis) voice box
equal time to creationism : Adam's apple
trachea - rings of cartilage cilia
2 bronchi
(bronchitis)
asthma closes X-ray contrast technique shows structure
Model - broncheal tree
Alveoli 600 million in human 50 x skin area
here is a picture from our histology course showing how thin the cell layers of alveoli are
emphysema alveoli merge, smoking, muscular effort - hunch back
Air sacs close to capillaries
Rat lungs porous

artificial lung - heart lung machine in open heart surgery
plastic sack for exchange - different colors
O2 red blood - take out CO2

Cellular vs Organismal Respiration

TRANSPARENCY 42.27 mm Hg partial pressure
O2 hemoglobin in red blood cells (4 polypeptides, iron, heme)

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42 UN1 [after the questions])
"oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve" (relates to Fit. 42.28)
% oxygen saturation of hemoglobin as a function of partial pressure of oxygen
maternal hemoglobin will off-load hemoglobin to fetal hemoglobin
(the same would also apply to myoglobin in muscle)

CO2 bicarbonate, bound to hemoglobin, dissolved TRANSPARENCY 42.29
controls respiration through medulla - paralysis - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.26
hyperventillation -blow off CO2, but not really increase O2 much

Diaphragm TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.24 - works with negative pressure
rib cage - intercostal muscles TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.26 [again])

this page was last updated 1/30/03




The blood - immunology lectures

Blood and antibodies

Campbell and Reece
Chapter 43 - immune system
also look back at chap 42 for blood

I. Plasma - (serum lacks fibrinogen) fluids, nutrients, O2, CO2, ions
proteins (synthesized in liver except gamma globulins)(clotting)
Albumins
Globulins
Fibrinogen

II. Hematocrit TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.14)
Erythrocytes 5-6 million/ml
Leucocytes 5-10 thousand/ml
Platelets 250,000-400,000/ml from megacaryocytes
(antibodies) ions, wastes, hormones

Platelets 250,000/ml from megacaryocytes
Clotting Platelet adhesion then fibrin (from fibrinogen) TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.16)
Cascades
activated Hageman factor
prothrombin -> thrombin
fibrinogen ->fibrin
Hemophelia is famous disorder covered in Bio 104 genetic disease lecture.

Cells -

Red blood cells (corpuscles) (erythrocytes)
no nuclei
O2 transport, hemoglobin, anemia
last 120 days, made in marrow, recycled
iron recycling in liver is what makes feces dark (and skin yellow in jaundice [hepatitis]) - bile pigments

There are non-specific responses to injury

White blood cells (leucocytes as in leukemia)
Polymorphonuclear granulocytes (phagocytosis, etc)
neutrophil (60-70%) phagocytosis
here is a picture from our histology course of a neurtophil showing the complex nucleus
chemotaxis after 30-60 min
more synthesized especially in bacterial infection
reset thermostat (pyrogens)
eosinophil (1.5%) phagocytosis
allergic and parasitic inflamation
basophil (0.1%) histamine containing
like mast cells
Mononuclear cells
monocytes (5%) (as in mononucleosis) (phagocytosis)
late chemotaxis become macrophages
alveolar macrophages in lungs
Kupffer's cells in liver
lymphocytes:
T-cells (80%) (thymus - near heart) cell
(transplant) cytotoxic, suppressor, helper (AIDS)
B-cells (20%) (bone marrow, actually bursa of Fabricius) (become plasma cells)
antibodies

Triad redness, warmth, swelling
Histamine (from mast cells, platelets)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 43.5 Inflammation and phagocytosis

SLIDES: blood cells (SEM= scanning electron micrograph))
white blood cell engulfing bacterium (Light Micrograph)
same (SEM)
SLIDES macrophage eating E. coli
macrophage - asbestos
fibrin (2 slides)

There are specific responses to injury

Humoral immunity - B cells
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 43.4) lymph system and nodes
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 43.6) clones of plasma cells and memory cells derived from B cells for specific antigens

Interesting continued development through life of monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes from stem cells
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.15
note, the bone marrow which makes blood cells is mostly in the head and ribs, the two most likely locations for X-rays which are dangerous

Antigen (virus coat, usually not self)
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 43.14) Antigenic determinant (epitope)

monoclonal antibodies
get B lymphocytes and myeloma cells
get hybridoma cells
screen for hybridoma
select for clone making antibody

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 43.15)
Antibody [Tindependent (vs. dependent) antigens]
TRANSPARENCY Table 43.1
IgM pentamer, agglutinate
IgG most abundant, monomer, cross placenta
IgA dimer in secretions
IgD on B cells, antigen receptors
IgE allergy, bind to mast cells (histamine)

Rh factor
- mother and + fetus problem if blood crosses over (during delivery)
problem is next time since IgG crosses placenta
treat mother with antibodies (passive immunity) then she will not mount active immunity

Blood groups
Although This topic was covered last semester, it is fundamental and a bit confusing so some points are repeated here.
genotypes IA IA or IA i have phenotype A, A antigens, anti-B antibodies
genotypes IB IB or IB i have phenotype B, B antigens, anti-A antibodies
genotype IA IB has phenotype AB, A and B antigens, no antibodies
genotype ii has phenotype O, no antigens, antibodies to both A and B
O universal donor, AB universal recipient
There are already antibodies since blood group polysaccharides are like those of bacteria even though there was no previous exposure to antigens. IgM not cross placenta

Nonspecific defenses
Complement - 20 proteins - system vasodialtion phagocytosis
coat microorganisms, opsonization
interferon triggers synthesis of antiviral proteins
leukocytosis - inducing factor

Wrap up on humoral immunity TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 43.16)
agglutination, mark for phagocytosis, complement -> cell lysis
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 43.17 show complement better

T-cells
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 43.8 development of lymphocytes from marrow, thymus

TRANSPARENCY helper T cells [TH] (Fig. 43.11)
antigen presenting macrophage [T-dependent (vs. independent) antigens]

MHC major histocompatability complex 20 genes 50 alleles each
Class II MHC only on macrophages (and B lymphocytes)

cytokines - chemical signals from one cell to another
Interleukin-1
Interleukin-2

TRANSPARENCY 43.13 antigen presented by TH to B cell

TRANSPARENCY cytotoxic T cells [TC] (Fig. 43.12)
Class I MHC - actually on lots of cells (infected cells)
[try to match MHC (tissue typing) for transplantation]
Perforin

summary TRANSPARENCY Fig. 43.10

self vs nonself (auto)immunity
insulin dependent diabetes
rheumatic fever - streptococcal antibodies also to valves
Graves TSH receptors stim excess TH
Allergy
AIDs

Dr. Keath is SLU Biology department's immunologist, and she teaches BL A-463 "Foundations of Immunology"

this page was last updated 2/18/03



The excretion - homeostasis lectures

Excretion and homeostasis

Campbell aqnd Reece chapter 44 (there was some homeostasis in Chapter 40 too)

Consider the work of the kidneys
Artificial kidney 10 hr 2 times per week
This is why transplant important, and there is difficulty getting a compatable donor
Cell makes wastes go to plasma
heart pumps 7000 l/day (32 55 gal drums)
1/4 (8 55 gal drums) through kidneys
Glomerulus - Bowman's capsule 180 l/day filter
1 l urine/day

Osmoregulation (for ions)
Hypertonic (concentrated), isotonic, hypotonic (dilute)
Nitrogenous waste is from catabolism of amino acids and nucleotides
Water animals - nitrogenous waste can be ammonia (toxic)
TRANSPARENCY FIG. 44.13
There is a tradition in undergraduate biology to emphasize comparative aspects:
("nephron" is the term for "higher" organisms)
Protonephridia in flame-bulb system of planaria TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.18
Nephridiopores have flame bulb where cilia drive filtering through interdigitating cells
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.19 earthworm has nephrostome with nephridiopore in each segment in close juxtaposition with vascular system.
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.20 Malpighian tubule puts out uric acid and rectum recovers water and other molecules
In humans, mild accumulation of uric acid causes gout - crystals in joint cause inflammatory response which is treated by NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like prostaglandin inhibitors like indomethacin, ibuprophin while enzyme is inhibited by chronic treatment with allopurinol; genetically pathological uric acid accumulation which is Lesch-Nyhan syndome - children have bizarre self mutilation from HGPRTase (hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase) deficiency.
Marine invertebrates osmoconformers
fish 30-40% tonicity of sea water
Freshwater fish - gills leak water in, pump salt in, TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.14 dilute urine
Salt water fish, gills lose water- pump salt out through gills, not much urine
(When we get to neurons, we will see how universal ion pumping is.)
Salmon (which move from fresh to salt to fresh water) must adapt
Cartilagenous fish keep urea in blood for equal tonicity- need to dialyse meat for preparation
Marine birds - nasal salt gland

EXCRETION

Human TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 44.21)
kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra
Pelvis=basin; Medulla=marrow; Cortex=bark ("medulla" and "cortex" are terms used a lot, like in brain and in adrenal gland)
many blood vessels - kidney is supplied by major blood vessels
Renal artery and vein branches near eachother
each kidney has 1 million nephrons
Blood flow in glomeruli
Glomerulus - Bowman's capsule filter 180 l/day (throwing out the baby with the bath water)
blood and osmotic pressures drive
Glomerulus - capillaries a sieve
here is a picture from the histology course
another picture highlights glomerulus by dye injected into artery
large molecules dye do not pass
- small molecules dye passes through
blood proteins and cells do not pass
Small molecule dye in blood to tubules
Need for resorption TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.22
Proximal Convvoluted tubule - bring back amino acids, glucose note active (NaCl) vs passive (water) transport
Inject dye with micropipette - show salt solution is resorbed
Na pump
6% of body's energy at rest
Countercurrant system
Ascending loop - salt resorbed but not water TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 44.23)
Ascending loop of Henle - salt outward resorption is stimulated by aldosterone
ADH (vasopressin) makes water follow back into interstitial fluid which is hypertonic from salt
alcohol and caffeine inhibit ADH, hence diuresis (excessive urination)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.21 a - regulation of ADH (from hypothalamus to pituitary) and relation to thirst
hormonal control
TRANSPARENCY FIG. 44.21 b low blood pressure -> JGA (juxtaglomerular apparatus) makes renin which causes Angiotensinogen (liver) -> angiotensin II- closes arterioles
stimulates aldosterone
(remember that that adrenal cortex hormone control not mentioned earlier)
High blood pressure ->atrial natriuretic protein ->(-) aldosterone and renin

