1. State one physiological mechanism an animal uses to decrease heat loss.
2. What is the set point for human temperature regulation?
98.6 o F, 37 o C
3. Why was it a heroic endeavor, worthy of Guilleman and Schally's 1977
Nobel prize, to isolate thyrotropin releasing hormone (factor)?
releasing hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system would be
present in vanishingly small amounts
4. For GLUT-1, answer either (1) Why is the transport referred to as "passive?"
or (2) Why, if GLUT-1 transporters were present in the membrane, would glucose
go into the cell preferentially (instead of out of the cell)?
it does not use energy (if it did it would be active), glucose more concentrted
5. Just for orientation, I will state that, in the phosphoinositide cascade,
the hormone is "upstream" and calcium ions are "downstream."
Answer either (1) What is DIRECTLY upstream from the G-protein? OR (2) What
is DIRECTLY downstream from the G-protein?
the G protein coupled receptor, PLC
6. For the calcium-sequestering smooth endoplasmic reticulum (cistern),
answer either, (1) What is the ligand to open the calcium channel? OR (2)
Which direction do the calcium ions move?
IP3, from inside to the cytoplasm
7. It was convenient for physiologists that squids have giant axons. Why
was it convenient for the squid?
a fast action potential makes the mantle contract all at once for the escape
8. What results from current flowing through a resistor?
9. Although it is close to the truth, and very useful in the derivation
of the Nernst equation, in what way was the equilibrium assumption not completely
current flows through an open channel, and it should not if electrical and
chemical gradients are equal and opposite
10. In the equivalent circuit of the Goldman equation, why are the chloride
vs sodium batteries in reverse polarity even though their ion gradient is
the same (high outside, low inside)?
sodium is a cation, chloride is an anion
11. "You cannot trigger a new spike right after one spike." Answer
either (1) What is this property called? OR (2) Why is this property critical
for the flow of information in the axon?
refractory period, ensures that the action potential goes unidirectionally
12. "An action potential is the stimulus to trigger an action potential
ahead of it" since it is such a huge change in membrane voltage from
the resting level. Why, in an unmyelinated axon, is there a limited distance
ahead of it, rather than the whole length of the axon, that it depolarizes
the axon to threshold?
because current leaks out through the membrane resistance and capacitance
13. "You need to really cook the tomatoes from your garden as well
as the Mason jars you pack them in." Say something about how this advice
applies to neurotransmitter release.
endospores that can start new botulinum producing anaerobic bacteria are
14. For IPSP, answer ONE of the following: (1) What does IPSP stand for?
(2) What happens to the membrane potential during an IPSP? OR (3) What happens
to the conductance of the post-synaptic membrane during an IPSP?
inhibitory postsynaptic potential, it hyperpolarizes, it increases
15. For the substantia nigra, answer one of the following: (1) What transmitter
does it send to a place in the brain that helps control motor movements?
OR (2) Give one name (of the several names presented) of the place the substantia
nigr sends its transmitter to.
dopamine, caudate putamen basal ganglia, etc
16. To treat Parkinson's disease, why do they need to give the precursor
of the deficient neurotransmitter? In other words, why can't they administer
high doses of the deficient neurotransmitter to the patient?
dopamine does not cross the blood brain barrier but l-DOPA does
17. An erectile dysfunction (ED) medication such as Viagra potentiates NO
(nitric oxide) signaling by inhibiting a phosphodiesterase that converts
(what?) to (what?).
cGMP to GMP
18. For beta-1 adrenergic receptors, answer either (1) What is the neurotransmitter?
or (2) What effect would its activation have on heart rate?
norepinephrine, speed it up
19. What keeps myosin from binding to actin in relaxed muscle?
tropomyosin blocks the binding sites on actin
20. Why does myosin remain bound to actin in rigor mortis?
lack of ATP
21. Hemoglobin off-loads oxygen to what muscle protein?
22. ATP conversion to ADP can put a phosphate onto what other temporary
store of muscle energy in a high energy phosphate bond?
