1. How are lysosomes involved in turnover in the cell?
they are little containers of hydrolases that merge with endosomes and phagosomes
2. What does aspirin do that makes us refer to it as an antipyretic?
it reduces fever caused by pyrogens
3. What molecule, the product of transcription, exits through the nuclear
pores and resides on the ribosomes for the sake of translation?
4. What is there too little of in a person with goiter?
the answer could be iodine, thyroxin, T3 or T4
5. Why was a red blood cell especially useful in showing there are two layers
of phospholipids in a cell membrane.
only one membrane (plasmalemma), flat like a coin, easily obtained, easily
6. We speak of membranes as having the property of high resistance. What
is the term related to resistance that is more analogous to permeability
(e.g. whether the membrane does or does not have permeability to sodium
7. At the beginning of the axon (axon hillock), the voltage generated by
a depolarization at a synapse in that cell might be very small. Give a possible
there is decay as it spreads from synapse to hillock, perhaps there was
a simultaneous IPSP
8. In the equivalent circuit of the Goldman equation, why is the chloride
battery in reverse polarity relative to the sodium battery when, in fact,
the chemical gradients are in the same direction?
chloride is an anion while sodium is a cation
9. The voltage gated sodium channel of the action potential is activated
by depolarization caused by a spike upstream on the axon. How come the spike
does not activate the sodium channels behind it?
they are inactivated, there is a refractory period
10. Discussing the passive propagation of voltage along an axon, the current
down the axon was shown. Why did this current become smaller and smaller
the further away form the site where you injected current?
current leaks out through the axon membrane's resistance and capacitance
11. Say something about why polio has not been eliminated worldwide.
mostly politics, groups who think western medicine is a plot, also there
are a few people who maintain an infection
12. What happens to the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to monovalent
ions during an IPSP?
permeability to both potassium and chloride is increased
13. Some neurotransmitter receptors are channels. What kind of molecule
is the other type of neurotransmitter receptor?
g protein coupled receptor
14. "The alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein activates adenylyl
(adenylate) cyclase." What reaction does this enzyme catalyze?
starting with ATP, it makes cAMP
15. Unfortunate for the victims but fortuitous for researchers, a bad batch
of heroin contributed to research in Parkinson's disease. How?
there was an impurity called MPTP which has since been used to study animal
16. How does the autonomic nervous system relate to a body-builder's knowledge
that (s)he will look more muscular after getting "pumped?"
hyperemia (increased blood flow) makes the muscles bigger
17. Why would atropine be a useful drug in the treatment of diarrhea?
it would block motility in the gut
18. "Viagra potentiates the action of nitric oxide." How?
the NO signal pathway increases cGMP, and Viagra blocks its phosphodiesterase
19. At 150% of the resting length, a muscle can generate only about half
the tension it generates at 100% resting length. Why?
less overlap between actin and myosin, why it is harder to do a chin-up
from all the way down
20. In muscle contraction, "Power stroke causes filaments to slide;
ADP is released." ADP is released from what molecule?
21. What is glycogenolysis?
production of glucose from glycogen
22. How is the calcium channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum opened?
by the calcium channel spike in the transverse tubule
23. Percent of the hemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen is graphed as
a function of (what) in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve?
partial pressure of oxygen in mmHg
24. Why is a molecule such as glucose referred to as a carbohydrate?
the chemical formula is Cn(H2O)n
25. Describe where nitrogen is in an amino acid and how this chemistry is
changed when that amino acid is linked to the acid group in another amino
an NH2 sticks out of the central carbon, and, in forming a peptide bond,
it is NH-bond
26. The birth control pill can be taken orally. Why, in contrast, is it
necessary to inject insulin?
a protein would be broken to individual amino acids in digestion
27. For GLUT-4, ANSWER EITHER (1) Name one of the three tissues in the body
where this transporter is active. OR (2) What hormone increases the level
of this transporter in the plasmalemma (cell membrane)?
1-muscle, liver, adipose tissue; 2-insulin
28. If you have a family history of Type 2 diabetes, what aspect of your
wellness would you want to be especially vigilant about?
your weight (maybe smoking too)
29. For glucagon, ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind of molecule is its membrane
receptor? (2) What would it do at the level of the adipose cell's membrane?