Filter, resorb (salt and water)
Sweat pores not as good -which is why gatorade tastes good to athletes
especially bad in cystic fibrosis (salty sweat) molecular genetics shows a chloride channel defect
Kidney also secretes - pump out (penicillin)

Kangaroo rat - metabolic water, hypertonic urine
Uric acid (birds, reptiles, insects)
of course, skin prevents water loss
more exoskeleton, insect preadaptation to land also trehalose hold or act like water

Homeostasis (regulation)
Food
Water
Body temperature set-point in hypothalamus
Sex hormones

Temp. Heat is what changes temperature
1 calorie raises temperature of 1 ml of water 1 degree C
(the "calories you "count" in a diet are kcal's)
conduction convection radiation evaporation
540 cal pant, sweat, saliva spread insensible water loss
Ectotherms (behavioral regulation like snake in sun)
Endotherms 98.6oF = 37oC
metabolic needs of small animals like hummingbirds
camels - allow to change 34-40
evaporation dog panting, sweating
reset in fever (pyrogens, antipyretics) or hibernation
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.10
Produce shiver, metabolism (thyroxine, epinephrine)
Reg. loss: Arrector pili, vasoconstr, blubber
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 44.6) role of skin

this page was last updated 2/18/03



Excretion and homeostasis

Campbell aqnd Reece chapter 44 (there was some homeostasis in Chapter 40 too)

Consider the work of the kidneys
Artificial kidney 10 hr 2 times per week
This is why transplant important, and there is difficulty getting a compatable donor
Cell makes wastes go to plasma
heart pumps 7000 l/day (32 55 gal drums)
1/4 (8 55 gal drums) through kidneys
Glomerulus - Bowman's capsule 180 l/day filter
1 l urine/day

Osmoregulation (for ions)
Hypertonic (concentrated), isotonic, hypotonic (dilute)
Nitrogenous waste is from catabolism of amino acids and nucleotides
Water animals - nitrogenous waste can be ammonia (toxic)
TRANSPARENCY FIG. 44.13
There is a tradition in undergraduate biology to emphasize comparative aspects:
("nephron" is the term for "higher" organisms)
Protonephridia in flame-bulb system of planaria TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.18
Nephridiopores have flame bulb where cilia drive filtering through interdigitating cells
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.19 earthworm has nephrostome with nephridiopore in each segment in close juxtaposition with vascular system.
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.20 Malpighian tubule puts out uric acid and rectum recovers water and other molecules
In humans, mild accumulation of uric acid causes gout - crystals in joint cause inflammatory response which is treated by NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like prostaglandin inhibitors like indomethacin, ibuprophin while enzyme is inhibited by chronic treatment with allopurinol; genetically pathological uric acid accumulation which is Lesch-Nyhan syndome - children have bizarre self mutilation from HGPRTase (hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase) deficiency.
Marine invertebrates osmoconformers
fish 30-40% tonicity of sea water
Freshwater fish - gills leak water in, pump salt in, TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.14 dilute urine
Salt water fish, gills lose water- pump salt out through gills, not much urine
(When we get to neurons, we will see how universal ion pumping is.)
Salmon (which move from fresh to salt to fresh water) must adapt
Cartilagenous fish keep urea in blood for equal tonicity- need to dialyse meat for preparation
Marine birds - nasal salt gland

EXCRETION

Human TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 44.21)
kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra
Pelvis=basin; Medulla=marrow; Cortex=bark ("medulla" and "cortex" are terms used a lot, like in brain and in adrenal gland)
many blood vessels - kidney is supplied by major blood vessels
Renal artery and vein branches near eachother
each kidney has 1 million nephrons
Blood flow in glomeruli
Glomerulus - Bowman's capsule filter 180 l/day (throwing out the baby with the bath water)
blood and osmotic pressures drive
Glomerulus - capillaries a sieve
here is a picture from the histology course
another picture highlights glomerulus by dye injected into artery
large molecules dye do not pass
- small molecules dye passes through
blood proteins and cells do not pass
Small molecule dye in blood to tubules
Need for resorption TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.22
Proximal Convvoluted tubule - bring back amino acids, glucose note active (NaCl) vs passive (water) transport
Inject dye with micropipette - show salt solution is resorbed
Na pump
6% of body's energy at rest
Countercurrant system
Ascending loop - salt resorbed but not water TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 44.23)
Ascending loop of Henle - salt outward resorption is stimulated by aldosterone
ADH (vasopressin) makes water follow back into interstitial fluid which is hypertonic from salt
alcohol and caffeine inhibit ADH, hence diuresis (excessive urination)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.21 a - regulation of ADH (from hypothalamus to pituitary) and relation to thirst
hormonal control
TRANSPARENCY FIG. 44.21 b low blood pressure -> JGA (juxtaglomerular apparatus) makes renin which causes Angiotensinogen (liver) -> angiotensin II- closes arterioles
stimulates aldosterone
(remember that that adrenal cortex hormone control not mentioned earlier)
High blood pressure ->atrial natriuretic protein ->(-) aldosterone and renin

Filter, resorb (salt and water)
Sweat pores not as good -which is why gatorade tastes good to athletes
especially bad in cystic fibrosis (salty sweat) molecular genetics shows a chloride channel defect
Kidney also secretes - pump out (penicillin)

Kangaroo rat - metabolic water, hypertonic urine
Uric acid (birds, reptiles, insects)
of course, skin prevents water loss
more exoskeleton, insect preadaptation to land also trehalose hold or act like water

Homeostasis (regulation)
Food
Water
Body temperature set-point in hypothalamus
Sex hormones

Temp. Heat is what changes temperature
1 calorie raises temperature of 1 ml of water 1 degree C
(the "calories you "count" in a diet are kcal's)
conduction convection radiation evaporation
540 cal pant, sweat, saliva spread insensible water loss
Ectotherms (behavioral regulation like snake in sun)
Endotherms 98.6oF = 37oC
metabolic needs of small animals like hummingbirds
camels - allow to change 34-40
evaporation dog panting, sweating
reset in fever (pyrogens, antipyretics) or hibernation
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 44.10
Produce shiver, metabolism (thyroxine, epinephrine)
Reg. loss: Arrector pili, vasoconstr, blubber
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 44.6) role of skin

this page was last updated 2/18/03



The hormone lectures

Hormones

"In the year 6565, ain't gonna need no husband, won't need no wife.
You'll pick your son, pick your daughter too
from the bottom of a long glass tube.
Woh - woh."
-Rick Evans (Zager and Evans), Zerland Music, 1969
In the Year 2525 (Exordium & Terminus)


Campbell and Reece Chapter 45 and part of 46

Metazoans (with more cells than protozoans) require systems of integration
INTEGRATION: Hormones, paracrine (local) & nervous system
"endocrine" - ductless, into blood stream
vs. exocrine (like digestive - saliva etc.)
hormones vs pheromones (intraspecific signalling molecules)
RELEASE - cells with blood vessels
Messenger, target cell
TRANSPARENCY from another book
(1) receptor molecule + second messenger (e.g. cAMP)
or (2) action on DNA steroids enter cell act on DNA

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 45.3 - your textbook's version of this same dichotomy of mechamisms
structures of steroids TRANSPARENCY Fig. 45.14
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 4.8) [covered last semester]
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 5-14) cholesterol
Steroid receptor (protein) TRANSPARENCY from another book - domains: gene activating, DNA binding and steroid binding

peptides protein, steroids

prostaglandins (mediators of inflammation) are derived from fatty acid (arachidonic acid, 20:4)
NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammtory drugs) aspirin, ibuprofen, Celebrex, Vioxx inhibit prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX-1, 2, 3)

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 45.6a Hypothalamus neurosecretion to posterior pituitary (peptides)
oxytocin (milk, delivery)
(synthetic to induce labor)
Fig. 44.24 from book to show ADH action on kidney
vasopressin (ADH), H2O and blood pressure
alcohol, caffein inhibit anti [diuresis] hormone

Master gland TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 45.5) to show glands controlled by pituitary (thyroid, adrenals, ovary, testes)
Some are not controlled by pituitary (pancreas, parathyroid)
TRANSPARENCY (back to Fig. 45.6b) to show portal system etc.
Hypothalamus to anterior pituitary through portal system (peptides)
releasing factors
inhibiting factors

PITUITARY

non-trophic hormones (not where pituitary acts as master gland to control other glands)
Anterior pituitary Fig. 45.7b
GH - 200 a.a. -bone, muscle, not fat, -> liver to make somatomedins
GH - gigantism (bones grow long if too much GH when young), dwarfism (if too little GH when young), acromegaly (bones grow too thick if too much GH when already grown up, danger of GH abuse)
abuse by body builders, dangers of extracts,
now available through recombinant DNA research

Prolactin - milk production, like GH (same ancestral gene)

Endorphins & Enkephalins (not trophic, thus here in outline, but covered more later)

So much for pituitary as its own gland
Now pituitary as master gland of the body

Trophic hormones (like gonadotropins) "Master Gland"
sex hormones from pituitary (more details later):
LH (female) = ICSH (male); (luteinizing) (interstitial cell)
FSH (follicle)
non-sex trophic hormones from pituitary:
TSH (thyroid)
ACTH (adrenal cortex)

Thyroid hormones TRANSPARENCY Fig. 45.8 to show negative feedback with pituitary
Hypothalamus -TRF-> + Ant. Pituit. -TSH->+ Thyroid -> thyroxine-
- neck thyroxin (T4), triiodothyroxine (T3) iodine, sea food (and iodized salt), goiter (thyroid overgrows if too little iodine in diet) SLIDE
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 45.7) T4 and T3
cretinism if too little in infant, hypothyroid, hyperthyroid
change in salmon during salt to fresh water change, metamorphosis in frog
problem of radioactive iodine (like from reactor leaks) - helps to take large doses of non-radioactive iodine to compete

