Protists and the origin of eukaryotes Campbell, chapter 28
Appendix 3 and Glossary

Here is a web site on eukaryotes concentrating on Protista

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 7.7 Animal cell to remind you about nucleus and organelles
Note the flagellum and how it is different from flagellum in bacteria

Protista (Eukaryotes) Heterotrophs and Autotrophs

Interestingly, what is classified as Protista has changed recently, ugh! even again between Campbell's 4th, 5th, and 6th editions! TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.8
As a professor, I wonder if stuff that is different next year is fundamental enough to trouble freshmen with. On the other hand, it should give you an appreciation that there is active scholarship, not just old names.

Organelles, endosymbiote hypothesis TRANSPARENCY 28.4
TRANSPARENCY 28.6 mitochondria earlier than plastids.

A simple view - 3 groups:
Protozoans - "first animals"
Phytoplankton (floating plants) ["phyto" as in "phytonutrients" (from "plants")]
Ones like fungi

are they Phyla or Divisions? now they are called "candidate Kingdoms"

Diplomonadida, Parabasala (ancient - lack mitochondria) - Giardia causes diarrhea TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.9)

Euglenozoans --
little green fungus-like animals chloroplasts, eye, flagellum TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.3
Trypanosoma - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.11-African sleeping sickness, tsetse fly


Now, formerly, the following would have been algae, not close to protozoa:
Dinoflagellata 2 flagella photosynthetic, armor TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.12
red tides, blooms fill fish, make shellfish poisonous
Luminescent - Gonyaulax


Apicomplexa - Sporozoites - malaria (Plasmodium) mosquitos
red blood cells rupture (Life cycle) TRANSPARENCY 28.13
selection in Blacks for sickel cell anemia
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 5.19 molecule and blood cell

Ciliates Ciliophorans - Paramecium TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.14c), Didinium,
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.15 - conjugation, autogamy very useful for genetics
Really interesting use of different nuclei for cell function and heredity
"behavior genetics" - paramecia swim, mutants like "pawn" - like the chess piece, it can only swim forward

protozoa "of less certain taxonomic affinities"

Rhizopods TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.1A also 28.26) amoeba, pseudopods (phagocytosis)
some cause dysentery
Actinopods TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.27) among the plankton
Radiolarins (marine)
Helozoans (fresh water)
Foraminifera have limestone shells, TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.28)
Foramin - with windows
Petroleum accumulation (centered in Carboniferous period is from deposits of microscopic organisms and is often associated with deposits of foriminifera.
white cliffs of Dover

Myxomycota plasmodial slime mold
Acrasiomycota Cellular Slime molds - amoeba-like, fruiting body, spores
Dictyostelium lack cell wall (Fig. 28.30 TRANSPARENCY)
life cycle, pheromone, spores

Stramenopila - Phytoplankton (floating plants) Algae--

Chrysophyta - golden algae (fresh water) TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.18

Bacillariophyta Diatoms TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.17 (also 28.1B)
Pastures of the sea
Diatomacious earth, gives fish that fishy taste
A diatom home page

Oomycota "egg fungi"
ex: Irish potato famine (late blight)1845-1847
8 million to 4 million, 1 million die, emmigrate
dangers of monocrop agriculture
Chytridiomycota - simple
like fungi and fungi may have evolved from them

There is an emphasis on the various life cycles - alternation of generations, with same terminology as for plants, Sporophyte (to make spores) and Gametophyte (to make gametes)

Phaeophyta Figs. 28.21 TRANSPARENCY
Brown algae have holdfasts, air-filled floats
Giant kelp - divers can get stuck
Xanthophyll is the accessory light harvesting pigment

Rhodophyta Red algae (Fig. 28.22) chloroplasts like cyanobacteria - filaments,
sheets, mostly in oceans;
deep - use green light - phycobilins are the accessory pigment
frame for coral reefs; used to make agar (used in research and Chinese deserts)

Chlorophyta Green Algae - fresh water, land
filaments and sheets - sea lettuce
Chlamydomonas TRANSPARENCY 28.24, sexual and asexual repro.
Colonial Volvox and others (Fig. 28.23) multicellularity
Spirogira - pond scum dog days
Chlorella used by Calvin for photosynthesis
Ancestors of land plants
Chlorophyta - Lichens mutualism


amoeba with pseudopods
red blood cells
sickle cell anemia distribution in Africa
eating Paramecium SEM

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this page was last updated 12/27/02