1. What happens at ribosomes?
translation of the mRNA sequence to the amino acid sequence
2. Referring to the body's thermostat, under the same circumstances when
an animal might use vasoconstriction, what would happen to its fur?
piloerection, fluffing up the fur for better insulation
3. Analgesic and anticoagulant. What is another physiological effect of
4. Give ONE of the two negative feedback processes in the regulation of
blood cortisol levels. Name BOTH the hormone that does the inhibiting AND
where it exerts its negative feedback.
cortisol inhibits at the level of the anterior pituitary, ACTH feeds back
to the hypothalamus
5. In class, there was a question about the nature of the "glucose
transporter enzyme." Say something about the appropriate answer.
it is not an enzyme, it is a protein, it does not use energy, it mediates
6. How are the gradients of sodium and potassium ions established?
via the sodium pump, alias sodium-potassium pump, alias sodium-potassium
7. Say something about what Tay-Sach's disease has to do with EITHER (1)
membranes OR (2) lysosomes.
mutation blocks breakdown of a membrane glycolipid and thus the material
builds up in lysosome inclusions in cells
8. Write an equation obeying Ohm's law relating voltage and current but
using conductance rather than resistance.
if E=IR (Ohm's law), then E=(1/G)I or I=GE
9. We have myelin on our axons to speed the action potential along its way.
For the squid's escape response, what is the mechanism for the speed required
in the squid's axon?
it is a giant axon
10. "Current leaks through membrane capacitance." How, then, can
myelin be a good insulator with its many layers of membrane?
capacitors in series add reciprocally (but I should also give credit for
the membrane resistors add up)
11. "You cannot have more current flowing into one place than flows
out of that place" is my casual way of saying one of (whose?) laws
that explains circuits?
the first law of Kirchoff
12. How does the flexor get inhibited in the knee-jerk reflex?
through an inhibitory interneuron in the spinal cord
13. How did calcium come in near to neurotransmitter vesicles to orchestrate
through voltage gated membrane calcium channels that were activated by the
arrival of the action potential
14. For EITHER the bacterium that causes tetanus OR the bacterium that causes
botulism, what is the significance of the bacterium being anaerobic?
would thrive in deep puncture wounds or in improperly canned goods
15. Name an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
malathion, neostigmine, organophosphates, nerve gas
16. Give ONE step in the cascade between the binding of the hormone epinephrine
to a receptor and the production of glucose from glycogen.
activate G protein, activation of adenylate cyclase, production of cAMP,
activation of protein kinase A, activation of phosphorylase kinase, activation
17. What type of neurotransmitter receptor mediates vasoconstriction?
18. In muscle contraction, "Power stroke causes filaments to slide;
ADP is released." ADP is released from what molecule?
19. Where did the calcium ions come from to bind to striated muscle's troponin?
20. "Fewer muscle cells are innervated by one motor neuron in extraocular
eye muscles than for the calf muscle." What is this assembly of muscle
cells innervated by one neuron called?
a motor unit
21. What is it called when individual muscle twitches come so frequently
that they add to a steady contraction?
22. Describe or draw the relationship of myoglobin with hemoglobin in the
oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
myoglobin is to the left, has a higher affinity, so hemoglobin offloads
oxygen to myoglobin
23. How many possible different peptides are there that are 3 amino acids
24. By activation of the beta adrenergic receptor in the liver cell, adenylate
cyclase must chop (what AND how much?) off of ATP as cAMP is made?