Adrenal gland TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 45.14)
Adrenal cortex - Glucocorticoids stimulate metabolism, inhibits inflamation
JFKennedy had too little glucocorticoids (needed replacement therapy) which would create a situation of no feedback Addison's - too much ACTH (darkens skin like MSH)
pro-opiomelanocortin - big peptide cleaved to ACTH, MSH, endorphins, enkephalins
Emphasize regulation, negative feedback
Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone
to retain salt
adrenalectomy - salt appetite gatorade salt in cystic fibrosis

now we get off of the topic of hormones regulated by the pituitary

while on the topic of the adrenal gland,
Adrenal medulla (vs cortex under pituitary control)- Epinephrine, adrenalin - activates body
Autonomic vs voluntary motor control sympathetic parasympathetic
sympathetic n.s. norepinephrine
sympathetic - "fight or flight"
helps in metabolism to release glucose to blood stream
muscles activity up, peripheral circulation and digestion inhibited
heart rate goes up

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 45.10
In pancreas, which is largely a digestive exocrine gland, there are also islets of Langerhans (as shown in this picture from our histology course) which are the endocrine glands where the beta cells make insulin and the alpha cells make glucagon
Pancreas Insulin- sugar uptake into cells (blood sugar down), make glycogen in liver
2 peptides clipped from one chain held by disulfide bonds

Diabetes mellitus
Type 1 autoimmune disease beta cells are destroyed, young people, insulin dependent
inject insulin. protein, must inject
(vs steroid like "the pill" which can be taken orally)
Type 2, older people, genetic, correlated with overweight, non-insulin dependent
sugar in urine- can't pump back
Eye problems (too many new blood vessels - angiogenesis) and cardiovascular problems
Brain is not insulin-dependent - coma from too much insulin because no glucose for brain
Glucagon mobilize sugar to blood like adrenalin
sugar regulates insulin and glucagon

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 45.9) (see also Fig. 45.1)
Thyroid 2 glands (pituit - thyroxine TSH) vs:
Thyroid - thyrocalcitonin - blood Ca2+ down
Parathyroid - parathormone - blood Ca2+ up (from bones)
near thyroid gland in neck
Vitamin D sunlight, rickets, fish oil, hormone, absorption from gut
Osteoporosis - bone deterioration with age especially in women
Ca2+ very important, muscle (later), nerve (later)

Insect hormones TRANSPARENCY Fig. 45.2
Brain hormone via corpus cardiacum causes prothoracic gland to release ecdysone
Corpus allatum releases juvenile hormone

The sex hormones

Female reproductive cycle good example of Regulation, Negative feedback
CHAULKBOARD DIAGRAM (simultaneously show TRANSPARENCY Fig. 46.15
Hypothalamus - RF's (peptides)
(chaulkboard diagram is also here, peptides in black, steroids in red)
Pituitary makes peptide hormones "gonado-trophic hormones" (gonadotropins, FSH and LH)
gonads (ovaries) make steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
Feedback system plus effects on endometrium (lining of uterus)

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates estrogen release from follicle
estrogen inhibits FSH
estrogen turns on LH (lutenizing hormone) release
estrogen begins buildup of endometrium
surge of LH causes ovulation
then follicle becomes corpus luteum that puts out progesterone
progesterone inhibits LH and FSH
progesterone also stimulates buildup of endometrium
to finish cycle, low FSH & LH which lets estrogen and progesterone go down
(corpus luteum starts to go away)
with low estrogen and progesterone, endometrium breaks down (menstruation)
with low estrogen and progesterone, pituitary is not inhibited so FSH starts
(if pregnant, HCG [human corionic gonadotropin] maintains corpus luteum
progesterone (from maintained corpus luteum) maintains endometrium
Here is a primary follicle, a growing follicle, the mature follicle, and the corpus luteum from our histology course.

Human corionic gonadotropin
Menstruation in primates
Estrus cycle - dogs heat 2x/yr, cats 3x/yr
Rabbits reflex ovulators
Pill Progesterone and Estrogen inhibit ovulation
28 day pill 7 duds: 1st 4 days, last 3
"combination pill"
Weight gain, circulation problems
lower proportion of estrogen
Rhythm - sperm viable 48 hr, ovum 15 hr: 3-4 day abstinance

The male pattern TRANSPARENCY Fig. 46.14
FSH for spermatogenesis
LH (ICSH) to stimulate interstitial cells to release testosterone

The Biology department's primary expert on endocrinology is Dr. Asa who is director of research at the St. Louis Zoo. As an adjunct Professor in SLU's Biology department, she teaches the popular course, "Introductory Endocrinology" BL A450-01

this page was last updated 2/20/03




The animal reproduction - development lectures

Animal Reproduction and development

From speech of Aristophanes:

...The sexes were not as they are now...the primeval man...had four hands and four feet, one head with two faces...Terrible was their might and strength...and they made an attack upon the gods...Zeus...said: "Methinks I have a plan which will humble their pride and improve their manners; men will continue to exist, but I will cut them in two...After the division of the two parts of man, each desiring his other half, came together, and throwing their arms about one another, entwined in mutual embraces, longing to grow into one...

Plato Symposium


Reproduction

Campbell and Reece Chap. 46 (also 47)

MATING SLIDES
Annelid-hermaphrodite
Chambered nautilus
Helix - land snail
Squid
Grasshopper
Hercules beetle
Fly
in Drosophila genetic crosses, males are sometimes identified by tarsal claw on front leg
African fighting fish Betta splendens- (spawning - external)
Grunion
Frog - external
Turtle
Penguin
Giraffe
Rabbit
Rhinoceros
Human (cartoon)

Parthenogenesis - egg develops without being fertilized
pseudosex in parthenogenetic lizards
Hermaphrodite - each have both
sequential hermaphroditism sex reversal in fish

MALE

Testes - seminiferous tubules - FSH
Interstitial cells, testosterone - ICSH = LH
(histology picture)

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 46.11)
Spermatogonia (mitosis and meiosis) - primary spermatocytes
- meiosis (both divisions) - spermatids (scrotum cooler)
Sperm (meioses throughout adult life) Seminiferous tubules
300 million/ ejaculation
Many attack one egg, only one fertilizes - fast (electrical) response
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 46.12)
acrosome, nucleus, mitochondria (not go into egg), flagellum
/
Epididymis TRANSPARENCY 46.8 a and b (graphic)
/
Vas deferens - peristalsis -(vasectomy 100% effective- permanent long term effects unknown)

Semen:
/Bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland (early overflow from sexual excitement)
/Seminal vesicle - fructose, amino acids, mucus, prostaglandins (uterine contractions)
/Prostate - alkaline (infection, cancer most men > 50)
Urethra (condom)
Capacitation of sperm

Parasympathetic arterioles (unique, usu only symp.) - erection (sleep)
ACh - NO - smooth muscle dilate- viagra blocks breakdown enzyme
NO synthase in cavernous artery and corpus cavernosum
1998 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine is for NO to: ROBERT F. FURCHGOTT, LOUIS J. IGNARRO and FERID MURAD
Here is a picture from our histology course showing the spongy tissue of the corpus cavernosum which becomes engorged with blood to mediate erection.
rodents racoons walruses - bone
Sympathetic - ejaculation inhib erection

FEMALE

"eggs" ->
TRANSPARENCY (FIG. 46.13 a & b) Primary oocyte (2-4 million at birth, 1st meiotic prophase)
(400,000 at puberty, only 400 used)
(no oogonia after 3 mo)
/
Secondary oocyte + polar body
(Graffian follicle finish 1st meiosis) ovulation
if 2 ovulations - DZT - 2 amnions, 2 chorions
twins 1.2% of births, of these 70% "fraternal"
DZT run in family
/
Summary: Many sperm attach, one penetrates
Final meiosis then
Division in Fallopian tubes
Hollow out - outer=placenta; inner=embryo
Implant

Fallopian tube (fimbria capture ovulated egg - Sperm meets, 2nd meiosis makes ootid 3 polar bodies discarded nucleii
ootid becomes ovum - fertilization
When sperm meets, quite complex
acrosomal and cortical reaction TRANSPARENCY Fig. 47.2
fast events to block polyspermy
(prim cyte - 2nd cyte - ootid - ovum - fertilization)
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 46.9 a and b) (graphic)

cleavage divide but skip growth (G1 & G2 of cell cycle)
TRANSPARENCY FIG. 46.16

Mammal TRANSPARENCY 47.15
Blastocyst (trophoblast, blastocoel, inner cell mass)
(trophoblast - chorion - placenta)
(inner cell mass - embryo - fetus)
Inner cell mass
if divide, MZT (2 amnions, 1 chorion), 30% of twins
Tubal ligation (laparoscopy) 100% effective. Reverse?
/
Uterus - trophoblast implants becomes chorion -
(recall endometrium thick from estrogen and progesterone)
make HCG 2 wks - 4 mo (pregnancy test)
to maintain corpus luteum
(later placenta TRANSPARENCY Fig. 46.17)
IUD prevent implantation, irritate, after previous child, not for everybody legal question
/
Cervix (diaphragm, cervical caps, foam, spermicidal jelly)
/
Vagina
/
External genitals = vulva (labia, clitoris)

EARLY DEVELOPMENT

Trophoblast - placenta - exchange
diseases like rubella
alcohol, drugs
Chorionic villus biopsy
Membranes - amnion - amniocentesis

Immunology - why not "paternal antigens"?
maybe antigens not expressed
maybe a suppressor cell that blocks interleukin-2
must have initial immune resp.; if antigens too close, infertility

2 sexes from 1 primordium
H-Y antigen = testes differentiating factor, then testosterone alters development, female pattern is the default pathway, clitoris is equivalent of penis

Trimesters embryo becomes fetus
Birth - heart shunts disappear

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 46.20) delivery
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 46.19) oxytocin, prostaglandins
LABOR AND DELIVERY SLIDES
formerly use sedatives, father in waiting room
classes, "natural" delivery
Mucus plug falls out ("water" [amnionic fluid] "break)
Labor room contractions oxytocin (pitocin drip)
Cervix effaces dilate 4-10 cm (labor) obstetrician palpates
Paracervical, Epidural, (Tranquillizers)
Delivery - push
Spinal
Episiotomy
face down normal, face up harder, breech difficult
Afterbirth
Umbilicle cord

Slides

SLIDES
condom - good in that it prevents STD, brands- natural skin not effective for virus - synthetic ruber material is greatly weakened with any oil based lubricants
pills - good example for understanding hormonal control of cycle
--steroids build up endometrium and inhibit FSH & LH
diaphragm, caps
IUD - prevent implant, after child, irritate

The A word
Con- value of life and life begins at conception- Catholic
Pro - prevent quacks, rape, incest, danger to mother
Abortion laws
1970's most states prohibited except e.g. mother's health
(go to other countries or back alleys)
Roe vs. Wade -1973 Supreme Court, States can't prohibit 1st 3 mo if O.K. w/ MD
extreme controversy continues

Dave Barry Babies & other Hazards of sex, Rodale Press, Emmaus PA, 1984 - When I was a teenage male, it was very difficult to obtain condoms, because you had to buy them at the drugstore from the Condom Lady, who was about 65 and looked like your grandmother only more moral. She had a photographic memory so she knew exactly who you were, and as soon as you left the store, she would dial a special number that would connect her with a gigantic loudspeaker system so she could announce to your parents and your teachers and everybody in your church or synagogue and people on the street that you had just bought condoms. Now they sell condoms right out in the open on display racks, just like breath mints or something, and the Condom Lady has switched over to selling Penthouse magazine to middle-aged businessmen at the airport.