1-G-protein coupled receptor, 2-release of free fatty acids
30. Say something about the status of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves
during diastole that relates to the point "Atrial contraction contributes
only a small fraction of the vertricular filling."
they are open
31. In the context of types of blood vessels, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is
the type of blood vessel that regulates blood flow to various vascular beds?
(2) What aspect of this blood vessel type does the regulation? OR (3) What
portion of the nervous system regulates these blood vessels?
1-arteriole, 2-smooth muscle, 3-sympathetic
32. Why doesn't blood start flowing into the aorta when the ventricle begins
ventricular pressure is initially lower than diastolic arterial pressure
33. What is the mechanism by which aspirin might prevent a heart attack?
it is an anticoagulant
34. What does a defibrillator do resuscitate a patient?
it starts the SA node
35. Why wouldn't aspirin or ibuprophen help to relieve inflammation of the
not caused by prostaglandins, caused by leukotrienes
36. Why does only 350 ml of gas exchange in a tidal breath of 500 ml?
dead space of trachea and bronchi
37. Let's assume that none of us have cystic fibrosis. What is the status
of your cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator?
it is normal
38. At rest, the partial pressure of oxygen in your veins is 40 mm Hg. At
that level, approximately what percentage of hemoglobin is still saturated
39. In addition to hemoglobin, another protein is important in red blood
cells, an enzyme. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this enzyme called? OR (2) What
reaction does it catalyze?
1-carbonic anhydrase, water and carbon dioxide into carbonic acid
40. For gout, ANSWER EITHER (1) What chemical is there too much of? OR (2)
Name a drug that might be used in treatment.
1-uric acid, 2-NSAIDS for inflammation or allopurinol to inhibit the enzyme
41. In addition to a facilitated glucose transporter on the basolateral
surface of a cell in the proximal convoluted tubule, name ONE of the two
other transporters (AND say where) necessary for recovering glucose from
the primary urine.
sodium-glucose transporter on the apical surface, sodium pump on the basolateral
42. Aquaporins ANSWER EITHER (1) Which part of the nephron has aquaporins
when they are needed? OR (2) Why is there already a handy gradient to drive
recovery of water into the interstitial fluid?
1-collecting duct, 2-the interstitial fluid is hypertonic
43. What would an ACE inhibiting drug (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor)
be used for?
44. "If you were the creator, you might package digestive enzymes in
an inactive form so the cells that make the enzyme (precursors) don't digest
themselves; it makes sense." ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the general
name of the precursor enzyme granule? OR (2) Give a name of ONE enzyme precursor
1-zymogen, 2-trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypepidase, others.
45. Say something about lactose intolerance.
lactose is broken in half by a lactase that is missing in some adults (not
infants), more likely not of northern European origin, the undigested lactose
nourishes some bacteria that contribute to indigestion
46. Why does your skin turn yellow if you have hepatitis?
inflammation in the liver causes urobilinogen to spill into the blood stream
47. Where are the cell bodies of the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary
that release antidiruetic hormone?
hypothalamus (paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei)
48. In Addison's disease, there are insufficient livels of glucocorticoids.
Therefore, on the basis of homeostasis, there is too much of what trophic
hormone from the pituitary?
49. Say what is abnormal in people, EITHER adults OR infants, if there is
EITHER too much OR too little thyroxine (pick one).
too much adult hyperthyroid too energized, too little adult hypothyroid
sluggish, too little infant cretinism challenged
50. Why would some exposure to sunlight be good for your calcium homeostasis?
sunlight triggers the first of several steps in converting vitamin D to
its active form, and Vitamin D stimulates intestinal absorption of calcium
51. "T4 would affect gene transcription by acting on an upstream response
element." Not exactly. Say something else about how thyroxine affects
gets converted to T3, acts via a receptor and in concert with a paired retinoic
acid receptor that binds retinoic acid and an adjacent response element
52. Why is Tamoxifen referred to as a SERM (selective estrogen receptor
once considered an estrogen antagonist, it is actually an agonist in bone
and uterus (while it is an antagonist in breast)
53. Why did it seem, in the days before they found adverse effects, that
COX-2 inhibitors would be better than NSAIDS like aspirin and ibuprophen?
they inhibit both COX 1 & 2 and, because of this, have adverse affects
in the stomach and don't target arthritis as selectively
54. Suppose you had a male animal with a reproductive cycle that was seasonal.
How would you do a lab study to see if the size of the testes is different
in different seasons?
raise some on 8 hr light - 16 hr dark, the others on 16-8
55. Pluripotency ANSWER EITHER (1) What does that mean? OR (2) Cells from
what portion of the blastocyst have this property?
