1. What happens at ribosomes?

translation of the mRNA sequence to the amino acid sequence

2. Referring to the body's thermostat, under the same circumstances when an animal might use vasoconstriction, what would happen to its fur?

piloerection, fluffing up the fur for better insulation

3. Analgesic and anticoagulant. What is another physiological effect of aspirin?


4. Give ONE of the two negative feedback processes in the regulation of blood cortisol levels. Name BOTH the hormone that does the inhibiting AND where it exerts its negative feedback.

cortisol inhibits at the level of the anterior pituitary, ACTH feeds back to the hypothalamus

5. In class, there was a question about the nature of the "glucose transporter enzyme." Say something about the appropriate answer.

it is not an enzyme, it is a protein, it does not use energy, it mediates facilitated diffusion

6. How are the gradients of sodium and potassium ions established?

via the sodium pump, alias sodium-potassium pump, alias sodium-potassium ATPase

7. Say something about what Tay-Sach's disease has to do with EITHER (1) membranes OR (2) lysosomes.

mutation blocks breakdown of a membrane glycolipid and thus the material builds up in lysosome inclusions in cells

8. Write an equation obeying Ohm's law relating voltage and current but using conductance rather than resistance.

if E=IR (Ohm's law), then E=(1/G)I or I=GE

9. We have myelin on our axons to speed the action potential along its way. For the squid's escape response, what is the mechanism for the speed required in the squid's axon?

it is a giant axon

10. "Current leaks through membrane capacitance." How, then, can myelin be a good insulator with its many layers of membrane?

capacitors in series add reciprocally (but I should also give credit for the membrane resistors add up)

11. "You cannot have more current flowing into one place than flows out of that place" is my casual way of saying one of (whose?) laws that explains circuits?

the first law of Kirchoff

12. How does the flexor get inhibited in the knee-jerk reflex?

through an inhibitory interneuron in the spinal cord

13. How did calcium come in near to neurotransmitter vesicles to orchestrate their release?

through voltage gated membrane calcium channels that were activated by the arrival of the action potential

14. For EITHER the bacterium that causes tetanus OR the bacterium that causes botulism, what is the significance of the bacterium being anaerobic?

would thrive in deep puncture wounds or in improperly canned goods

15. Name an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

malathion, neostigmine, organophosphates, nerve gas

16. Give ONE step in the cascade between the binding of the hormone epinephrine to a receptor and the production of glucose from glycogen.

activate G protein, activation of adenylate cyclase, production of cAMP, activation of protein kinase A, activation of phosphorylase kinase, activation of phosphorylase

17. What type of neurotransmitter receptor mediates vasoconstriction?

alpha-1 adrenergic

18. In muscle contraction, "Power stroke causes filaments to slide; ADP is released." ADP is released from what molecule?


19. Where did the calcium ions come from to bind to striated muscle's troponin?

sarcoplasmic reticulum

20. "Fewer muscle cells are innervated by one motor neuron in extraocular eye muscles than for the calf muscle." What is this assembly of muscle cells innervated by one neuron called?

a motor unit

21. What is it called when individual muscle twitches come so frequently that they add to a steady contraction?


22. Describe or draw the relationship of myoglobin with hemoglobin in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.

myoglobin is to the left, has a higher affinity, so hemoglobin offloads oxygen to myoglobin

23. How many possible different peptides are there that are 3 amino acids long?


24. By activation of the beta adrenergic receptor in the liver cell, adenylate cyclase must chop (what AND how much?) off of ATP as cAMP is made?

two phosphates

25. In the sodium-glucose transporter, sodium moves down its concentration gradient. What direction does glucose move?

down its concentration gradient, into the cell

26. Insulin is made from a prohormone. State ONE of the things that are done to make insulin from this hormone.

a peptide fragment is removed from between the two that are part of insulin and these are linked by disulfide bonds

27. How does angiogenesis lead to diabetic retinopathy?

new, fragile blood vessels break and leak into the vitreous humor of the eye

28. During fasting, when gluconeogenesis creates glucose, ANSWER EITHER (1) Where do the amino acids come from? OR (2) What organ converts them to glucose?

