1. Relate "goose bumps" with temperature regulation in a mammal
that has fur.
piloerection would fluff up the fur to conserve heat, goose bumps just show
the smooth muscle poking up the "vestigial" hairs
2. Used as an example of homeostasis, thyroxine was shown to have what effect
on the anterior pituitary?
"inhibits responsiveness to TRH" translates to: feeds back to
decrease release of TSH
3. "Insensible" is a term applied to water loss by perspiration
or panting in contrast with the water loss by micturition. What does "insensible"
you're not aware of it
4. Why do you need a chromophore (such as retinal for rhodopsin and heme
for hemoglobin) to make a protein into a pigment?
proteins do not absorb visible light
5. What must be true about the amino acids of the alpha helix of rhodopsin
that would let it cross the membrane?
they would be hydrophobic
6. In addition to the receptor, in receptor-mediated endocytosis, what famous
protein is seen in transmission electron micrographs that gives coated pits
and coated vesicles their names?
7. Reminder: The Goldman equation looks like the Nernst equation except
that it includes concentrations (in and out) plus permeabilities for all
three ions - Na+, K+ and Cl-. Only one of these 9 values changes at the
beginning of the action potential. Which?
permeability for Na+
8. Write an equation obeying Ohm's law relating voltage and current but
using conductance rather than resistance.
if E=IR (Ohm's law), then E=(1/g)I, so I=GE
9. What property keeps the action potential from triggering an action potential
behind it as it travels down the axon?
10. "Exponential" is the term describing Voltage as a function
of time for charging or discharging a capacitor in an RC circuit. Draw this
graph (for charging or discharging or both) where V is the battery's Voltage.
charging - goes up quickly then slowly, leveling off to V; discharging -
goes down quickly from V then leveling
11. In saltatory (leaping) conduction, the action potential jumps from where
one node of Ranvier to the next
12. What is the molecular mechanism for channel inactivation?
a stopper formed by amino acids near the n-terminus plugs the channel
13. What is different about the space constant vs the time constant for
the passive propagation that explains why giant axons are fast?
space constant varies with square root of radius, time constant does not
14. Although Ramon y Cajal used Golgi's technique, and the two shared the
Nobel Prize in 1906, only Ramon y Cajal's viewpoint required the existence
of synaptic connections such as Nobelist Sherrington proposed. In what way
did Ramon y Cajal's vs Golgi's viewpoints differ regarding this issue?
only Ramon y Cajal thought cells were separate entities that would need
to signal to each other
15. What does a kinase do to a protein?
16. Conductance to what anion increases when the postsynaptic membrane hyperpolarizes?
Cl- is the biologically important anion
17. What neurotransmitter does the substantia nigra make for the control
of motor movements?
18. What binds to adenylate cyclase to activate so that it makes cAMP out
alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G protein
19. Identify one of the two parts of the central nervous system where the
parasympathetic output originates. Be specific.
brain (for cranial nerves) and sacral part of the spinal cord
20. What is the interesting parallel in the actions of Viagra and caffeine?
they both inhibit a phosphodiesterase, Viagra inhibits cGMP breakdown and
caffeine inhibits cAMP breakdown
21. What prevents the myosin head from binding actin in striated muscle
when a contraction is not called for?
22. Bernard Katz won a Nobel prize demonstrating that the "quantum"
of neurotransmission at the motor end plate is the vesicle. He made it so
that one action potential (in the spinal motor neuron) would release 0,
1, 2, or 3 vesicles. How did he achieve this reduction?
by reducing the calcium ions that come in to mediate vesicle release
23. What enzyme is deficient in familial cases of Lou Gehrig's disease?
super oxide dismutase
24. While fasting, what does the liver do with the glycogen it stores?
breaks it to glucose and sends that to the blood stream
25. How does fat feed into metabolism to render ATP? (An answer for either
type of components that make up a fat will be OK.)
glycerol gets converted to the precursor of pyruvic acid. Fatty acids get
chopped down 2 carbons at a time to become acetyl CoA
26. "Tyrosine kinase" - where did the phosphate come from?
ATP donates the phosphate there (and pretty much everywhere)
27. What is released from adipose tissue under the influence of glucagon?
28. Insulin is made from a prohormone. State one of the things that are
done to make insulin from this prohormone.
a peptide fragment is removed from between the 2 that are part of insulin
and these are linked by 2 disulfide bonds
29. By what molecular mechanism does cAMP activate protein kinase A (A-kinase)?
2 cAMPs each bind 2 inhibitory subunits to activate 2 catalytic subunits
30. What are the cells that line blood vessels including capillaries called?
31. What kind of blood vessels have the highest TOTAL cross sectional area?
32. Taking blood pressure, you inflate the cuff to 180 mm Hg, then lower
it. You hear nothing until the systolic pressure is reached. After the diastolic
pressure is passed, you hear nothing. Why do you get sounds only between
systolic and diastolic pressures?