DEVELOPMENT SLIDES
Seminiferous tubules
sperm
sperm and ovum
marsupials
5 wk
tail early to 3 mo (and gills)
ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
3 mo 3 inches 1 oz

Animal development

Chapter is descriptive (histology. Just like when I was in college)
Also convey search for general principles

All cells have all genes, only some genes are expressed in differentiated cell- first cell is pluripotent
certain mechanisms must limit the number of genes expressed

Histology
remember TRANSPARENCY Fig. 32.7
Protostome (molluscs, annelids, arthropods)- spiral cleavage
Deuterostome(lophophores, echinoderms, chordates)- radial cleavage
Folding -
Protostome - first is mouth
Deuterostome - first is anus

studies of amphioxis (lancet - look back to Chap. 34)
zygote->blastomeres->morula->blastula (with blastocoel)
->gastrulation->gastrula with blastopore and archenteron (deuterostome)

Gastrulation in frog TRANSPARENCY Fig. 47.10
Ectoderm - skin, nerves
Mesoderm - bones, muscle, organs
Endoderm - guts, lungs
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 47.22) Spemann organizer - dorsal lip induces notocord and neural tube
transplant can make double embryo
Organogenesis in frog TRANSPARENCY Fig. 47.11
Notochord
Neural tube
Somites

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 47.24)
limb bud transplantation, zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)
indicates posterior positional information
has important molecules like sonic hedgehog (SHH), as does notocord
add an extra ZPA, get 2 posteriors
SHH can substiture
[also ZPA has morphogens like retinoic acid (which works like a steroid hormone)]

ultimately, exquisite, but general, cell to cell signalling yields final cellular identity
"American plan" - neighbors communicate and induce to determine
vs. the "European plan" - TRANSPARANCY 47.20b - lineage
very important in roundworm C. elegans
also there is programmed cell death - planned senescence - apoptosis

Fate maps - Vogt, embryo vital (nontoxic) dyes to see which cells become what

SLU's Biology Department has several faculty members who concentrate on developmental biology and embryology, including Dr. Schreiweis, Dr. Medoff and Dr. Coulter and there is an embryology course is on the web.

this page was last updated 2/25/03



The nervous system lectures

NERVOUS SYSTEM

On womens' history month (March), remembering Dian Fossey, known for studies of gorillas, conservation efforts, and confrontation with poachers. She was murdered on Dec. 26, 1985.

Campbell and Reece Chapter 48
There is considerable interest at the organismal level (later in this chapter), but this lecture will start with cell physiology

Since metazoans have division of labor (with different organs), there must be a means of integration:
(1) hormones (covered already); and
(2) nervous system
hormones are wasteful since not all cells are target
N.S. more discreet

100,000,000,000 (100 billion) neurons (many connections [synapses])
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.13 b lots of connections per cell

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.1 - stimulus -> organism -> response
Energy-(Receptor-Nervous System-Muscle, Gland)-Effect

Lots of cell types - Golgi technique shows all the detail of the processes and branches of the cell
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.4

TYPICAL CELL-spinal motor neuron TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 48.2)
The cell has a nucleus but there is no mitosis (in the adult mammalian CNS = brain & spinal cord).
But, of course, the nucleus orchestrates protein synthesis which is especially important in such an elaborate cell.
Dendrite, soma, axon, synapse, vesicle - integration of information
The giant axon of the squid has been especially useful in research as to how axons quickly carry electrical potential changes over substantial distances

Membrane review - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 5.12 phospholipids
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 8.6 membrane fluid mosaic of lipids and proteins

measuring potentials with electrodes
The oscilloscope (computer), alternatively the polygraph, is a means of measuring voltage as a function of time.
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 48.6 a) Voltage is potential difference (-70 mV inside negative), and think of "potential" in the physics sense as "potential energy" for now.

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.7
Na+ is relatively concentrated outside the cell
K+ is relatively more concentrated inside the cell
Energy (delivered by ATP) pumps these ions TRANSPARENCY Fig. 8.15
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 44.12) salt pumping was important in osmoregulation; this reminder is that marine (salt water) birds pump out salt through nasal gland.

The imbalance of potassium through the membrane which is selectively permeable to K+ creates the Resting potential -70 mV (inside negative)
Basically, all cells, not just nerve cells, have such a potential
Receptors make little potentials called generator potentials
Synapses (cell connections) make small potentials which are graded potentials
Nerve and muscle are "excitable" (responsive, a basic property of life), and, in particular, they generate big all-or-none potentials called action potentials or spikes which travel down axons real fast.
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.9
Na+ permeability increases - action potential (spike)
Channels open and close
all-or-none - binary code +55 mV

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.10
action potential triggers the action potential ahead of it on the axon, thus it propagates
there is a refractory period - moves one way -
think of a fuse as an analogy

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.11 - Myelin speeds up action potential to 120 m/s = 269 mph
(slower than light or electricity, but adequate considering body size)
think of sticks of dynamite set at distances each setting each other off rather than a slow fuse
Polio damages myelin in peripheral nervous system
Multiple sclerosis (Anette Funicello, Montell Williams, Richard Prior) damages myelin in the central nervous system
Schwann cell makes myelin in thePNS
Oligodendrocyte makes myelin in the CNS

Neurochemistry

Axons carry all or none spikes - binary code of n.s.
vs. Synapse (and receptors) -graded potentials- excitation and inhibition are then integrated.
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.12 of vesicles and synapse
Receptor molecules- very important- here the receptor is a channel, but there are receptors which work like the membrane receptors for hormones which work through a second messenger system.
Ca2+ comes in to trigger synaptic vesicle release blocked by botulism
(Ca2+ is very important, recall there are 3 hormones, parathormone, thyrocalcitonin and vitamin D to regulate calcium)
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 48.13 a) [again] there are excitatory and inhibitory synapses
Here's how they work
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.14
EPSP=excitatory postsynaptic potential, IPSP= inhibitory postsynaptic potential

TRANSPARENCY TABLE 48.1
Transmitters: (like hormones, more discreet) amines, peptides
also amino acids, nucleotides, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide
Synthesis, breakdown, reuptake, diffusion

For instance, look back to the hormone chapter (TRANSPARENCY Fig. 45.12) to show synthesis of norepinephrine (noradrenalin) and epinephrine (adrenalin) from the amino acid tyrosine. Note that there are some steps missing in this diagram (tyrosine -> l-DOPA -> dopamine -> norepinephrine -> epinephrine), though the chemical formulas are correct and informative.

Transmitter, location -drug (disease)
Acetylcholine (parasympathetic nervous system, muscle) atropine blocks, nicotine stimulates, organophosphates (nerve gas) blocks break down
Noradrenalin (sympathetic nervous system), caffeine & amphetamine (speed) potentiate
Dopamine (Parkinsons**, Schizophrenia)
Serotonin - LSD, Prozac used for depression, the "soma" (Aldus Huxley - Brave new world) of psychiatry
Glutamate (amino acid used in brain) (Toxicity from over stimulation)
Gamma amino butyric acid (an unuaual amino acid) - inhibitory
Endorphins, Enkephalins (peptide) opiates*
? cannabis
NO nitric oxide

*opium, poppy, morphine, codeine, heroin, narcotic analgesics,
strategy of look for receptors, what is "endogenous" transmitter

**a common health problem usually affecting people over 50, usually not genetic, causes tremor, lose emotion (affect), stone (expressionless) face, Mohammed Ali, Michael J. Fox, Pope

Organization of the nervous system


stimulus - response TRANSPARENCY to show reflexes like the knee-jerk reflex (Fig. 48.3)
Reflex arc- synaptic delay
Gray- cells, synapses; White-myelinated axons
reflex overseen by volition
afferent - toward the CNS, efferent- away from the CNS

Vertebrate CNS (brain and spinal cord)
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 48.19 c)
- PNS - Sensory
Motor systems- Somatic for Striated (Skeletal) muscle
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.18 Autonomic (for smooth muscle and glands) - Sympathetic Parasympathetic (Details are discussed extensively)
TRANSPARENCY Neural crest cell -> sympathetic neuron and adrenal medulla cell (shows developmentally the obvious functional relatedness of sympathetic neurons and adrenalin secreting hormonal cells)

Here is a good place for TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.17 - peripheral n.s. has sensory and motor portions. Motor has somatic and autonomic. Autonomic has sympathetic and parasympathetic.