25. In the sodium-glucose transporter, sodium moves down its concentration
gradient. What direction does glucose move?
down its concentration gradient, into the cell
26. Insulin is made from a prohormone. State ONE of the things that are
done to make insulin from this hormone.
a peptide fragment is removed from between the two that are part of insulin
and these are linked by disulfide bonds
27. How does angiogenesis lead to diabetic retinopathy?
new, fragile blood vessels break and leak into the vitreous humor of the
28. During fasting, when gluconeogenesis creates glucose, ANSWER EITHER
(1) Where do the amino acids come from? OR (2) What organ converts them
29. "In conclusion, GLUT-2 mediated glucose uptake into a beta cell
in the islets of Langerhans is for the sake of ATP production." How
does that ATP mediate the release of insulin?
increased ATP/ADP ratio closes K+ channels, depolarizing cell, mediating
30. What signal molecule does glucagon bind to mediate glycogenolysis in
the liver and lipolysis in adipose tissue?
a G protein coupled receptor
31. Why do textbook artists color the pulmonary arteries blue?
they carry blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide
32. Referring to the Wiggers diagram, why would high diastolic pressure
be especially hard on the heart?
higher ventricular pressure would be required to force open semilunar valves
33. How does the action potential in one myocardial cell get to the adjacent
through gap junctions
34. If the SA node did not fire, why wouldn't you die?
the AV node, at a slower pulse, would drive the ventricles, and, anyway,
not much of the ventricular filling was from the atrial beat
35. Why are anticoagulants useful in the management and emergency treatment
of heart attack patients?
to prevent a thrombus or embolism from occluding a coronary artery
36. How do you treat VENTRICULAR fibrillation and why?
away from technology give CPR to keep the brain alive, if available a defibrillator
to synchronize a new heart beat
37. What powers the mucus elevator?
38. PICK ONE (1) A drug that specifically affects beta-2 adrenergic receptors
(Terbutaline), OR (2) a drug that blocks leukotriene action (Singulair).
What is the specific action that would help in asthma?
1 open airways by mimicKing adrenalin or the sympathetic nervous system,
2 decrease inflammation
39. Why do people with emphysema have to work harder to breathe?
with fewer alveoli, there is less area for gas exchange
40. What would hyperventillation do to the pH in the medulla?
41. What happens to the Humboldt current during el Nino?
the upwelling of nutrients off the coast of Peru is interrupted (and the
normally cool water is warmer) and climate changes
42. ADH (antidiuretic hormone, alias vasopressin) ANSWER EITHER (1) What
channels are regulated by ADH? OR (2) Where (specifically) does ADH have
water channels (aquaporins), collecting duct
43. Why would blood glucose monitoring be better than urine glucose monitoring
to test for diabetes?
glucose does not show up in the urine until blood glucose is really high
because glucose resorption does work in diabetics, but it reaches saturation
44. Why would starch eventually taste sweet if you kept it in your mouth?
salivary amylase would eventually break glucose polymer into monomers
45. "Carboxypepidase is an exopeptidase." ANSWER EITHER (1) What
does that mean (exopeptidase)? OR (2) What is the precursor of carboxypeptidase?
cuts off one amino acid at the end (the carboxy terminal) of a protein,
procarboxypeptidase (a zymogen)
46. "There is a co-transporter for glucose absorption in the intestinal
epithelium." ANSWER EITHER (1) What is transported through this transporter
along with glucose? OR (2) It is located on what surface of the cell?
47. "Urobilinogen is eliminated in the urine" and how else is
in the feces
48. A hormone suggested to help social behavior, eye contact, and social
skills in children with autism is more commonly associated with (what?).
milk ejection, also labor and delivery
49. There is a new hormone after implantation, and it is a good one to assay
to test for pregnancy. What is that hormone?
50. For ACTH ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the large prohormone protein from
which the ACTH peptide is derived? OR (2) What hormone stimulates melanin-containing
cells in the skin? (This hormone is similar to ACTH, and too much ACTH would
make your skin darker.)
51. Why do they refer to Tamoxifen as a SERM (selective estrogen receptor
it is an antagonist in breast but an agonist in other tissues
52. What effect, if any, would castration have on the seminal vesicle?
it would be smaller
53. T4 (thyroxine with 4 iodines) is brought to the cell membrane in the
company of a carrier protein. Say something that happens after that to allow
two receptors to bind to their response elements to activate thyroxine dependent
cross cell membrane, bind intracellular carrier protein, get converted to
T3, bind one receptor that joins a RXR receptor for 9-cis retinoic acid
54. Oh sure, incontinence and impotence are side effects of prostate surgery
to be avoided. But there is a more fundamental reason that prostate surgery
is not performed as much as it used to be. What is this reason?
it does not increase survival
55. "OK, here's how meiosis works: double the DNA then divide twice."