33. You feel chest pain so you take nitroglycerine. How did this save you
from a heart attack?
relaxation of smooth muscle in coronary arteries would alleviate the block
(that likely resulted from a thrombus or an embolism in an artery already
partially occluded from atherosclerosis)
34. Why would you die of if there were too much time between heart failure
and defibrillation without CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation)?
brain would die without O2 (and glucose)
35. What is the biological word for the Adam's apple?
36. An asthma spray would contain an agonist for what naturally occurring
37. "Water's surface tension would tend to collapse (close) alveoli."
Answer either (1) How does physiology take care of this problem? or (2)
People with what condition have a real problem because of this?
surfactant, premature babies
38. What is the intrapleural pressure? (I want an approximate value.)
slightly less than atmospheric
39. In the intestine and the kidney tubule, three processes are needed for
glucose transport, (1) basolateral sodium pump, (2) basolateral facilitated
diffusion, and (3) apical... [your turn].
40. Instead of injecting inulin, what test is there for clearance assaying
for a substance already in the body?
41. By what molecular mechanism would ADH (antidiuretic hormone) make the
collecting duct recover water better?
42. When I was in first grade, we were told to keep a saltine cracker in
our mouth and notice that eventually it tasted sweet. What enzyme is responsible
43. The hepatic portal vein carries blood from the small intestine to where?
44. Chief cells: answer EITHER (1) What is the name of the zymogen (precursor)
in the granules of these cells. OR (2) Acid secreted (from what cell?) helps
to form the active enzyme from the precursor?
45. What is the hormone from the adrenal medulla?
46. Gastrin stimulates secretions of parietal and chief cells. Name these
47. What hormone would put calcium back into bones?
48. Why would your skin be dark if you had Addison's disease (inadequate
cortisol, no feedback, too much ACTH)?
ACTH mimics melanocyte stimulating hormone
49. Would the corpus luteum build up and break down in women who are taking
the pill? (Include in your answer why or why not.)
no b/c steroids of the pill inhibit FSH and LH which would build follicle
into corpus luteum
50. What pituitary hormone maintains the cells that secrete testosterone?
51. Vitamin D has effects more similar to (which?) calcitonin or parathormone.
increase blood calcium like parathormone
52. Tamoxifen used to be called an antiestrogen but might now be better
referred to as a SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator). Why?
antagonist in some tissues but agonist in others
53. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) block converrsion of what
fatty acid to prostaglandins?
54. What close relative of retinal (retinene, the part of rhodopsin that
absorbs light) is important in the activation of the hormone response element
55. For purposes of family planning, some men elect to have a straightforward
surgery that results in sterilization. What is done?
vasectomy = ligate and sever the vas deferens
56. Simultaneous with menstruation, what happens to the corpus luteum?
it regresses (becomes corpus albicans)
57. Testes, prostate, bulbourethral gland (Cowper's gland). What gland that
is missing from that list contributes to semen?
58. What part of the blastocyst will eventually (much later) become the
59. Eosinophils are a type of polymorphonuclear granulocyte. What is eosin?
a histological stain
60. In what way do different antibodies create different risks for the fetus,
comparing the ABO blood groups vs. Rh factor.
IgM not cross placenta but IgG does so 2nd Rh+ fetus is a problem for an
Rh- mother unless she is given antibodies after the first is born
61. For inflammation, answer either (1) What are the three components of
the triad? Or (2) What chemical mediator from mast cells contributes to
warmth, redness, swelling, histamine
62. How can an infant be immune to some diseases between birth and weaning?
IgG across placenta, IgA in milk
63. Where is the cell body for the somatosensory receptor cell?
right outside the dorsal root of the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion_
64. Why does a textbook have a lateral view of the cerebral cortex which
has different locations colored differently?
to emphasize localization of function, for instance sensory areas for different
65. WHY (note, I am just asking why) would a half spinal cord lesion affect
senses mediated by spinothalamic vs lemniscal systems below the injury differently?
where they cross over is different, spinothalamic below the lesion, lemniscal
66. The corticospinal tract would be involved in arm and leg movements.
In what way is this situation different for the face?
67. Contrast how cAMP gates a cation channel in an olfactory receptor cell
with the way acetylcholine gates the nicotinic receptor.
cAMP from inside the cell, Ach from outside, both channels are ligand gated
68. For the fifth taste primary (other than sweet, sour, salt and bitter),
what chemical(s) stimulate it?
glutamate, amino acids
69. The stapes drives vibrations to what structure?
70. "There is tonotopic localization in the auditory cortex."
different frequencies at different locations in an order
71. What happens to your vision when the ciliary muscle is contracted?
when ligaments become flaccid, the lens gets rounder, accommodating for
72. Young and Helmholtz proposed a widely accepted theory of trichromatic
color vision in humans. Answer either (1) what kind of cell, or (2) what
kind of molecule has these three specific peak wavelengths of sensitivity?
73. What does activation of the parasympathetic portion of the occulomotor
nerve do to the pupil?
74. Say something about why the macula (the area around the fovea) looks
yellow when viewed through an ophthalmoscope.
carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein block blue light to protect foveal cones
75. Why is there lutein in your vitamin pill?
this is one of the carotenoids in the macular pigments that protect
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last updated 12/5/2017