Brain function (these statements will be oversimplifications)
back to TRANSPARENCY 48.19 d
medulla - fundamental functions like respiration
cerebellum - motor control
hypothalamus - motivation
thalamus - relay for sensory signals
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.27 - limbic system - smell, emotion, learning, very complex
cerebral cortex TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.24
localization of function- like motor, vision, audition, speech

Review of some fundmental points:
Brain - O2 dependence (CPR)
glucose dependence (insulin shock)
no mitoses (why stroke is so damaging)

In finishing, let me get a little philosophical:

Scientists tend to be somewhat reductionistic (emphasizing a "nothing but" attitude) and mechanistic (describing mechanisms from molecular to cellular). At the other extreme, holism contends that the whole is more than the sum of the parts. While the components are awesome, the richness of human experience would seem to be more than just a lot of sodium channels. In general, the human beings that live inside scientists' brains sometimes believe in something more, but many of them do not express their convictions with much eloquence. One exception in my opinion is Roger Sperry who won a Nobel Prize in Physiology and Mecicine in 1981 for "functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres," but who also wrote some papers on the mind-brain and on free will. In explaining how phenomena may not be entirely explained by the simple physical laws, he espouses a philosophy of somewhat like holism in which "emergent properties," still lawful but beyond laws like conservation of momentum come about as more complex organisms evolve:

A fundamental premise of materialistic science holds that a complete explanation of brain function is possible in purely objective physiological and biophysical terms.

In other words, in the world view of materialist science, real mental freedom to act and choose is only an illusion, and the whole value-rich world of inner subjective experience gets set aside as some kind of passive, impotent by-product, an epiphenomenal correlate, or just an interior aspect of the one prime material brain process.

The resultant view of human nature and the kinds of values that emerge are hardly uplifting.

All of us would prefer to think that we are more than mere puppets of environmental reinforcement and our brain's physiology and that the inner experience we live with most of our waking life is something real and of some material consequence.

At stake are central key concepts that directly involve fundamental convictions regarding the nature of man's inner being, physical reality, the meaning of existence, and related matters of ultimate concern.

...recall that a molecule in many respects is the master of its inner atoms and electrons. The latter are hauled and forced about in chemical interactions by the overall configurational properties of the whole molecule. At the same time, if our given molecule is itself part of a single-celled organism such as paramecium, it in turn is obliged, with all its parts and partners, to follow along a trail of events in time and space determined largely by the extrinsic overall dynamics of Paramecium caudatum. When it comes to brains, remember that the simpler electric, atomic, molecular, and cellular forces and laws, though still present and operating, have been superceded by the configurational forces of higher-level mechanisms. At the top, in the human brain, these include the powers of perception, cognition, reason, judgment, and the like, the operational, causal effects and forces of which are equally or more potentent in brain dynamics than are the outclassed inner chemical forces.

Evolution keeps complicating the universe by adding new phenomena that have new properties and new forces that are regulated by new scientific principles and new scientific laws--all for future scientists in their respective disciplines to discover and formulate. Note also that the old simple laws and primeval forces of the hydrogen age never get lost or cancelled in the process of compounding the compounds. They do, however, get superceded, overwhelmed, and outclassed by the higher-level forces as these successively appear at the atomic, the molecular and the cellular and higher levels.

References:

Mind-brain interaction: mentalism, yes; dualism, no Neuroscience 5, 195-206, 1980
Changing concepts of consciousness and free will Perspectives in Biology and
Medicine 20, 1976, 9-19
Changing priorities Ann Rev. Neurosci, 4, 1-15, 1981

Neuroscience at SLU is centered in Medical school departments of Anatomy and Neurobiology and Pharmacology-Physiology. I teach a Neuro course in Biology. Dr. Anch in Psychology teaches 4 courses in physiological psychology relevant to Neuroscience, PSY-A415-01: Science of Sleep, PSY-A513-01: Advanced Physiological Psychology, PSY-A413-01: Physiological Psychology, and PSY-A414-01: Drugs and Behavior. Dr. Churchill in Psychology is also a neuroscientist, and he teaches PSYA669-03 (Psychopharmacology). Dr. Spaziano's CH-A445 Principles of Medicinal Chemistry is also somewhat relevant to this topic. There is a philosophy professor, Dr. Terzis, who teaches a relevant course PL A-482-01 "Biology and Mind" which is relevant to this topic.

this page was last updated 3/28/03



The sensory lecture

SENSORY

...taste, being the lowest or least intellectual of our five senses, is incapable of registering impressions on the mind;consequently, we cannot recall or recover vanished flavours as we can recover, and mentally see and hear, long-past sights and sounds. Smells, too, when we cease smelling, vanish and return not...

W. H. Hudson, Far Away and Long Ago, 1918


Many years ago, I enjoyed reading a book, The magic of the senses, V. B. Droscher, E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. New York, 1969 (and that is how I like to think of this material)

Campbell first half of Chap. 49

In the framework of Stimulus - NS - Response, we covered NS=nervous system, now how stimuli are perceived by senses, after that, how muscles generate responses

Transduction is the way an energy gets turned into a nerve cell potential
Modalities refer to the different senses like seeing vs. hearing
There are Receptors (cells) for various Stimulus energies

5 (special) senses Taste, smell, touch, hearing & seeing (the order in which I will cover this material)

Taste [for human, on tongue mostly] - Gustation - chemicals - water -salt, sour, bitter, sweet
Several types of papilla including the circumvallate papillae on the back of the tongue, shown in this picture from our histology course
Within each papilla are numerous clusters of cells called taste buds shown in this histology picture.
How does chemoreception work?
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 49.2) cells are excited by receptor proteins and increase transmitter release.
There are (1) ion channels and (2) molecules like rhodopsin (and neurotransmitter receptors)
Our notion that taste is richer than that is because smell mediates much of what we call taste.

Taste is mediated in the fly by "hairs" (setae) on body and labellum Fig. 49.23 TRANSPARENCY
There are cells which respond preferentially to attractants like sugar and repellants like salt
VGDethier, To know a fly, San Francisco, Holden-Day, 1962

Smell- Olfaction chemicals (air) - Complex (unusual primaries like aromatic and putrid, many primaries, receptors difficult to reach, brain projection complicated), related to motivational affect, especially in other animals (consider how male dogs mark their "territories" with urinary pheromones and check for other dog smells)
Olfaction in humans TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.24 Olfactory epithelium with receptors having cilia projecting to olfactory bulb in brain
Pheromones in moths, females release sex attractants, mate at night, male finds female from miles away using large feathery antennae loded with recptors, Fig. 49.5
Salmon fingerlings get olfactory imprinting (memory) of the stream in which they spawned; then after 5 years of foraging at sea, they go up their home streams to mate, sometimes overcoming hurdles
It's funny how odors bring back memories.

Touch (somesthesis) TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.3
Receptors - There are different specialized receptor types in the epidermis and dermis.
To some extent, different receptor cell types, with their specialized encapsulations mediate sensation of heat, cold, light touch, touch, and strong pressure, and these are very different sub-modalities within athe modality of somesthesis. The text's coverage o this is oversimplified.
here is a Pacinian corpuscle from our histology course
For instance, specific spinal tracts are important for touch vs. pain

Look back to previous chapter TRANSPARENCY Fig. 48.25 for description of where in the somatosensory cortex different parts of the body project. Note that these areas are adjacent to the corresponding areas in the motor cortex where voluntary muscle movements are initiated. There is a relative "magnification" for areas with high touch sensitivity, hands, lips, tongue, genitals.

Before I cover Sight (Vision) and Hearing (Audition), let me say that the "5" (special) senses are just the tip of the iceberg

Examples of other human senses:
(1) Stretch receptors in muscle [used in knee jerk reflex] (Fig. 48.3) contribute to the sense of Kinesthesia - knowing where your body is in space.
(2) There is the sense of balance, mediated by the vestibular apparatus associated with inner ear TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.19
(3) There are many senses which mediate physiology like CO2 for respiration, blood pressure.

Examples of amazing animal senses:
Magnetism involved in migration in birds (covered later under the topic of animal behavior) and Baluga whales (Fig. 49.5 b)
Electric sense in fish
Infrared (heat) snakes (Fig. 49.5 a)

Hearing EAR TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.17
pinna, eardrum,
bones: hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), stirrup (stapes)
Eustachian tube to equaliz pressures to middle ear
The cochlea is where auditory receptor cells (hair cells) reside.
Hair cells are stimulated as the basilar membrane moves relative to the tectorial membrane creating
pressure in hair cells.
Audibility is measured in the sound pressure (relative to a standard) needed to hear, measured in dB (deciBels), and the sense of hearing is very sensitive.
Frequency discrimination - how different tones are perceived.
Frequency is measured in Hz (cycles per sec) of vibration for frequencies from 20 to20,000 Hz
Ultrasound is above 20,000 Hz
Cochlea - basilar membrane - high vs low Pitch - freq
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.18
very good frequency discrimination ability

Another amazing animal sense:
Bats (p. 1057 Figure) are nocturnal predators finnding insect prey by echolocation (sonar) using ultrasound.
Moths avoid bats

Vision
EYE - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.9
iris, lens, aqueous, vitreous, retina, fovea, optic nerve
Accomodation TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.10 - Presbyopia (inability to accomodate with age, need re3ading glasses or bifocals)
Myopia (near-sightedness), Hyperopia (far-sightedness),
Glaucoma - high eye pressure kills optic nerve
Cataract - lens loses its transparency
Diabetic retinopathy - new fragile blood vessels bleed into vitreous
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.11 a
Rod (sensitive black and white vision) and cones (color vision, acuity)
Outer segment- organelle
Inner segment the whole rest of the cell
Rods are very sensitive - can see 1 photon (quantum) of light
visual pigment - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.11 b
Rhodopsin - vitamin A & protein
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.12 - vitamin A is pigment which goes from cis to trans because of light.
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.14 - transduction mechanism is that light closes a sodium channel, stops release of exciatory neurotransmitter glutamate
TRANSPARENCY FIG. 49.13 active opsin -> transducin (a G protein)->PDE breaks down cGMP (ligand for channel)
Retina wiring TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.15
Cones (for yellow, green and blue light) are at the fovea (point of fixation), and mediate color vision at high acuity.
Evolutionarily related, red and yellow are on X chromosome in humans and old world monkeys.
Bottleneck hypothesis - lower vertebrates have color vision, lost in early mammalian evolution with nocturnal life - had to re-evolve.
Color blindness in people - on X chromosome and hence most noted in males -
Spectrum -
400-700 nm, UV bees, IR snakes
Visual connections through optic chiasm, to lateral geniculate nucleus (part of the thalamus) to the visual cortex - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.16 - development (exposure to form vision) is very important