muscle, liver

29. "In conclusion, GLUT-2 mediated glucose uptake into a beta cell in the islets of Langerhans is for the sake of ATP production." How does that ATP mediate the release of insulin?

increased ATP/ADP ratio closes K+ channels, depolarizing cell, mediating vesicle release

30. What signal molecule does glucagon bind to mediate glycogenolysis in the liver and lipolysis in adipose tissue?

a G protein coupled receptor

31. Why do textbook artists color the pulmonary arteries blue?

they carry blood low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide

32. Referring to the Wiggers diagram, why would high diastolic pressure be especially hard on the heart?

higher ventricular pressure would be required to force open semilunar valves

33. How does the action potential in one myocardial cell get to the adjacent myocardial cell?

through gap junctions

34. If the SA node did not fire, why wouldn't you die?

the AV node, at a slower pulse, would drive the ventricles, and, anyway, not much of the ventricular filling was from the atrial beat

35. Why are anticoagulants useful in the management and emergency treatment of heart attack patients?

to prevent a thrombus or embolism from occluding a coronary artery

36. How do you treat VENTRICULAR fibrillation and why?

away from technology give CPR to keep the brain alive, if available a defibrillator to synchronize a new heart beat

37. What powers the mucus elevator?

ciliary beat

38. PICK ONE (1) A drug that specifically affects beta-2 adrenergic receptors (Terbutaline), OR (2) a drug that blocks leukotriene action (Singulair). What is the specific action that would help in asthma?

1 open airways by mimicKing adrenalin or the sympathetic nervous system, 2 decrease inflammation

39. Why do people with emphysema have to work harder to breathe?

with fewer alveoli, there is less area for gas exchange

40. What would hyperventillation do to the pH in the medulla?

raise it

41. What happens to the Humboldt current during el Nino?

the upwelling of nutrients off the coast of Peru is interrupted (and the normally cool water is warmer) and climate changes

42. ADH (antidiuretic hormone, alias vasopressin) ANSWER EITHER (1) What channels are regulated by ADH? OR (2) Where (specifically) does ADH have its effects?

water channels (aquaporins), collecting duct

43. Why would blood glucose monitoring be better than urine glucose monitoring to test for diabetes?

glucose does not show up in the urine until blood glucose is really high because glucose resorption does work in diabetics, but it reaches saturation

44. Why would starch eventually taste sweet if you kept it in your mouth?

salivary amylase would eventually break glucose polymer into monomers

45. "Carboxypepidase is an exopeptidase." ANSWER EITHER (1) What does that mean (exopeptidase)? OR (2) What is the precursor of carboxypeptidase?

cuts off one amino acid at the end (the carboxy terminal) of a protein, procarboxypeptidase (a zymogen)

46. "There is a co-transporter for glucose absorption in the intestinal epithelium." ANSWER EITHER (1) What is transported through this transporter along with glucose? OR (2) It is located on what surface of the cell?

sodium, apical

47. "Urobilinogen is eliminated in the urine" and how else is it eliminated?

in the feces

48. A hormone suggested to help social behavior, eye contact, and social skills in children with autism is more commonly associated with (what?).

milk ejection, also labor and delivery

49. There is a new hormone after implantation, and it is a good one to assay to test for pregnancy. What is that hormone?


50. For ACTH ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the large prohormone protein from which the ACTH peptide is derived? OR (2) What hormone stimulates melanin-containing cells in the skin? (This hormone is similar to ACTH, and too much ACTH would make your skin darker.)