1-these cells can differentiate into any adult cell type, 2. inner cell
56. When an imbalance of a small chromosome (trisomy-21, Downs syndrome)
has a huge effect on the child, how is it possible that women have two X
chromosomes while men have one, without resulting in an intolerable difference
in the dosage of X chromosomal genes?
one X is inactivated in every cell in the woman
57. "So you see, the female developmental pathway is the default pathway
while the male pathway is the active pathway." Say something about
chemicals or embryonic ducts that lead to this generalized statement.
paramesonephric duct that would become uterus and tube degenerates with
MIF from testes and mesonephric duct turns int epididymus, vas deferens
and ejaculatory ducts under the influence of testosterone from the testes
58. Even when capillaries are not damaged by the injury that fills the area
outside the capillary with bacteria, neutrophils migrate to where they are
needed. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this migration called? OR (2) How, when
the capillary is intact, did this polymorphonuclear granulocyte get there?
1-extravasation, 2-slither out between endothelial cells
59. Why and under what circumstances would you administer antibodies (for
passive immunity) to an Rh negative woman?
if she gave birth to an Rh+ baby so she would not develop active immunity
and not be able to safely get pregnant again
60. An antibody interacts with an antigen. ANSWER EITHER (1) Say something
about what part of the antigen one antibody molecule binds to. OR (2) Say
something about what part of the antibody molecule binds to the antigen.
1. an epitope (antigenic determinant), 5 - 15 amino acids long, 2-the tip
of the Y short- and long-chains, the variable region
61. A B cell develops into a plasma cell that puts out an antibody received
by a receptor on a mast cell. ANSWER EITHER (1) What category (type) of
antibody is this? OR (2) What is secreted from this mast cell when it binds
62. The somatosensory cortex. That's a functional name. Give the anatomical
63. Spinothalamic system. ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is the tract in the spinal
cord? (2) Which side of the spinal cord is it in (relative to where the
receptor is)? OR (3) What is the function of this submodality?
1-anteriolateral, 2-other side (contralateral), 3-pain and temperature
64. "In conclusion, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases are functionally
opposites in a homeostatic feedback to the site where voluntary motor movements
are initiated." ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this site where voluntary
motor movements are initiated? OR (2) What brain structure is on the pathway
from the globus pallidus (in the basal ganglia) to this site where voluntary
motor movements are initiated?
1-precentral gyrus, 2-thalamus
65. In the projection to the brain for the sense of taste, name a place
after the first synapse in the medulla.
thalamus, post-central gyrus
66. "In the projection, Olfaction does not go to some place in the
cerebral cortex." Tell me one of the places the olfactory bulb projects
hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate (limbic system)
67. The organ of Corti (spiral organ) lies on the basilar membrane and is
right next to the tectorial membrane. Describe how the tectorial membrane
assists in auditory transduction.
stereocilia are bent as vibrations move hair cells relative to the tectorial
68. Why did Bekesy need to conjure lateral inhibition to reconcile his data
with Helmholtz's place theory?
the localization (data) was too crude to explain that a person can hear
the difference of just a few Hz
69. Why couldn't you see the ultraviolet light I showed you?
the lens blocks the uv
70. Progressive myopia can be attributed to what change in the shape of
it gets longer front to back
71. "Macular pigments protect foveal cones from... ANSWER EITHER (1)
Protect foveal cones from what? (2) What kind of molecules make up the macular
1-blue light, 2-carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin)
72. Glaucoma ANSWER EITHER (1) What goes wrong in the aqueous humor? OR
(2) Why would you go blind if it were not treated?
1-pressure builds up, retinal ganglion cells die
73. The occulomotor nerve, the third cranial nerve ANSWER EITHER (1) Does
what to the pupil...? OR (2) ...under what lighting conditions?
1-constricts it, 2-in bright light
74. Why does the rod's cation channel close in the light?
cGMP PDE has broken cGMP down to GMP, and it was cGMP that gated the channel
75. Retinal pigment epithelial cells from elderly donors are full of lipofuscin
that fluoresces yellow to short wavelength excitation. This accumulation
relates to what function of the retinal pigment epithelial cells?
phagocytosis of rod debris
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last revised 12/5/2013