1. It's cold and you have "goose bumps" on your forearm. Relate
that to homeostasis for temperature regulation.
if you were a mammal with more fur, that would fluff up your fur for better
insulation and less heat loss
2. If there were not enough iodine in the diet, explain how (and in what
direction) that would affect the level of thyroid stimulating hormone from
low iodine would lead to low thyroxine (T3 and T4, i.e. thyroid hormone)
and the lower negative feedback to the pituitary would increase TSH
3. "In an isotonic milieu like the blood stream, a red blood cell's
shape remains unchanged." To make red blood cell ghosts, Gorter and
Grendel Answer one of the following: (1) They moved the cells from an isotonic
solution to what kind of solution? (2) What famous membrane transport process
mediated the net influx of water into the cell?
hypotonic (distilled water), osmosis
4. "You can see the hydrophilic layers of the membrane and they are
dark, while the hydrophobic layer is light." This is a very careless
way of stating the appearance of a membrane in the electron microscope.
Make part of this statement more scientifically accurate.
"dark" is electron dense because of staining with heavy metals,
and "light" is the opposite
5. In addition to glycolipids and cholesterol, what is the major lipid constituent
of the cell membrane?
6. If you wanted to record the current carried through a single nicotinic
acetylcholine receptor, what technique would you use?
patch clamp, put electrode up to the channel but do not poke it into the
7. Based on a careful analysis of how a Wheatstone bridge went out of balance
while an action potential went by, what fundamental conclusion did Cole
and Curtis make?
that the conductance increased during the action potential
8. When Nernst assumed equilibrium, he assumed that the energies (say for
potassium) in a two thermodynamic systems (say inside the cell vs outside
the membrane) are equal. For each system (say inside the cell), there are
two components, an electrical component and (what?)
a chemical component
9. Suppose, with a given set of permeabilities and the standard concentrations,
the Goldman equation approximated the resting potential. What would you
need to change to calculate the peak of the action potential from the Goldman
increase sodium permeability
10. How do the cells that myelinate axons differ in the central vs. the
peripheral nervous systems?
cns oligodendroglia myelinate a few axons while pns Schwann cells myelinate
11. For post-polio syndrome (worsening symptoms in middle age), according
to a paper discussed in class, why is there (answer either) (1) a recovery
after the initial infantile paralysis, or (2) the worsening symptoms in
spinal motor neurons sprout to connect to abandoned muscle fibers, these
sprouts go away
12. Although Ramon y Cajal used Golgi's technique, and the two shared the
Nobel Prize in 1906, only Ramon y Cajal's viewpoint required the existence
of synaptic connections such as Nobelist Sherrington proposed. In what way
did Ramon y Cajal's vs Golgi's viewpoints differ regarding this issue?
only Ramon y Cajal thought cells were separate entities that would need
to signel to each other
13. Why did Sherrington refer to the spinal motor neuron as the "final
common pathway in the integrative action of the nervous system?"
it can integrate EPSPs and IPSPs while the motor end plate is only excitatory
14. In contrast with the mechanism to terminate cholinergic transmission
(involving acetylcholinesterase) what keeps norepinephrine or epinephrine
from stimulating the receptor forever?
15. Why not just give dopamine to help patients with Parkinson's disease?
it does not cross the blood brain barrier
16. A portion of the parasympathetic output comes from the sacral portion
of the spinal cord. What part of the central nervous system is the source
for the rest of the parasympathetic output?
17. For nitric oxide (NO), answer EITHER (1) What cell does it come from?
OR (2) What enzyme does it activate?
endothelial, guanylate cyclase
18. Why, in his Nobel prize winning work, did Sir Bernard Katz decrease
the extracellular calcium in the neighborhood of the end plate?
to decrease vesicle release
19. What is the name of the band where there is myosin but not actin?
helle (lighter) H band
20. In addition to plasma free fatty acids and muscle triglyceride, name
one caloric source of energy in muscle.
glucose (from plasma) and glycogen (in muscle)
21. What TWO locations are there calcium channels in a striated muscle cell?
t-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum
22. How did I get from the activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)
to a therapy to decrease blood pressure?
calcium channel blockers would relax arteriole smooth muscle because calcium
is necessary to activate MLCK and it comes in from outside the cell through
23. Using hemoglobin as an example, what is the quaternary structure of
two alpha and two beta subunits linked together
24. Under the influence of insulin, how can there be a rapid increase in
the amount of glucose that can be transported into muscle and liver cells?
the GLUT4 transporters are at the ready in vesicles and moved to the plasmalemma
25. In order to regenerate NAD from NADH plus H+, what chemical is converted
to what chemical (ANSWER BOTH) when glycolysis takes place under anaerobic
pyruvic acid into lactic acid
26. Under the influence of insulin, glucose is taken out of the blood stream
into the liver, adipose tissue and (what other organ?).