23. Why was it suggested that Caucasians of northern European origin were
least likely to be intolerant of lactose as adults?
that human population evolved in the company of dairy husbandry
24. Three fatty acid molecules plus a glycerol monecule is comverted into
one triglyceride molecule plus (how many of what molecule?).
25. When you eat a lot, your body's biosynthesis of fat involves the creation
of glycerol from phosphoglyceraldehyde and fatty acids (from what?)
26. More glucose carriers are inserted into the cell's plasmalemma when
it is necessary, because glucose is plentiful after a meal, to transport
glucose into the cell. How can this happen without the cell synthesizing
new glucose transporters?
they are in vesicles, ready to go
27. What is it about the brain's glucose uptake that underlies coma (shock)
if too much insulin is injected?
it is not insulin dependent, but muscle and fat are
28. In extreme and prolonged cases of diabetes, why might the patient go
diabetic retinopathy is from angiogenesis, and the new blood vessels leak
29. What is the name of the process that would generate glucose while your
muscles get smaller during a long starvation diet?
30. What effect would cortisol release from the adrenal cortex have on adipose
release of free fatty acids
31. Valves that separate the ventricles from the arteries. Answer either
(1) What are they called? OR (2) What heart sound is made when they snap
semilunars, second (dub)
32. "The atrial beat contributes only a little to ventricular filling."
Then how come ventricles fill most of the way?
venous return "gushes" past the atria through the open bicuspid
and tricuspid valves
33. For HCN channels, answer either (1) Which cells have these channels?
OR (2) Which cyclic nucleotide are they referring to by "CN?"
pacemaker cells, cAMP
34. How could a useful heart beat be initiated if there were no atrial beat?
the AV node is also automatic, slightly slower
35. A coronary artery is partly occluded from plaque build-up over the years
associated with atherosclerosis. What commonly happens on a faster time
scale to take that artery from partly to fully occluded?
a thrombus forms or an embolism lodges
36. Angina! Quick, take your nitroglycerine. What is the mechanism for it
to stop a heart attack in progress?
relax smooth muscle in coronary arteries
37. Why would the ventricle need to work harder to move blood into the aorta
if a person has high diastolic blood pressure?
it would not open the semilunar valve until the ventricular pressure is
38. "Epinephrine in a lung inhaler does not increase air flow by decreasing
it relaxes smooth muscle
39. The partial pressure of oxygen in the pulmonary vein is 100 mm Hg while
it is 40 in the pulmonary artery. And yet I said that there was still considerable
oxygen carried in the blood when the value was 40. What was the basis of
the percent saturation of hemoglobin is 75% on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation
40. How does an enzyme in red blood cells increase the blood's ability to
transport carbon dioxide?
carbonic anhydrase turns CO2 (and H2O) to carbonic acid allowing conversion
41. What aspect of kidney function would be tested by the inulin clearance
42. Why is it necessary to involve a sodium - potassium pump to resorb glucose
from the lumen of the kidney tubule?
because sodium comes in in the sodium glucose cotransporter
43. The sweat glands are not as good as the kidney in maintaining the body's
salt. How does this relate to your fluid intake preferences if you perspire
you prefer an electrolyte coctail because you have a sodium appetite
44. What will a hormone from the posterior pituitary do to the TONICITY
(osmolarity) of the urine?
urine will be more concentrated
45. Something (what is the name of this structure?) that functions somewhat
like a sphincter keeps "food" in the stomach after it leaves the
46. In addition to a facilitated diffusion glucose transporter and a glucose
sodium cotransporter, what is necessary to transport glucose across the
a sodium pump
47. How do products of intestinal absorption get delivered to the cells
with smooth endoplasmic reticulum (the microsomal fraction) for detoxification
by the hepatic portal vein
48. Why, after delivery, does the obstetrician give the baby to the mother
to suckle (assuming that the mother was planning to breast feed)?
the stimulated oxytocin release would contract uterine muscles
49. In contrast with NSAIDs, what gland produces anti-inflammatory secretions?
in contrast with non-steroidal would be cortisol from the adrenal cortex
50. In addition to androgens and glucocorticoids, what other major class
of steroids is secreted from the adrenal cortex?