Then how come only one egg results?
the polar bodies degenerate
56. Many women want to bear their children before the age of 40 because
of an increased likelihood of (what is the most famous disorder here)?
trisomy-21 (Downs syndrome)
57. What is amniocentesis?
sampling of amniotic fluid to get cells to screen for chromosomal or genetic
58. Macrophage ANSWER EITHER (1) Why does the word end in "phage?"
OR (2) What type of white blood cell is it derived from?
1- it eats (phagocytoses) bacteria, 2-monocyte
59. Even before a B lymphocyte has formed a clone of plasma and memory cells
responsive to a particular antigen, that antigen binds to (what?) on the
surface of the B cell.
a B cell receptor (IgD)
60. How, before the Salk vaccine, was it possible to protect a person who
had been exposed to polio?
passive (vs active) immunity, i.e. inject antibodies
61. An Rh negative mother has to worry about having a second Rh positive
baby. Why doesn't a type A mother need to worry about having a type B baby?
igM does not cross the placenta
62. What type of cell presents an antigen from a phagocytosed foreign particle
to a helper T cell?
a macrophage, also a dendritic cell
63. Axons for one sensory system are in the dorsal columns. ANSWER EITHER
(1) Where are these dorsal columns? OR (2) What is being perceived by this
dorsal white matter of the spinal cord, fine touch
64. A cell body in the precentral gyrus sends an axon through a decussation
in the medulla oblongata. Where does that axon make its synapse?
onto the spinal motor neuron in the ventral horn of the spinal cord gray
65. What is the significance of the increase in cytoplasmic calcium in all
taste receptor types after the transduction at the tips of the cells?
involved in synaptic transmittor vesicle release
66. "The olfactory receptor channel works somewhat like the photoreceptor
channel." How does the sodium-calcium channel in the olfactory receptor
cAMP gates it from inside the cell
67. In the definition for sound intensity, there is a ratio, 20 times the
log to the base 10 of this ratio. ANSWER EITHER (1) This is the ratio of
what kind of measurement? OR (2) The value of the denominator is 0.0002
-- what are the units?
pressure, dynes per square cm
68. The organ of Corti (spiral organ) lies on the basilar membrane and is
right next to the tectorial membrane. Describe how the tectorial membrane
assists in auditory transduction.
stereocilia are bent as vibrations move hair cells relative to the tectorial
69. "When the auditory mechanoreceptive channel opens, potassium comes
into the cell." What the heck?
potassium is high in the extracellular endolymph (high extracellular potassium
70. Blind spot ANSWER EITHER (1) In terms of anatomy, why is this found
on the temporal VISUAL field? OR (2) Why is that area blind?
because the optic nerve exits on the nasal RETINAL field, there can be no
receptors where the optic nerve exits the eye
71. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the mechanism of blindness in diabetic retinopathy?
OR (2) How does blasting blind spots into the retina with a laser retard
the progress of diabetic retinopathy?
new, fragile blood vessels leak, the signal for angiogenesis is decreased
72. Why did I say that female carriers of red or green color blindness should
actually be moasics?
because of X-inactivation, they should have color normal and color blind
areas of the retina
73. Say something about the involvement of phosphodiesterase in visual transduction.
activated by alpha subunit of transcucin, breaks down cGMP and so channel
74. For EITHER Drosophila OR vertebrates, what is the enzyme that is activated
by transducin (the G protein)?
phospholipase C, phosphodiesterase
75. For EITHER Drosophila OR rats, ANSWER EITHER (1) Say something that
happens upon vitamin A deprivation. OR (2) Can vision be restored by vitamin
they get less sensitive and the photoreceptors get smaller, vision recovers
Return to syllabus
Return to Stark home page
last updated 11/30/2015