1. Antypyretic. Answer either (1) Why would you take such a drug? or (2)
What is the best known example of such a drug.
to reduce fever, aspirin
2. Referring to the body's thermostat, under the same circumstances when
an animal might utilize vasoconstriction, what would happen to its fur?
piloerection, fluffing up the fur for better insulation
3. Guilleman and Schally needed a quarter of a million hypothalami to isolate
TRH. Why did it take so many?
there is not much TRH because of the portal delivery
4. The introductory book's transparency indicated that "GLUT-1 facilitates
glucose diffusion." Answer either why they selected the words (1) "facilitates,"
or (2) "diffusion."
(1) glucose needs a path across the membrane, (2) but it is not a pump that
5. In the phosphoinositide signal transduction cascade, IP3 gates a channel.
Answer either (1) Where (specifically)? Or (2) For what ion?
(1) a smooth endoplasmic reticulum (2) calcium ions
6. Graded potentials can be added to each other. What is the expression
used to describe an action potential that relates to the statement that
"you cannot add one action potential onto the top of another?"
7. Why is it more useful to use conductance rather than resistance in discussing
membranes or membrane channels?
electrical conductance more intuitively relates to ion permeability
8. Reminder: The Goldman equation looks like the Nernst equation except
that it includes concentrations (in and out) plus permeabilities for all
three ions - Na+, K+ and Cl-. Only one of these 9 values changes at the
beginning of the action potential. Which?
permeability for Na+
9. Discussing the sodium channel, say something about (1) A stopper on the
N-terminus of the protein, or (2) puffer fish and dinoflagellates.
(1) responsible for inactivation (2) toxin from these blocks sodium channel
10. "Hodgkin and Huxley won a Nobel Prize for telling us about Na+
and K+ conductances and how they mediated the action potential." What
additional type of channel becomes critical when the action potential arrives
at the axon terminal where the presynaptic membrane is located?
one for Ca2+
11. There is another kind of receptor for acetylcholine, other than nicotinic.
Answer one of the following (1) Describe the structure of this other receptor.
(2) What is it called (a pharmacological name)? or (3) What is a famous
drug that blocks this other receptor?
(1) crosses membrane 7 times (2) muscarinic
12. We would get an EPSP with cholinergic activation of a nicotinic receptor.
Conductance to what two ions is increased?
sodium and potassium
13. Why would it be ineffective to feed dopamine to a patient with Parkinson's
it does not cross the blood brain barrier
14. Why doesn't cAMP keep activating PKA forever?
a phosphodiesterase turns it to AMP
15. A nerve comes out from the central nervous system, and this nerve's
output slows the heart. Where (anatomically) does this nerve come out from?
brain (the cranio part of the craniosacral system)
16. What is the ATP binding protein in a striated muscle cell?
17. What muscle protein does Ca 2+ bind to in mediating muscle contraction?
18. What disease (or, alternatively answer what ionic manipulation) would
make the excitatory motor end plate potential insufficient to fire an action
potential along the sarcolemma?
myasthenia gravis (or lower extracellular calcium
19. People who do not have one familial type of Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis
have an enzyme that does what? (an enzyme that ALS victims do not have).
copper zink superoxide dismutase would reduce oxygen free radicals
20. What is it called when a lot of twitches come in such rapid succession
that they produce a steady muscle contraction?
21. Where does muscle lactic acid get turned back into glucose?
22. What effect would the conversion of ATP to ADP plus inorganic phosphate
have upon creatine?
turn it to creatine phosphate
23. Glucose monomers can be linked either as starch or glycogen or differently,
and people cannot digest this different polysaccharide. Answer either (1)
What is this molecule called? or (2) Why can cattle and termites digest
this molecule (while we cannot)?
cellulose, they have mutualistic microbial symbiotes
24. Compared with a saturated fatty acid, what must be missing from a carbon
in a fatty acid that has a double bond to its neighboring carbon?
25. A hormone mediates the effect of the sympathetic nervous system to act
on the liver cell for the release of glucose. Answer either (1) What hormone?
or (2) If an increase in cAMP results from stimulation by this hormone,
what kind of receptor to the hormone is used?
epinephrine (adrenalin), beta-adrenergic
26. The insulin receptor is an enzyme. What reaction does it catalyze?
a receptor tyrosine kinase adds a phosphate to the amino acid tyrosine
27. What does a cell in adipose tissue do with all the glucose it takes
up under the influence of insulin dependent glucose transport?
turn it to fat
28. Why is glucose in the urine high in untreated diabetes? Address the
question of whether diabetics have kidneys that are totally unable to transport
they transport glucose like a non-diabetic, but glucose transport reaches
29. Ventricles fill during most of ventricular diastole. Toward the end
of ventricular diastole, there is a small increase in the filling curve
that had otherwise pretty much reached asymptote. What is the cause of this
small final amount of ventricular filling?
the atrial beat
30. For your BME senior project, you invented a device that will read out
pressure in the left ventricle as a function of time noninvasively. When
you present this at the senior legacy symposium, your sophomore physiology
professor comes up and says "Great, but an ordinary cuff on your arm
would give you additional important information missing from your readout."
What important information?
the diastolic blood pressure (in the arteries)
31. Within the intercalated disk. there are specializations (called what?)
that allow the action potential to be transmitted from one myocardial cell
to the next?
32. "The T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles."
