1. Antypyretic. Answer either (1) Why would you take such a drug? or (2) What is the best known example of such a drug.

to reduce fever, aspirin

2. Referring to the body's thermostat, under the same circumstances when an animal might utilize vasoconstriction, what would happen to its fur?

piloerection, fluffing up the fur for better insulation

3. Guilleman and Schally needed a quarter of a million hypothalami to isolate TRH. Why did it take so many?

there is not much TRH because of the portal delivery

4. The introductory book's transparency indicated that "GLUT-1 facilitates glucose diffusion." Answer either why they selected the words (1) "facilitates," or (2) "diffusion."

(1) glucose needs a path across the membrane, (2) but it is not a pump that requires energy

5. In the phosphoinositide signal transduction cascade, IP3 gates a channel. Answer either (1) Where (specifically)? Or (2) For what ion?

(1) a smooth endoplasmic reticulum (2) calcium ions

6. Graded potentials can be added to each other. What is the expression used to describe an action potential that relates to the statement that "you cannot add one action potential onto the top of another?"


7. Why is it more useful to use conductance rather than resistance in discussing membranes or membrane channels?

electrical conductance more intuitively relates to ion permeability

8. Reminder: The Goldman equation looks like the Nernst equation except that it includes concentrations (in and out) plus permeabilities for all three ions - Na+, K+ and Cl-. Only one of these 9 values changes at the beginning of the action potential. Which?

permeability for Na+

9. Discussing the sodium channel, say something about (1) A stopper on the N-terminus of the protein, or (2) puffer fish and dinoflagellates.

(1) responsible for inactivation (2) toxin from these blocks sodium channel

10. "Hodgkin and Huxley won a Nobel Prize for telling us about Na+ and K+ conductances and how they mediated the action potential." What additional type of channel becomes critical when the action potential arrives at the axon terminal where the presynaptic membrane is located?

one for Ca2+

11. There is another kind of receptor for acetylcholine, other than nicotinic. Answer one of the following (1) Describe the structure of this other receptor. (2) What is it called (a pharmacological name)? or (3) What is a famous drug that blocks this other receptor?

(1) crosses membrane 7 times (2) muscarinic

12. We would get an EPSP with cholinergic activation of a nicotinic receptor. Conductance to what two ions is increased?

sodium and potassium

13. Why would it be ineffective to feed dopamine to a patient with Parkinson's disease?

it does not cross the blood brain barrier

14. Why doesn't cAMP keep activating PKA forever?

a phosphodiesterase turns it to AMP

15. A nerve comes out from the central nervous system, and this nerve's output slows the heart. Where (anatomically) does this nerve come out from?

brain (the cranio part of the craniosacral system)

16. What is the ATP binding protein in a striated muscle cell?


17. What muscle protein does Ca 2+ bind to in mediating muscle contraction?


18. What disease (or, alternatively answer what ionic manipulation) would make the excitatory motor end plate potential insufficient to fire an action potential along the sarcolemma?

myasthenia gravis (or lower extracellular calcium

19. People who do not have one familial type of Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis have an enzyme that does what? (an enzyme that ALS victims do not have).

copper zink superoxide dismutase would reduce oxygen free radicals

20. What is it called when a lot of twitches come in such rapid succession that they produce a steady muscle contraction?


21. Where does muscle lactic acid get turned back into glucose?


22. What effect would the conversion of ATP to ADP plus inorganic phosphate have upon creatine?

turn it to creatine phosphate

23. Glucose monomers can be linked either as starch or glycogen or differently, and people cannot digest this different polysaccharide. Answer either (1) What is this molecule called? or (2) Why can cattle and termites digest this molecule (while we cannot)?

cellulose, they have mutualistic microbial symbiotes

24. Compared with a saturated fatty acid, what must be missing from a carbon in a fatty acid that has a double bond to its neighboring carbon?