27. What does an echocardiogram (ultrasound) show that an electrocardiogram
you see the beating heart, the valves moving, the thickness of the walls
28. Why do the semilunar valves snap shut (and produce the second heart
as ventricles relax, back pressure from the arteries is higher than the
29. We identified which valve closures created the first and second "lub-dub"
heart sounds. By contrast, I am asking you: Which valves open first (after
the beginning of ventricular contraction)?
semilunar valves (that separate ventricles from arteries)
30. Parasympathetic and sympathetic portions of the autonomic nervous system
affect heart rate, acting on the SA (and AV) nodes. What additional direct
affect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the heart?
sympathetic NS increases myocardial contractility
31. When discussing the Frank-Starling law, I contrasted the situation (for
cardiac muscle) with the situation (for striated muscle) where there is
a drop off at greater length in the relative tension. However, for the Frank-Starling
law, we do not plot relative tension as a function of percentage of resting
length. Give me the X OR the Y for the Frank Starling law.
x-ventricular end-diastolic volume (ml), y-stroke volume (ml)
32. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems regulate heart rate
and contractility and hence blood pressure. How is blood pressure monitored
to achieve this autonomic homeostatic blood pressure control?
with mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid bodies via the medulla
33. Why does aspirin help to prevent a heart attack?
it inhibits clotting
34. The stress EKG ANSWER EITHER (1) What disorder is it used to diagnose?
(2) How is the stress achieved? OR (3) What is the target pulse they try
occluded coronary artery, treadmill or injection, 220 minus age
35. Why is the burning of fossil fuels expected to cause global warming?
atmospheric carbon dioxide acts like the glass in a green house
36. Approximatey, what is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the
alveloi and in the pulmonary veins and in the systemic arteries (all the
same) during normal tidal ventillation?
40 mm Hg
37. When carbon dioxide is moving from the blood to the alveoli, what happens
to chloride and why?
it moves out of the red blood cell so that bicarbonate from the plasma can
move into the red blood cell
38. Cystic fibrosis ANSWER EITHER (1) How do parents take care of the children?
OR (2) Molecularly OR genetically, what is wrong?
percussion (thump the chest) for more productive coughing, chloride channel
because of mutation in CFTR
39. "Diabetics' kidneys cannot pump glucose back into the bloodstream."
False! Then why is there glucose in the urine of untreated diabetics?
they pump, but there is so much glucose that the pump saturates
40. Inulin clearance ANSWER EITHER (1) Rather than injecting inulin, there
is a more convenient test involving (what?) substance that is already in
the body. OR (2) What specific aspect of kidney function is being tested?
creatinine, glomerular filtration
41. Why do they serve Gatorade to runners during a marathon?
salt appetite because of salt loss through perspiration
42. Why would you prescribe Warfarin to a patient?
prevent any problem having to do with a blood clot (thrombus, embolism),
for instance heart attack (coronary thrombosis)
43. "Carboxypeptidase is an exopeptidase." ANSWER EITHER (1) What
specific function of carboxypeptidase gives it this name? OR (2) Why is
it called an exopeptidase?
1-it cuts off the amino acid at the carboxy terminal of the peptide, 2-
it cuts at the end, not in from the end
44. "The microsomal fraction gets the first crack at detoxifying anything
in what you eat." ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the microsomal fraction?
(2) Where was this microsomal fraction obtained? OR (3) How is it that absorbed
food is delivered for the microsomal fraction to do its work?
1-the hepatocyte's smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 2-grinding up liver, 3-because
of the hepatic portal vessel
45. Regarding the hormone leptin ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does it come from?
OR (2) What structure does it affect?
adipose tissue, hypothalamus (arcuate nucleus)
46. Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and arcuate nucleus
are all part of what important part of the brain involved in motivation,
among other things?