Insect ommatidia of compound eyes TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.8b

Sensory processing, lateral inhibition, Feature detection like for color, contour and contrast, and movement

Slides:
postcentral gyrus - map on postcentral gyrus of brain (see Fig. 48.19) of sense of touch
hair cells (SEM)
bat
bat catching moth in stroboscopic illumination
UV sensitivity in insects Flower
another example, Zygadenus nuttalii, my work with Peter Bernhardt
olfaction - male moth
olfaction - male salmon
vision - eye dissection
frog catching fly is an example of feature detection
three cone types

There is a course in Biomedical Engineering (BMEP-415-01) "Sensory systems (Dr. Thomas). My interests center around vision, so a visit to the research interests of my home page will offer various topics about vitamin A, ultraviolet light, and Drosophila mutants. Dr. Fliesler in SLU's Ophthalmology Department and Dr. Ariel in SLU's Anatomy and Neurobiology Department are some of my fellow wizards in visual science. I corresponded with Dr. Lindemann who has an interesting site about taste.

this page was last updated 3/27/03





The muscle lecture

MUSCLE

Campbell and Reece - the last half of chapter 49

HOW MUSCLE WORKS MOLECULARLY-
this has been a real success story in cell-molecular biology
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.31
skeletal (striated) muscle cell ("fiber") 10- 100 microns (huge) and long (from tendon to tendon)
There are smaller units within "fiber" called "myofibrils" (1-2 microns in cross section)
Thus 1000-2000 myofibrils/fiber
Sarcomeres are units along the length of myofibrils
Interestingly, the striped (striated) pattern of myofibrils is in register for all the myofibrils in the fiber giving the whole muscle fiber a striated appearance.
Within the myofibrils are the filaments
Actin - G (globular) polymerizes to F (filamentous) actin - the thin filament
Myosin - (2 heavy chains and 4 light chains) - the thick filament
I-band (isotropic - light), A-band (anisotropic, dark) based on actin and myosin, see figure
here is a picture from our histology course, but watch out because the arrows for A, I, and H do not point accurately
TRANSPARENCY Fig 49.32 Sliding filament explanation of muscle contraction
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.33 - picture myosin as a boat rowing through a sea of surrounding actin molecules. Interestingly ATP binding unhooks myosin from actin. This can be remembered by thinking about rigor mortis - a "stiff" in a detective show - has been dead long enough so that ATP has run out and actin and myosin are locked together. ATP -> ADP and a phosphate added to the myosin and this is like the rower taking another stroke. When the phosphate gets kicked off of the myosin, the myosin and actin bind.
Ca2+ ions are released to make muscle contract (explained later)
tropomyosin on actin TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.34
troponin has a Ca2+ binding site like calmodulin
Ca2+ binding to troponin pulls tropomyosin off of actin's binding sites for myosin

HOW MUSCLE WORKS ELECTRICALLY (AND IONICALLY)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.35
here is a picture from our histology course of the neuromuscular junction
Action potential from nerve opens channels at acetylcholine synapse at neuromuscular junction, then action potential goes down muscle cell. But cell is too big. So T tubules get action potential into cell at numerous locations (for each sarcomere and for each myofibril). Proximity with a specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum called the sarcoplasmic reticulum causes release of Ca2+.
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.38 Motor units
(how many muscle cells per motor neuron)13 eye, 1730 calf

In summary:
ACh to synapse Ecxitation to spike
Final common pathway - motor neuron carries integrated information from nervous system
1 - 1 spike, tetanus for sustained TRANSPARENCY Fig. 49.37
action potential in membrane and t-tubules, t=transverse
Ca++ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER)
T at A-I junction in Skeletal muscle but it is at the z line in cardiac muscle and in frog skeletal muscle

Types of skeletal muscle: Difference obvious in turkeys
Fast twitch, strong, anaerobic, white meat
Slow twitch, enduring, aerobic, dark meat
capillaries (hemoglobin), myoglobin, cytochromes in mitochondria
can alter with training

Metabolism:
phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate [backup, battery]) makes ATP using
phosphpcreatine kinase
glycogen
hemoglobin -> myoglobin

TRANSPARENCY Fig 40.4 -i.e. look back to introductory structure-function chapter
striated - skeletal, volontary (best for study)
initiate-precentral gyrus, control via basal ganglia control (damaged in Parkinson's) and cerebellum
smooth muscle - arterioles, gut, uterus - involontary, autonomic
Ca++ activates myosin light chain kinase, phosphorylation contraction
cardiac muscle - automatic
gap junctions at intercalated disc
here is a picture from our histology course of heart muscle cells joined at intercalated discs

Dr. Fisher is our muscle expert, and he teaches a course in exercize physiology

this page was last updated 1/19/04




The animal behavior lectures

"Second to the right, and straight on till morning."
That, Peter told Wendy, was the way to Neverland; but even birds, carrying maps and consulting them at windy corners, could not have sighted it with these instructions.

-J. M. Barrie, Peter and Wendy

Nature and Nurture of Behavior
and complex and social animal behavior

Campbell Chapter 51

ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Ethology..................................Comparative psychology
Europe.......................................America
Field...........................................Lab
Species-specific Evolution.........Albino (lab) Rats
birds, insects Development
courtship displays......................Learning
aggression
Innate (special learning)
reflex-taxis-FAP

Orientation
(Tropism - term now used for plants) Kinesis (amount of activation),
Taxis (directed orientation) - With paired sensory structure, orientation can be direct on the basis of spatial comparisons between, say, two antennae for male moth, while for a single structure, like your nose, you need to make temporal comparisons to orient toward increasing or decreasing stimulus intensity.
Pheromones (like hormones) [species specific chemical communication signals] sex attractants in moths
Sun compass orientation is even more complex
Examples of orientations in simple organisms - chemotaxis in E. coli, and mechanical avoidance in Paramecium

FAP (fixd action pattern) - is like a string of reflexes, is released by a releaser (stimulus) which can be presented by the researcher as a model (sign stimulus)
TRANSPARENCY 51.23 (sign stimuli & mating behavior)
Stickelback- long day - male becomes red bellied (Fig. 51.19)
Aggressive territorial - sign stimuli TRANSPARENCY Fig. 51.3 - release (releaser) FAP
Nest. Zig-zag dance. Female present
Eggs in nest, male fans

Learning - simple forms of learning include habituation - like where a cricket's pause in chirping upon hearing something, but if that noise is repeated, the pause gets briefer and briefer

Associative learning --- Classical conditioning- like Pavlov's dogs pair bell ringing with food and dog will salivate with just the bell

Watson (1930) Behaviorism "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select." like the attitude in the George Bernard Shaw play Pygmalion which was the basis for the Broadway musical "My Fair Lady," and Thomas Jefferson's philosophy as expressed in the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal."

Operant (Instrumental) conditioning like in a Skinner box (named after the famous Harvard psychologist B. F. Skinner) where a food-deprived (hungry) rat will learn to press a bar for food - repeated pairings are necessary usually
reinforcements are positive (rewards) & negative (punishments)

vs. "one trial learning" where the animal is made sick, blue jay eat monarch butterfly (full of poisons from larva eating milk weed), and vomit SLIDE, Batesian mimicry - viceroy butterfly looks a little like a monarch but is not poisonous
SLIDE monarch and viceroy
toad eating a bee will be stung and avoid insects that look like that
Also rats avoid poison that way (this was covered earlier this semester, in digestion lecture)- only delayed action poisons (anticoagulant, Decon, WARFarin) work, rats are selective tasters because they cannot vomit, they have neophobia (won't eat much of a new taste) and if they get sick soon, will avoid that taste

Imprinting - a simple kind of learning
SLIDE Imprinting Fig. 51.9 geese learn to follow the famous ethologist (K. Lorenz, Nobel Prize 1973) if they see him early in life instead of their mother.
Some birds are precocial (develop quickly) like geese and ducks, and since they walk early, it is evolutionarly useful that they follow their mother, so there is one major synchronous learning event with a critical (sensitive) period right at that time

bird song TRANSPARENCY Fig. 51.5 sonogram of white crowned sparrow
Song birds are altricial (born helpless and develop slowly)
Male sings song when mature
10 - 50 days - "critical (sensitive) period" must hear the right song then researcher can isolate young bird from hearing his conspecifics singing.
Birds usually must practice their song, but then researcher can deafen the bird and it will still perform.
If you inject the female with testosterone, it will sing as the male sings.
Canary can keep adding syllables TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 51.10)
Dialects occur when all the birds do not get together, like cardinals (which winter over), - an example of "cultural" (vs. genetic inheritance)

navigation - a favorite topic in animal behavior
Monarch butterfly, live long, western monarks winter in Mexico
MIGRATION AND NAVIGATION TRANSPARENCY Fig. 51.15
Atlantic and Pacific golden plovers
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 51.16 transplant European starlings - to show that experienced birds can compensate while juveniles cannot.
Old birds know direction and location (=navigation), young only know direction.
Indigo buntings (Emlen's experiments in a planetarium) imprint on North Star; learn another if the stars are made to rotate around another star in the planetarium rather than around the North Star.
Pigeons seem to see arc for sun (vs. sun azimuth - projection of sun onto horizon), must know time of day (circadian rhythm to compare with Sun's position), and time of year (season, circannual rhythm to compare with plane of arc) to tell where it is.
Birds (and many other organisms) can use Earth's magnetic field (see sensory chapter)
Salmon imprint on stream odors and then return after 5 yrs. of foraging in ocean
Turtles - home to same beaches for breeding after being in sea at large

SOCIAL INSECTS - bees ants wasps termites
Queen reproductive female SLIDE workers attending queen
In bees, queen substance keep others immature (this is an example of a primer [vs. releaser] function of pheromones)
Workers are sterile females, first hivekeepers, then builders, then foragers
Drones are males only for reproduction
If queen substance is low, then new Queen is made by feeding larvae with royal jelly
Dance - round dance for food nearby von Frisch (1973 Nobel Prize)- 51.27 TRANSPARANCY
waggle dance direction and distance- communicate based on anble from Sun azimuth to food with hive at angle, relative to vertical in honeycomb in hive.

