An introduction to animal struture and function

Remembering on Black History Month

Emmett Till (July 25, 1941 - Aug. 28, 1955)
The Death of Emmett Till Lyrics by Bob Dylan

Birmingham Sunday Song and lyrics by Richard Farina and associated history about the church bombing September 15, 1963 that killed four girls, Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley

Campbell and Reece Chap. 40

Higher levels of integration (later) ; populations, communities, ecology
and the biosphere

Animal organismal biology: Cells (like chief cells) -> Tissues (like gastric mucosa) -> Organs (like stomach) -> Organ systems (like digestive system)
(Chapters 41 - 49 will cover this material System by System)
(Cells were emphasized last semester)
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 2.1 this hierarchy was introduced earlier

There are several general classes of tissues

Epithelial tissue TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.1
usually there are on a "basement membrane" - not a membrane in the cell membrane sense, but rather some extracellular material.
There are interesting junctions between cells which often make the sheet of cells into a good barrier.
Columnar, cuboidal and squamous
Simple, pseudostratified and stratified

Connective TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.2
Adipose, Blood, Cartilage, Fibrous, Loose, and Bone
Figure gives a few examples of cell types.
Importance of extracellular material - chondroitin sulfate
TRANSPARENCY Some SEMs and TEMs I made some years ago from cornea of human eye donors showing neatly arranged alternating directions of collagen fibers (recall that cornea is transparent - proteins should not absorb visible light)

TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.4 Muscle
Striated (striped) muscle (voluntary, skeletal) - Cardiac muscle - Smooth muscle (run by the autonomic nervous system)

A simplified Organism TRANSPARENCY 40.8
Note that topographically, digestive system is outside body.
Multicellularity requires getting cells near fluid
Physiology and histology - of the systems shown in this diagram will be the topics of upcoming chapters

Division of labor
- systems of integration
Homeostasis negative feedback - set point (like how you set a thermostat) - "servo mechanism"
TRANSPARENCY Fig. 40.9b - how thermostat works in the body

To coordinate, there will need to be systems of integration (nervous and hormonal systems)

Dr. Aldridge teaches Comparative Anatomy BL A342 (4 credits, including lab)
Dr. Bode teaches General Physiology BL A346 (3 credits) and its lab BL A347 (2 credits)

Dr. Schreiweis, the Director of SLU's Preprofessional Health Studies, teaches "Vertebrate Histology" (BL A-444) and has developed a web site for this course

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this page was last updated 2/05/03