Protists and the origin of eukaryotes Campbell, chapter 28
Appendix 3 and Glossary
Here is a web
site on eukaryotes concentrating on Protista
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 7.7 Animal cell to remind you about nucleus and organelles
Note the flagellum and how it is different from flagellum in bacteria
Protista (Eukaryotes) Heterotrophs and Autotrophs
Interestingly, what is classified as Protista has changed recently, ugh!
even again between Campbell's 4th, 5th, and 6th editions! TRANSPARENCY Fig.
As a professor, I wonder if stuff that is different next year is fundamental
enough to trouble freshmen with. On the other hand, it should give you an
appreciation that there is active scholarship, not just old names.
Organelles, endosymbiote hypothesis TRANSPARENCY 28.4
TRANSPARENCY 28.6 mitochondria earlier than plastids.
A simple view - 3 groups:
Protozoans - "first animals"
Phytoplankton (floating plants) ["phyto" as in "phytonutrients"
Ones like fungi
are they Phyla or Divisions? now they are called "candidate Kingdoms"
Diplomonadida, Parabasala (ancient - lack mitochondria) - Giardia
causes diarrhea TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.9)
little green fungus-like animals chloroplasts, eye, flagellum TRANSPARENCY
Trypanosoma - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.11-African sleeping sickness,
Now, formerly, the following would have been algae, not close to protozoa:
Dinoflagellata 2 flagella photosynthetic, armor TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.12
red tides, blooms fill fish, make shellfish poisonous
Luminescent - Gonyaulax
Apicomplexa - Sporozoites - malaria (Plasmodium) mosquitos
red blood cells rupture (Life cycle) TRANSPARENCY 28.13
selection in Blacks for sickel cell anemia
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 5.19 molecule and blood cell
Ciliates Ciliophorans - Paramecium TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.14c), Didinium,
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.15 - conjugation, autogamy very useful for genetics
Really interesting use of different nuclei for cell function and heredity
"behavior genetics" - paramecia swim, mutants like "pawn"
- like the chess piece, it can only swim forward
protozoa "of less certain taxonomic affinities"
Rhizopods TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.1A also 28.26) amoeba, pseudopods (phagocytosis)
some cause dysentery
Actinopods TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.27) among the plankton
Helozoans (fresh water)
Foraminifera have limestone shells, TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 28.28)
Foramin - with windows
Petroleum accumulation (centered in Carboniferous period is from deposits
of microscopic organisms and is often associated with deposits of foriminifera.
white cliffs of Dover
Myxomycota plasmodial slime mold
Acrasiomycota Cellular Slime molds - amoeba-like, fruiting body, spores
Dictyostelium lack cell wall (Fig. 28.30 TRANSPARENCY)
life cycle, pheromone, spores
Stramenopila - Phytoplankton (floating plants) Algae--
Chrysophyta - golden algae (fresh water) TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.18
Bacillariophyta Diatoms TRANSPARENCY Fig. 28.17 (also 28.1B)
Pastures of the sea
Diatomacious earth, gives fish that fishy taste
Oomycota "egg fungi"
ex: Irish potato famine (late blight)1845-1847
8 million to 4 million, 1 million die, emmigrate
dangers of monocrop agriculture
Chytridiomycota - simple
like fungi and fungi may have evolved from them
There is an emphasis on the various life cycles - alternation of generations,
with same terminology as for plants, Sporophyte (to make spores) and Gametophyte
(to make gametes)
Phaeophyta Figs. 28.21 TRANSPARENCY
Brown algae have holdfasts, air-filled floats
Giant kelp - divers can get stuck
Xanthophyll is the accessory light harvesting pigment
Rhodophyta Red algae (Fig. 28.22) chloroplasts like cyanobacteria - filaments,
sheets, mostly in oceans;
deep - use green light - phycobilins are the accessory pigment
frame for coral reefs; used to make agar (used in research and Chinese deserts)
Chlorophyta Green Algae - fresh water, land
filaments and sheets - sea lettuce
Chlamydomonas TRANSPARENCY 28.24, sexual and asexual repro.
Colonial Volvox and others (Fig. 28.23) multicellularity
Spirogira - pond scum dog days
Chlorella used by Calvin for photosynthesis
Ancestors of land plants
Chlorophyta - Lichens mutualism
amoeba with pseudopods
red blood cells
sickle cell anemia distribution in Africa
Didinium eating Paramecium SEM
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this page was last updated 12/27/02