Aggression - Agonistic behavior
SLIDE cheetah and Thompson's gazelle - serengetti
Animals not kill eachother, people do
(exceptions include infanticide - evolution)
Ritual displays instead of real fighting- snake wrestling Fig. 51.19 example
Threat to avoid fighting baboon yawns to show canine teeth, aggressive postures (dog)
Submissive -postures (to "give up") in dog
Appeasement gestures- present genitals in baboons
In social groups-Dominance hierarchy (pecking order in hens)
Alpha male in wolves
Territoriality - fighting is averted, owner wins Fig. 51.21 (nests of gannets spread evenly)
Territory is marked, for instance by pheromones (Fig. 51.22) cheetah urine marking
olfaction - dog can find one person in 10 not in scent
dog urine marking

Lorenz (Nobel prize - people kill because communication is faulty READ QUOTE from "On Aggression"

The distance at which shooting weapons take effect screens the killer against the stimulus situation which would otherwise activate his killing inhibitions. The deep, emotional layers of our personality simply do not register the fact that the crooking of the forefinger to release a shot tears the entrails of another man. No sane man would even go rabbit hunting for pleasure if the necessity of killing his prey with his natural weapons brought home to him the full, emotional realization of what he is actually doing.

To regard man, the most ephemeral and rapidly evolving of all species, as the final and unsurpassable achievement of creation, especially in his present-day particularly dangerous and disagreeable stage of development, is certainly the most arrogant and dangerous of all untenable doctrines. If I thought of man as the final image of God, I should not know what to think of God. But when I consider that our ancesters, at a time fairly recent in relation to earth's history, were perfectly ordinary apes, closely related to chimpanzees, I see a glimmer of hope. It does not require considerable optimism to assume that from us human beings something better and higher may evolve. Far from seeing in man the irrevocable and unsurpassable image of God, I assert--more modestly and, I believe, in greater awe of the Creation and its infinite possibilities--that the long-sought missing link between animals and the really humane being is ourselves!

If, on the other hand, we are powerless against the pathological disintegration of our social structure, and if, armed with atomic weapons, we cannot control our aggressive behavior any more sensibly than any animal species, this deplorable situation is largely due to our arrogant refusal to regard our own behavior as subject to the laws of nature and as accessible to causal analysis.

SLIDES pertaining to territoriality and aggression
SLIDE Thompson's gazelle marking pheromone from face gland
SLIDE Cheetah urine marking (like male dogs do)
SLIDE Cheetah hunting Thompson's gazelle
SLIDE wolves hunt moose Isle Royale
SLIDE musk ox group defense

(*see further notes at bottom of this outline) SLIDES on the social life of the baboon - Papio anubis
SLIDE African savanah - home range - migrate - troop
yawn threat SLIDE
troops - dominant males - protect.
SLIDE females with infants
SLIDE grooming ("originally" to remove parasites, becomes predominant social behavior and involved in communicating social hierarchy

E.O.Wilson - 1975 - Sociobiology
behavior subject to evolution like morphology
Richard Dawkins' best selling book The Selfish Gene - "An organism is DNA's way of making more DNA"
then how can there be altruism?
Ground squirrel giving alarm call - kin selection Fig. 51.28
Great example of altruism in bees (also communication)
Safety in numbers - Passenger pigeon - studied by Audubon - went extinct when numbers declined
Here is a SLIDE I took at the Smithsonian natural history museum of Martha, the last passenger pigeon who died 1 pm Sept 1, 1914 at the Cincinnatti Zoo.

Nature - nurture : very controversial
Darwin was followed by Galton who applied these principles to intelligence and founded eugenics (how can we improve mankind by genetics)
Is there a way to measure native ability?
1969 IQ Jensen "how much can we boost IQ"
IQ test is standardized - Mean 100, S.D. 15
normal, bell-curve
68% is plus or minus 1 standard deviation, 96% is +/- 2 SD's
Quantitative genetics polygenic (vs Mendelian)
Variances
Vp = Vh + Ve + covariance + interaction + error
phenotypic, heretitary, environmental
Identical twins raised apart - correlation should be Vh/Vp and it comes to 80%. Burt produced correlation coefficients that were the same to the third decimal point despite increasing numbers of twins added to the study. His data were destroyed and cannot be examined. Was he a racist? Did he cheat? His coauthors could not be found.
Letter to the editor in Science (Dec. 24, 1976, p. 1377, I. Phillips. The "case" of Sir Cyril Burt
Blacks IQ average is 85, but is there cultural bias in test?
Many years ago, Morton measured cranial capacities of different races by filling skulls with beans and counting them, but did he cheat?

Instinct
Babies - suck even before birth SLIDE
grasp SLIDE, 7 mo (This slide and slides below are from I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Ethology, The biology of Behavior, 1970
smiling, looking cute (Blind baby smiles at mother) SLIDE
Cross cultural - laugh, greetings
Eyebrow greeting Bali, New Guinea SLIDE
SLIDE wave greeting
SLIDE smiling when happy
SLIDE 36 hour old infant can quickly learn to imitate happy, sad (pout), surprise (Science 218, 1982, 179-181

There are famous studies of chimpanzees in the wild by Jane Goodall and of gorillas in the wild by George Schaller. Here I choose to emphasize baboon behavior.

*Further notes on baboons, e.g. from S.L.Washburn and I.DeVore, the social life of baboons, Scientific American, June 1961
Royal Nairobi park in Kenya
Baboons also not so aggressive - zoos increase
aggressiveness
Impala and gazelle - smell & hearing, baboons - sight
Baboon troops 10 - 200 ave=40
adult male 70 lb females half size. infants
juveniles 18 mo - 4 yrs - away from mother
vegetarian mostly, grass, rub grit off, eat ant galls
several troops may meet at water hole - not mix
open plain - spread out. Poor visibility - close
Acacia - fever trees - food
sleep in fever trees. cannot go over 2 mi from sleeping tree
Infant cling stays with mother females groom mother
infant and mother near big males Protective
births at beginning of rainy season
ride belly early
3-4 mi/day. Infants w/ mother nursing about 9 mo not mate
not share food so juvenile learns to eat alone
Important play. mounting. fighting. dominance
play quietly, male nearby
male dominance
cheetahs hunt in day
adult males bark when near male
Consort pair. No fighting over females in estrus
1 wk of ea mo except for pregnancy & lactation
presenting prelude to grooming
sometimes gang up.
sometimes displace tension by chase 3rd

SLU offers an Animal Behavior course (BL A436) taught by Dr. Nordell

this page was last updated 3/28/03




The ecology lectures

Ecology

Any plant or man who dies
adds to Nature's compost heap
becomes the manure without which
nothing could grow nothing could be created
Death is simply part of the process
Every death even the cruellest death
Drowns in the total indifference of Nature
Nature herself would watch unmoved
if we destroyed the entire human race
I hate Nature
-Peter Weiss ... Marat ...Sade 1965


This outline has Campbell and Reece
Chapter 50 - Ecology and the biosphere
Chapter 52 - Population ecology
and
Chapter 54 - Ecosystems
as well as some issues (Community ecology, Chapter 53, is on a separate outline)

Ecology
Population-one species in area
Community-interaction of species in area
Ecosystem-physical environment and species
Biosphere-highest level of integration

Terrestrial biomes TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.10 (named after vegetation), depends on temperature and water
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 50.24) world map
SLIDES of No. America
Tundra - treeless plain - Arctic
seasons short- forget-me-nots, carribou migration is awesome, reindeer. There are a lot of mosquitos since puddles where larvae breed endure through the summer season
permafrost (always frozen just under the surface) - this is very fragile
In the early 1970's, there was a debate as to whether to tap a big Alaska oil field since the pipeline to bring oil to port might damage this area (and block migrants). This oil was in the freighter Exxon Valdez which later wrecked, in 1989, causing ecological damage along the shore.
Alpine tundra- as you go up the mountain, you cross a conspicuous "tree line" above which trees do not grow.
Coniferous (conifers) forest - northern taiga (From northern US through much of Canada)
The forest floor is nearly bare of small plants because the canopy (shade) is year-round since these conifers are evergreens.
Moist coniferous forest (this is a small biome)- redwoods - in California. There is a lot of fog, and these big old moist trees are very resistent to fire. Redwoods (not the wider sequoias which are in more inland locations like Yosemite National Park) are for very enduring soft woods for building decks and saunas, and there is controversy over logging with few virgin forests (like Muir woods north of San Francisco) left.
There are also pine forests of So. Mississippi valley,

Here in Missouri:
Deciduous (trees that lose their leaves in the fall) forest from eastern Kansas out east. - Water is needed, and this region gets water from Gulf of Mexico while west of this area is in rain shadow TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.14 of the Cascade Mountains. There are beautiful Spring wild flowers before the trees foliate and the canopy is dense.
Some pictures I shot on April 6, 2002 (because of several cool spells in March wild flowers were a bit late):
Forest. This is when trees were still bare but wild bushes (honeysuckle) leaves were starting - note that forest floor is lush with what looks like grass (actually a bulb, star of Bethelham).
mayapple coming up, a group of mayapples, trilium (early), Dutchman's breetches and bloodroot.

Grassland (vs. savanna) are cool (temperate). These are the "amber waves of grain" with agriculture. There are few trees.
Savanna - this is the tropical version of the grasslands
Here is where you would visit for an African safari. There is an awesome migration of wildebeestes. You would see wild dogs and a lot of the favorite zoo specimens.
Chaparral and brushland (another small biome with areas in California) between desert and grassland in moisture with plants like sage brush.
Desert - in which cactus or Joshua tree are famous- No leaves is an adaptation to limit transpiration. There are lots of annual plants with seeds which germinate during short rainy season.
There are consumers which often live underground.
Tropical forest - most productive biome- microorganisms recycle. Amazon rain forest is being burned to support human agriculture with sad losses of important plants (which might produce important drugs) and animals many of which have not been catalogued.

