Campbell and Reece Chap 42

no special organ system (flat worms - skin)
gills (fish, starfish, marine annelids, crayfish)
trachea (insects) (Fig. 42.22 in book) trachea give eyeglow in moths. In the TEM, it looks like a corrugated hose.
lungs and skin (frogs) Frog lungs are like balloons. have blood vessels

Passageways: TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.23)
Nasal - moisture (smell) sniffing
Pharynx - throat (nose, mouth) - (larynx, esophagus)
further down cilia sweep mucus, bacteria, dust up
(histology picture of cilia)
goes from pharynx to esophagus
smoking paralyses ciliary sweep
Vocal cords larynx (laryngitis) voice box
equal time to creationism : Adam's apple
trachea - rings of cartilage cilia
2 bronchi
asthma closes X-ray contrast technique shows structure
Model - broncheal tree
Alveoli 600 million in human 50 x skin area
here is a picture from our histology course showing how thin the cell layers of alveoli are
emphysema alveoli merge, smoking, muscular effort - hunch back
Air sacs close to capillaries
Rat lungs porous

artificial lung - heart lung machine in open heart surgery
plastic sack for exchange - different colors
O2 red blood - take out CO2

Cellular vs Organismal Respiration

TRANSPARENCY 42.27 mm Hg partial pressure
O2 hemoglobin in red blood cells (4 polypeptides, iron, heme)

TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42 UN1 [after the questions])
"oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve" (relates to Fit. 42.28)
% oxygen saturation of hemoglobin as a function of partial pressure of oxygen
maternal hemoglobin will off-load hemoglobin to fetal hemoglobin
(the same would also apply to myoglobin in muscle)

CO2 bicarbonate, bound to hemoglobin, dissolved TRANSPARENCY 42.29
controls respiration through medulla - paralysis - TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.26
hyperventillation -blow off CO2, but not really increase O2 much

Diaphragm TRANSPARENCY Fig. 42.24 - works with negative pressure
rib cage - intercostal muscles TRANSPARENCY (Fig. 42.26 [again])

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