51. "The estrogen was not coming out of the "egg," it was
coming out of (what?).
52. After implantation, what hormone keeps the endometrium from breaking
53. In addition to putting a collagenase to bone, what else does an osteoclast
send to bone to mobilize calcium ions?
54. Why would a transdermal patch be less questionable than oral administration
for estrogen replacement therapy?
hormone would not be altered by liver enzymes
55. There is testosterone before and at the time of birth in males, but
for normal male structures to develop, 5alpha-reductase must turn this testosterone
56. What was it about Celebrex, Vioxx and Bextra that made them so effective
in arthritis treatment without having the gastric side effects of aspirin
they inhibited COX2 specifically
57. Nuclei in spermatogonia are labeled "2n," while those in sperm
are labeled "n." What are the other common terms to describe the
full genetic complement and half of that?
58. An outer rim of the blastocyst is called the trophoblast. What will
that turn into later?
59. In a surgery called a "tubal ligtion," what tube is ligated?
60. It I tell you that the mesonephric duct differentiates into epididymides,
ductus deferentia and ejaculatory ducts under the influence of testosterone,
you tell me what happens to it if there is no testosterone.
61. In clotting, what protein, at the end of a cascade, polymerases to form
a net that captures blood cells?
62. In contrast with the situation for Rh factor, a type A mother does not
have to worry about having children after having a type B baby. Why not?
IgM does not cross the placenta
63. B lymphocytes were shown with IgD molecules (B cell receptors) on their
surfaces. How does the function of these B cell receptors fit in with the
eventual exocytosis of specific IgG molecules by plasma cells of that clone?
they help the B cell identify the antigens to make antibodies to
64. In addition to the class 1 or 2 MHC molecule and the CD 8 or 4 coreceptor,
what else is involved in the direct communication between the infected cell
and the killer T cell (or the macrophage and the helper T cell?
the antigen that is presented
65. What is the property of a receptor like the Pacinian corpuscle that
makes it optimum for feeling whether a surface is textured?
66. For the spinothalamic tract, say something about (1) where is the decussation?
Or (2) where, in the spinal cord, is the tract?
right at the point of entry into the spinal cord
67. The basal nuclei make up the extrapyramidal motor system. How does this
system's output function without sending a tract down the spinal cord?
through the thalamus, they send their output back to the precentral gyrus
68. Papillae (all types), vagus nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, thalamus,
postcentral gyrus. Give one nerve or CNS location missing from this list
in the taste projection.
facial nerve, gustatory nucleus of medulla
69. Where is the first synapse in the olfactory projection?
in the olfactory bulb
70. In the vestibular system, answer either (1) What are the little stones
called? OR (2) What is the name of one of the two organs that use these
otoliths, utricle, saccule
71. Pressure is trnsmitted to the oval window, answer either (1) By what
bone? OR (2) Since the fluid cannot be compressed, there is a release of
the vibrations through what structure? OR (3) What is this fluid called?
stirrup=stapes, round window, perilymph
72. Describe tonotopic organization for audition in the brain.
in the auditory cortex, there is a place mapping of cells that respond to
73. Why are you unable to see ultraviolet light (while I can)?
the lens blocks UV, I had a lens removed
74. Why do victims of retinitis pigmentosa first become blind in a ring
around the fovea?
that's where rods dominate vision, and rods degenerate
75. Why did I generalize the finding concerning the location and function
of two X-linked vision color vision genes to explain the evolution of the
superfamily of G protein coupled receptors?
duplication and divergence to two slightly different functions, as a mechanism,
if repeated many times can make widely divergent functions
Last updated Dec 4, 2012
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