47. In terms of the uterus, what is happening during menstruation?
endometrium which had built up breaks down
48. How does the rhythm method of birth control work?
a 4-day window around the approximate time of ovulation when sperm and egg
can be viable
49. An osteoclast contributes to the regulation of blood calcium ... Answer
either (1) under the influence of what hormone? (2) how?
parathormone, secrete HCl to break down calcium phosphate and enzyme to
break down collagen
50. ACTH is a peptide produced by being cut out of a larger precursor named
51. "Perinatal testosterone treatment can masculinize a female rat."
Describe the experiment and results demonstrating this regarding feeding
put a little testosterone under the skin of a newborn pup and the adult
weight will be intermediate between female (250 g) and male (500 g)
52. Why would a transdermal patch be less likely than oral administration
to create problems with estrogen replacement therapy?
via the oral route, it would affect receptors in the liver plus get converted
to other forms in the liver
53. What does it mean when we describe arachidonic acid as "20:4?"
it is 20 carbons long and has 4 double bonds
54. Oh sure, incontinence and impotence are side effects of prostate surgery
to be avoided. But there is a more fundamental reason that surgery is not
performed as much as it used to be. What is this reason?
it does not increase survival
55. What divides to create identical twins?
the inner cell mass
56. "The purpose of meiosis is to establish genetic variability among
the possible germ cells." If there were no crossing over, how many
different combinations of chromosomes would there be in a man's sperm or
a woman's eggs?
2 to the 23 power
57. After a neutrophil phagocytoses a bacterium, what does the cell do to
destroy this bacterium?
merges the endosome with a lysosome
58. Why is it useful that fibrin has to be actively activated from its precursor,
you would only want blood to clot where it needs to clot
59. There are some interesting differences in ABO blood groups vs. Rh factor
antibodies. Answer either (1) Why would there be a bad reaction to the first
type A transfusion into a B recipient? or (2) Why would an Rh- mother only
have to worry (a lot!) about her further pregnancies after she has born
an Rh+ baby?
there is already antibody, the IgG crosses the placenta
60. A B cell, whose job is to make a plasma cell to make antibodies, is
already coated with antibodies (amazingly). ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind
of antibody is it? OR (2) What is the particular function of these antibodies?
1-IgD, 2-receptors for antigens
61. How do helper T cells assist killer T cells in their mission to destroy
lots of cells that have been infected by the identified pathogen?
via interleukin 2, they signal killer cells to proliferate
62. How did they learn which parts of the body project to which parts of
the postcentral gyrus?
gently stimulate the gyrus in a patient under local anesthesia and ask where
(s)he feels a tingle
63. For the fasciculus graciculus and the fasciculus cuneatus, say something
about (1) ipsilateral vs contralateral, or (2) where, in the spinal cord,
these tracts are located.
decussation to the contralateral side is in the medulla after the first
synapse, dorsal columns
64. A neuron in the precentral gyrus (pyramidal system) makes its synapse
onto what neuron?
the spinal motor neuron
65. Vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve
IX). What additional afferent nerve carries taste information from the tongue
to the brain? (name OR number would suffice)
66. Approximately how many G protein coupled receptors are there for human
67. The fluid pressure is transferred from the stirrup (stapes) ANSWER EITHER
(1) to (name of the "inner ear drum?") OR (2) is released at (what
other "window" facing the middle ear?)
oval window, round window
68. The audibility curve showed hearing threshold. Flipped over, it showed
hearing sensitivity. ANSWER EITHER (10 What is on the X axis? OR (2) What
is on the Y axis?
frequency (Hz or cycles per second), intensity in dynes per square centimeter
69. How does a tip link help the channel on the stereocilium?
this extracellular protein helps to pull open the mechanoreceptor as stereocilia
bend and one stereocilium pulls at another
70. Nearsightedness ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the official term? OR (2)
What kind of lens corrects this refractive disorder?
71. Say something about the involvement of phosphodiesterase in visual transduction.
activated by alpha subunit of transducin, breaks down cGMP and so channel
72. Dark current along the length of the rod ANSWER EITHER (1) Why does
it exist? OR (2) Under what circumstances does it stop?
sodium comes in in the outer segment and goes out in the inner segment,
stops in the light
73. A cis to trans isomerization of what chromophore, (name that chromophore),
a component of a G protein coupled receptor, is the only thing light actually
does in visual transduction?
11-cis retinal (retinene) the aldehyde of vitamin A
74. Say something about why the macula (the area around the fovea) looks
yellow when viewed through an ophthalmoscope.
carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein block blue light to protect foveal cones
75. Why is there lutein in your vitamin pill?
this is one of the carotenoids in the macular pigments that protect
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last updated Nov 29, 2016