25. A hormone mediates the effect of the sympathetic nervous system to act on the liver cell for the release of glucose. Answer either (1) What hormone? or (2) If an increase in cAMP results from stimulation by this hormone, what kind of receptor to the hormone is used?

epinephrine (adrenalin), beta-adrenergic

26. The insulin receptor is an enzyme. What reaction does it catalyze?

a receptor tyrosine kinase adds a phosphate to the amino acid tyrosine

27. What does a cell in adipose tissue do with all the glucose it takes up under the influence of insulin dependent glucose transport?

turn it to fat

28. Why is glucose in the urine high in untreated diabetes? Address the question of whether diabetics have kidneys that are totally unable to transport glucose.

they transport glucose like a non-diabetic, but glucose transport reaches saturation

29. Ventricles fill during most of ventricular diastole. Toward the end of ventricular diastole, there is a small increase in the filling curve that had otherwise pretty much reached asymptote. What is the cause of this small final amount of ventricular filling?

the atrial beat

30. For your BME senior project, you invented a device that will read out pressure in the left ventricle as a function of time noninvasively. When you present this at the senior legacy symposium, your sophomore physiology professor comes up and says "Great, but an ordinary cuff on your arm would give you additional important information missing from your readout." What important information?

the diastolic blood pressure (in the arteries)

31. Within the intercalated disk. there are specializations (called what?) that allow the action potential to be transmitted from one myocardial cell to the next?

gap junctions

32. "The T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles." Why was there no equivalent wave representing the repolarization of the atria?

it was hidden under QRS

33. CPR does not restart a heart in ventricular fibrillation. Then why would it save the victim's life before emergency medical personnel arrived with a defibrillator?

keeps a little oxygenated blood going to the brain

34. What would stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors do to the air flow in trachea and bronchi?

open airways, increase air flow

35. Answer either (1) why oxygen in the air we breathe has a partial pressure lower than 760 mm Hg, or (2) why the oxygen in alveoli has a lower partial pressure than the oxygen than the air that we breathe.

only about 20 % of the air we breath is oxygen, then, the value is further lowered by the high carbon dioxide and water in the lungs

36. The total lung capacity equals the tidal volume plus (what)? Hint, there should be several components to your answer.

inspiratory and expiratory reserves plus residual volume

37. A healthy individual has an injury resulting in pneumothorax. In what direction? and how much (approximately)? does the pressure in the pleural cavity change? (answer both)

it goes up a tiny bit about 5 mmHg

38. Uric acid: Answer either (1) Why would you take NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) if your uric acid were high? or (2) Why would you dig up uric acid from the islands off the coast of Peru?

reduce inflammation in a gout attack, for nitrogen fertilizer

39. pedicels of podocytesIn the glomerulus, fluid passes through the fenestrated capillary endothelium plus (what?) on its way to Bowman's capsule.

40. Aldosterone. Answer one of the following: (1) Where specifically is it from? (2) Where (specifically) does it act? (3) What would happen to an animal who has no aldosterone?

zona glomerulosa in adrenal cortex, ascending loop of Henle, would lose salt in the urine and crave salt

41. Angiotensin is activated in a low blood crisis; another hormone regulates angiotensin activation. Answer either (1) Where is this other hormone secreted from? or (2) What is this other hormone called?

JGA in kidney, renin

42. Why would it be useful for chief cells to have pepsinogen rather than pepsin in their secretory vesicles?

so it does not break down proteins until it is in the stomach

43. Proteins are broken into amino acids, and these are what move across the basolateral border of the intestinal epithelium. How does this differ for the apical surface?

di- and tri-peptides also move across the brush border

44. Why would a barbiturate have a stronger effect on a person who had not been taking barbiturates than on a person who had been taking barbiturates?

detoxifying enzymes in smooth ER (microsomal fraction) of liver cells are inducible

45. With respect to its effects in the breast and in the uterus, what type of cell is affected by oxytocin?

smooth muscle

46. If iodine is adequate, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) feed back to the anterior pituitary to inhibit the release of (what hormone?).


47. A surge of LH leads to what changes in the ovary? (There are two answers but you need provide only one.)

ovulation, conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum

48. There is a new hormone after implantation, and it is a good one to assay to test for pregnancy. What is that hormone?


49. Calcium-regulating hormones regulate blood levels of calcium ions at three sites, bone, intestine, and (where else?).