51. Why do they refer to Tamoxifen as a SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator)?

it is an antagonist in breast but an agonist in other tissues

52. What effect, if any, would castration have on the seminal vesicle?

it would be smaller

53. T4 (thyroxine with 4 iodines) is brought to the cell membrane in the company of a carrier protein. Say something that happens after that to allow two receptors to bind to their response elements to activate thyroxine dependent genes.

cross cell membrane, bind intracellular carrier protein, get converted to T3, bind one receptor that joins a RXR receptor for 9-cis retinoic acid

54. Oh sure, incontinence and impotence are side effects of prostate surgery to be avoided. But there is a more fundamental reason that prostate surgery is not performed as much as it used to be. What is this reason?

it does not increase survival

55. "OK, here's how meiosis works: double the DNA then divide twice." Then how come only one egg results?

the polar bodies degenerate

56. Many women want to bear their children before the age of 40 because of an increased likelihood of (what is the most famous disorder here)?

trisomy-21 (Downs syndrome)

57. What is amniocentesis?

sampling of amniotic fluid to get cells to screen for chromosomal or genetic abmormalities

58. Macrophage ANSWER EITHER (1) Why does the word end in "phage?" OR (2) What type of white blood cell is it derived from?

1- it eats (phagocytoses) bacteria, 2-monocyte

59. Even before a B lymphocyte has formed a clone of plasma and memory cells responsive to a particular antigen, that antigen binds to (what?) on the surface of the B cell.

a B cell receptor (IgD)

60. How, before the Salk vaccine, was it possible to protect a person who had been exposed to polio?

passive (vs active) immunity, i.e. inject antibodies

61. An Rh negative mother has to worry about having a second Rh positive baby. Why doesn't a type A mother need to worry about having a type B baby?

igM does not cross the placenta

62. What type of cell presents an antigen from a phagocytosed foreign particle to a helper T cell?

a macrophage, also a dendritic cell

63. Axons for one sensory system are in the dorsal columns. ANSWER EITHER (1) Where are these dorsal columns? OR (2) What is being perceived by this sensory system?

dorsal white matter of the spinal cord, fine touch

64. A cell body in the precentral gyrus sends an axon through a decussation in the medulla oblongata. Where does that axon make its synapse?

onto the spinal motor neuron in the ventral horn of the spinal cord gray matter

65. What is the significance of the increase in cytoplasmic calcium in all taste receptor types after the transduction at the tips of the cells?

involved in synaptic transmittor vesicle release

66. "The olfactory receptor channel works somewhat like the photoreceptor channel." How does the sodium-calcium channel in the olfactory receptor open?

cAMP gates it from inside the cell

67. In the definition for sound intensity, there is a ratio, 20 times the log to the base 10 of this ratio. ANSWER EITHER (1) This is the ratio of what kind of measurement? OR (2) The value of the denominator is 0.0002 -- what are the units?

pressure, dynes per square cm

68. The organ of Corti (spiral organ) lies on the basilar membrane and is right next to the tectorial membrane. Describe how the tectorial membrane assists in auditory transduction.

stereocilia are bent as vibrations move hair cells relative to the tectorial membrane

69. "When the auditory mechanoreceptive channel opens, potassium comes into the cell." What the heck?

potassium is high in the extracellular endolymph (high extracellular potassium is unusual)

70. Blind spot ANSWER EITHER (1) In terms of anatomy, why is this found on the temporal VISUAL field? OR (2) Why is that area blind?

because the optic nerve exits on the nasal RETINAL field, there can be no receptors where the optic nerve exits the eye

71. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the mechanism of blindness in diabetic retinopathy? OR (2) How does blasting blind spots into the retina with a laser retard the progress of diabetic retinopathy?

new, fragile blood vessels leak, the signal for angiogenesis is decreased

72. Why did I say that female carriers of red or green color blindness should actually be moasics?

because of X-inactivation, they should have color normal and color blind areas of the retina

73. Say something about the involvement of phosphodiesterase in visual transduction.

activated by alpha subunit of transcucin, breaks down cGMP and so channel closes

74. For EITHER Drosophila OR vertebrates, what is the enzyme that is activated by transducin (the G protein)?

phospholipase C, phosphodiesterase

75. For EITHER Drosophila OR rats, ANSWER EITHER (1) Say something that happens upon vitamin A deprivation. OR (2) Can vision be restored by vitamin A replacement?

they get less sensitive and the photoreceptors get smaller, vision recovers

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last updated 11/30/2015