Ocean 71% of Earth TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.22
shows continental shelves, intertidal zonescoral reefs, pelagic zones, and abyssal zones
also TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.13 - marine zones
Coastal 10% area, 85% productivity Continental shelf (intertidal too)
Estuaries (like Chesapeake Bay in Maryland) very productive but not very diverse Crabs Oysters
Pelagic, phytoplankton near top "photic zone" good light
chemisynthetic bacteria near vents "Benthic zone"
"aphotic" Abyssal (deep) cold 3oC - cannot freeze (ice floats), but some oxygen
Coral reefs very complex - shallow, sheltered
cnideria
upwelling of nutrients- Humbolt current el Nino

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.15 Lakes, cold, low oxygen deep not much mixing except as seasons change. In summer, there is a thermocline.
eutrophication "organic" pollution, algal blooms
Pollution is an enduring problem: Lake Superior is 450 feet deep and takes 180 yrs for half turnover of water

Streams - continuous mixing, no plankton, different from lakes

Productivity TRANSPARENCY Fig. 54.3 (look ahead)
This figure summarizes all the above statements in terms of percent of Earth's area, productivity and percent of Earth's productivity
Of course, productivity in different areas depends on angle of Sun light
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.11
Interestingly, only 0.03 % of Sun light is used in photosynthesis, so there might be potential to capture and use more of the Sun's energy for Humankind's energy needs
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 54.11) [anticipates food chain, below] illustrates this loss from sunlight to biology with a pyramid of productivity (more on pyramids below)

Climate
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.12 explains seasons in terms of Earth's axis (angle relative to plane of Earth's rotation around Sun
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 50.13 global wind patterns - while there are a lot of west to east winds (westerlies) there are also east to west (trade) winds
Note that winds also go up and down and affect rainfall, etc.

Ecology
abiotic factors - temp, light, water
biotic - competition, predation, shade, etc.

POPULATION ECOLOGY Campbell Chapter 52

Human population growth is exponential - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 52.20
From other organisms, this is assumed to be the beginning of a curve that will level off.
(note big dip during bubonic plague [black death])
5.6 billion in 1994, 8 in 2017
Zero population growth:
Fertility rate (infants/woman or couple) = 2.5
If that had been started in 1980, population would still go up to 6.3 billion in AD2070 before leveling off (in other words there is momentum in this system because there are many people in their reproductive years).
This is a common theme in the contemporary "Philosophy of doom" (Thomas Malthus was the classic philosopher of doom who stated that human population growth should be exponential [1798 - Essay on the Principle of Population] from whom Darwin had borrowed ideas heavily) -- that if the contributions to the problem are eliminated immediately there would still be enough momentum in the system to make the problem grow worse for a considerable time. In this example, it would be because of the large number of people that are of reproductive age. Thus countries like China which perceive a real population "problem" dictate to undertake more heroic measures, even lower fertility rates.
Otherwise level at 10.5 billion in AD 2110
Problems of continued population growth worse in developing countries:
Demographics - age structure: more young in Mexico for example TRANSPARENCY Fig. 52.23
However, with age structure like developed countries have, there will be other problems -- social security will be a problem when "baby boomers" retire

Sex ratios can vary, but nature tells us that that might not matter much -
There are harems - elk, multiple matings - buck vs. doe
And also species which are monogamous for life - Canada geese

Exponential growth (Malthus)
J-shaped means birth rate > death rate TRANSPARENCY Fig. 52.11
S-shaped reach carrying capacity (K)
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 52.9) recovery of endangered whooping crane

Survivorship curves TRANSPARENCY Fig. 52.3 I - human, II, III - oyster

r-selection, semelparous salmon, annuals (lots of seeds - only 1 plant needs to reproduce)
high reproductive rate determines life history
K-selection iteroparous polar bear
few offspring with good survival

Limiting factors:
density independent - physical (climate)
density dependent-biotic (resource, predation, parasitism)
CYCLES
Lynx and snowshoe hare TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 52.19) (NOTE (on axis of graph): more prey, relates to pyramids of biomass covered above and later - it takes more prey to feed predator)
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 52.17, there has been a long term study of moose and wolves on Isle Royale, MI
There is a well-known story about Arctic Lemmings (mouse-like) (Norway) which have a 3-4 yr. population cycle TRANSPARENCY (two Larson Far-side cartoons)
It had been reported that they run into sea, but this was a hoax; they migrate and die from
lack of food, predators, diseases, stress, and lack of water.

Campbell Chapter 54 - Ecosystems

Food chains - Trophic levels TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 54.1)
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 53.10)
producers (autotrophs)
primary consumers, heterotrophs herbivores prey
secondary consumers, heterotrophs , carnivores predators
tertiary
bioaccumulation eg of DDT at highest levels TRANSPARENCY Fig, 54.25
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 53.11) chains are actually webs
web: omnivores
detritus eaters - earthworms, nematodes, insects
decomposers - fungi, bacteria

Pyramids of biomass TRANSPARENCY Fig. 54.12
Think of trees, with wood (mostly cellulose, the most abundant organic molecule of life) as part of the most massive block in the pyramid of biomass.
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 54.14
When people eat meat such as beef, there is a 10:1 loss of calories because the animal was metabolizing during its whole life.
Since chickens grow faster and live shorter lives, there is only a 3:1 loss.
The western animal-rich diet may seem extravagant, but remember that it is hard to get balanced essential amino acids from grains and other vegetables.
Also remember that cattle can forage and eat grass in areas difficult to use for agriculture.

Carbon cycle TRANSPARENCY Fig. 54.17 - this pertains to global warming
CO2 has a fast exchangeable pool - short term
Burning fossil fuels contributes to CO2 in atmosphere.
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 54.26)
0.029% in 1860, 0.033% now, the momentum will double atmospheric CO2, and, unless changes are made, CO2 will quadruple.
Greenhouse effect - energy comes to Earth as light, but CO2 in atmosphere blocks infrared (heat) radiation back to space.
4oC by middle of this century, 6-7oC for ice age
There is also a long term pool of CO2 storage in CaCO3 (calcium carbonate, limestone, White cliffs of Dover) making a big reservoir.
Limestone SLIDE

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 54.23
Acid rain is a related but very different problem since burning sulfur containing coal puts acid into the atmosphere which comes down in rain. In basalt rock areas, like New York, there is little buffering; limestone areas have lakes with better buffering against increases in acidity.

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 54. 27 Ozone depletion is a very different atmospheric problem. Ozone (O3), if put into one layer of the atmosphere, would be 3/4 cm thick. It blocks UV light. DNA absorption peaks at 260 nm and protein peaks at 280 nm, while ozone used to block above 300 nm, so there is a potential of damage to living organisms as ozone is depleted.Big hole in ozone layer ofer Antarctica in the winter

Nitrogen cycle TRANSPARENCY Fig. 54.18 (like Fig. 37.9 in plant nutrition chapter)
N2 80% used for proteins, nucleic acids
N2 to NH3 nitrogen fixation (plants use ammonia)
NH3 to NO3- (nitrate)nitrification
NO3 to NH3 (nitrate reduction) in plant roots
Rhizobium in root nodules of legumes
try to make new genetic strains of plants

this page was last updated 4/16/03




The community ecology lecture

Community Ecology
Campbell and Reece - Chapter 53
(above the level of the population) - interaction

SPECIES
(MANY) - 1.6 million (actually few are known - maybe there are several million more)
and maybe 100 x as many in the past
recall mass extinctions, most past species are gone
Recall a species is defined in terms of reproduction to produce fertile offspring (only apply to sexually reproducing species)

Of course, species interact with eachother (in lots of ways). Any changes can have broad ranging consequences (like a row of dominoes), and that is the reason to file an "ecological impact statement."

INTERACTIONS

Coevolution -
Earlier example: Angiosperm Pollination, Bees, (UV ultraviolet) Hummingbirds, (red) Bats, honey possom, Orchid

Defenses
Plant defenses (opium, nicotine, etc)
Predator-prey
cryptic coloration (camouflage) (again the examples vary) canyon tree frog (Fig. 53.5), caterpillars
Warning (aposematic) coloration poison arrow frog (Fig. 53.6)
Mimicry
Batesian (Fig. 53.7 - hawkmoth looks like snake)
Mullerian (Fig. 53.8) - cuckoo bee looks like yellow jacket
Example (not from book) Monarch, milk weed, digitalis 1 trial learning

Niche - needs of species - all get filled
Adaptive radiation e.g. of Darwin's finches
because the Galopagos were new volcanic islands
1934 - Gausse - no 2 species share niche at one time
(2 species together - competitive exclusion)
e.g. diff time of day, etc
PARTS OF A NICHE:
Habitat - physical environment - much damage is from "loss of habitat" or "fragmentation"
microhabitat - e.g. rotting log
Interaction with other species
Climate: Temp., light, wind, etc.
Food, water, nest site
Fundamental Niche - theoretical, Realized Niche - actual
TRANSPARENCY - Fig. 53.2 Barnacle example

HOW DO NICHES GET FULL?
Divergent evolution - e.g. Darwin's finches Figs. 1.17 & 22.6
Character displacement TRANSPARENCY Fig. 53.4 - resource partitioning

Important whether species are sympatric or allopatric

Problem with introduction of new species, especially in island habitats. Zebra mussels cam in in balast water of ships.

Symbiosis (living together)
Parasitism vs. Mutualism (for mutual benefit ant and acacia Fig. 53.9)
(Commensalism - one benefits, the other unaffected hard to prove- egret and cape buffalo)
Bacteria in gut, E. coli - vitamin K, superinfection after
broad-spectrum antibiotic
Nitrogen fixation - Rhizobium in root nodules
Microorganisms in termite (and ruminant) gut - cellulose
Lichens-fungi and algae or blue green algae
Oxpecker on giraffe
Raven on African bufallo
Cleaner wrass, red snapper, sabre toothed blenny
mimicry
Estrilded finch & brood parasite long tailed paradise
willow bird (mimicry) (shown earlier)

Ecological succession - primary, after glacial retreat
TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 53.19)
also secondary
after chestnut blight, after 1988 Yellowstone fire
pioneers like lichens, annual plants
climax community with stable relationships

geography in divergent evolution and speciation
interaction of sympatric vs allopatric species
Cline - variations in diversity or characteristics with eg latitude

Islands are particularly interesting places for is biogeography

About half of SLU Biology's faculty are dedicated to "Ecology, Evolution and Systematics," and you can check out the home page index for EES

this page was last updated 4/16/03

return to Stark home page

return to syllabus

this cumulative outline was prepared 3/25/04