50. Progesterone is not only a hormone of its own right, it is also the precursor of (list one of the three important hormones plus the organ that the hormone you choose is made.

testosterone leydig cells (interstitial cells) of testes, cortisol (hydrocortisone) adrenal cortex, estradiol 17 beta follicles of ovary

51. What effect if any would castration have on the seminal vesicle?

it would be smaller

52. Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase are enzymes that (answer one of the following) (1) act on what precursor? or (2) make what two general classes of products respectively?

arachidonic acid (20:4), leukotrienes and prostaglandins

53. A blood test to assay for (name the substance in words) is commonly used to determine the likelihood of prostate cancer.

prostate specific antigen

54. In the ovary, if the corpus luteum becomes the corpus albicans, what does that signify?

didn't get pregnant, no gonadotropins

55. After the zygote is first formed, but before implantation, some rudimentary development occurs. Answer either (1) What is the term used for these cell divisions? or (2) Where do they take place?

cleavage, uterine (fallopian) tube

56. Why did they need a surrogate mother when they cloned Dolly?

after nuclear transfer in vitro and early development, they neded a uterus to implant into

57. In early development, what happens to the Mesonephric duct in the absence of testosterone?

it degenerates instead of becoming the epididymis, vas deferens, etc

58. Thrombin acts on fibrinogen. Answer either (1) What is the activated product of fibrinogen? or (2) What is the function of that product?

fibrin, blood clotting

59. Monocytes. Answer either (1) After they migrate out of the blood stream and further develop, what are they called? or (2) What do they do in this new location and role?

macrophages, phagocytosis

60. Answer either (1) Why does flu still exist while smallpox has been nearly eradicated worldwide? or (2) Why does polio still exist while smallpox has been nearly eradicated worldwide?

flu mutates and has alternative hosts like birds and pigs, politics - some people think vaccination is an evil western plot

61. Antibodies interact with antigens. Answer either (1) What part of the antibody molecule binds to the antigen? or (2) What do we call the portion of an antigen molecule to which the antibody binds?

the variable part at the tip of the Y-shaped tetramer, epitope or antigenic determinant

62. In addition to destroying "microbes" through phagocytosis and lysosomal degradation, how can a macrophage communicate to a helper T cell about what antigens to "worry" about?

present antigen to helper T with MHC-2 and CD4

63. Why can I be reasonably certain that your MHC (major histocompatibility complex) is different from mine?

20 genes, 50 alleles each = lots of variability

64. MHC II is on macrophages and B cells. Why is it useful that MHC I is expressed in a wider variety of cells?

because a killer cell uses that to connect to any kind of cell that gets infected to kill it

65. Why would it be useful to have rapidly adapting touch receptors, that rapid adaptation resulting in vibration reception at 250-300 Hz?

for active feeling touch of a textured surface

66. Your fingertips, tongue, and lips are very sensitive for fine touch. For instance a small thing stuck between your teeth feels bigger to your tongue than it looks when you floss it out. How is this difference (your legs, back and arms are not as sensitive) represented on the postcentral gyrus?

bigger areas for lips, fingertips and tongue

67. For motor function, describe the function of either (1) tie internal capsule, or (2) the nigrostriatal tract.

internal capsule has axons from precentral gyrus in corticospinal tract, nigrostriatal tract sends dopamine from substantia nigra to striatum

68. A cell body in the precentral gyrus sends an axon through a decussation in the medulla oblongata. Where does that axon make its synapse?

onto the spinal motor neuron in the ventral horn of the spinal cord gray matter

69. Gustatory receptors connect to cranial nerves that project to the brain. Name one of the three places in this projection pathway.

medulla, thalamus, postcentral gyrus

70. What is the cause of the difference among the students in the physiology class as to whether they could taste PTC?

genetic, non-tasters are homozygous recessive

71. When a G protein coupled cascade in an olfactory receptor alters the cAMP level, what does this cAMP do?

gates a channel

72. Say something about what "hair" means with respect to hair cells in the vestibular or auditory systems.

real cilium=kinociliun and cilia-like stereocilia

73. "Helmholtz probably thought the basilar membrane was like a harp when he formulated his place theory." That is one way of looking at the finding. In what way did Bekesy's Nobel prize winning data disprove such a model?

74. Blind spot, answer either (1) In terms of anatomy, why is this found on the temporal VISUAL field? or (2) Why is that area blind?

because the optic nerve exits the eye on the nasal RETINAL field, there can be no receptors where the optic nerve exits the eye

75. Why would you have tunnel vision in retinitis pigmentosa?

loss or rods in the mid-periphery