Why was there no equivalent wave representing the repolarization of the
it was hidden under QRS
33. CPR does not restart a heart in ventricular fibrillation. Then why would
it save the victim's life before emergency medical personnel arrived with
keeps a little oxygenated blood going to the brain
34. What would stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors do to the air
flow in trachea and bronchi?
open airways, increase air flow
35. Answer either (1) why oxygen in the air we breathe has a partial pressure
lower than 760 mm Hg, or (2) why the oxygen in alveoli has a lower partial
pressure than the oxygen than the air that we breathe.
only about 20 % of the air we breath is oxygen, then, the value is further
lowered by the high carbon dioxide and water in the lungs
36. The total lung capacity equals the tidal volume plus (what)? Hint, there
should be several components to your answer.
inspiratory and expiratory reserves plus residual volume
37. A healthy individual has an injury resulting in pneumothorax. In what
direction? and how much (approximately)? does the pressure in the pleural
cavity change? (answer both)
it goes up a tiny bit about 5 mmHg
38. Uric acid: Answer either (1) Why would you take NSAIDS (non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs) if your uric acid were high? or (2) Why would you
dig up uric acid from the islands off the coast of Peru?
reduce inflammation in a gout attack, for nitrogen fertilizer
39. pedicels of podocytesIn the glomerulus, fluid passes through the fenestrated
capillary endothelium plus (what?) on its way to Bowman's capsule.
40. Aldosterone. Answer one of the following: (1) Where specifically is
it from? (2) Where (specifically) does it act? (3) What would happen to
an animal who has no aldosterone?
zona glomerulosa in adrenal cortex, ascending loop of Henle, would lose
salt in the urine and crave salt
41. Angiotensin is activated in a low blood crisis; another hormone regulates
angiotensin activation. Answer either (1) Where is this other hormone secreted
from? or (2) What is this other hormone called?
JGA in kidney, renin
42. Why would it be useful for chief cells to have pepsinogen rather than
pepsin in their secretory vesicles?
so it does not break down proteins until it is in the stomach
43. Proteins are broken into amino acids, and these are what move across
the basolateral border of the intestinal epithelium. How does this differ
for the apical surface?
di- and tri-peptides also move across the brush border
44. Why would a barbiturate have a stronger effect on a person who had not
been taking barbiturates than on a person who had been taking barbiturates?
detoxifying enzymes in smooth ER (microsomal fraction) of liver cells are
45. With respect to its effects in the breast and in the uterus, what type
of cell is affected by oxytocin?
46. If iodine is adequate, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) feed back to the
anterior pituitary to inhibit the release of (what hormone?).
47. A surge of LH leads to what changes in the ovary? (There are two answers
but you need provide only one.)
ovulation, conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum
48. There is a new hormone after implantation, and it is a good one to assay
to test for pregnancy. What is that hormone?
49. Calcium-regulating hormones regulate blood levels of calcium ions at
three sites, bone, intestine, and (where else?).
50. Progesterone is not only a hormone of its own right, it is also the
precursor of (list one of the three important hormones plus the organ that
the hormone you choose is made.
testosterone leydig cells (interstitial cells) of testes, cortisol (hydrocortisone)
adrenal cortex, estradiol 17 beta follicles of ovary
51. What effect if any would castration have on the seminal vesicle?
it would be smaller
52. Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase are enzymes that (answer one of the
following) (1) act on what precursor? or (2) make what two general classes
of products respectively?
arachidonic acid (20:4), leukotrienes and prostaglandins
53. A blood test to assay for (name the substance in words) is commonly
used to determine the likelihood of prostate cancer.
prostate specific antigen
54. In the ovary, if the corpus luteum becomes the corpus albicans, what
does that signify?
didn't get pregnant, no gonadotropins
55. After the zygote is first formed, but before implantation, some rudimentary
development occurs. Answer either (1) What is the term used for these cell
divisions? or (2) Where do they take place?
cleavage, uterine (fallopian) tube
56. Why did they need a surrogate mother when they cloned Dolly?
after nuclear transfer in vitro and early development, they neded a uterus
to implant into
57. In early development, what happens to the Mesonephric duct in the absence
it degenerates instead of becoming the epididymis, vas deferens, etc
58. Thrombin acts on fibrinogen. Answer either (1) What is the activated
product of fibrinogen? or (2) What is the function of that product?
fibrin, blood clotting
59. Monocytes. Answer either (1) After they migrate out of the blood stream
and further develop, what are they called? or (2) What do they do in this
new location and role?
60. Answer either (1) Why does flu still exist while smallpox has been nearly
eradicated worldwide? or (2) Why does polio still exist while smallpox has
been nearly eradicated worldwide?
flu mutates and has alternative hosts like birds and pigs, politics - some
people think vaccination is an evil western plot
61. Antibodies interact with antigens. Answer either (1) What part of the
antibody molecule binds to the antigen? or (2) What do we call the portion
of an antigen molecule to which the antibody binds?
the variable part at the tip of the Y-shaped tetramer, epitope or antigenic
62. In addition to destroying "microbes" through phagocytosis
and lysosomal degradation, how can a macrophage communicate to a helper
T cell about what antigens to "worry" about?
present antigen to helper T with MHC-2 and CD4
63. Why can I be reasonably certain that your MHC (major histocompatibility
complex) is different from mine?
20 genes, 50 alleles each = lots of variability
64. MHC II is on macrophages and B cells. Why is it useful that MHC I is
expressed in a wider variety of cells?
because a killer cell uses that to connect to any kind of cell that gets
infected to kill it
65. Why would it be useful to have rapidly adapting touch receptors, that
rapid adaptation resulting in vibration reception at 250-300 Hz?
for active feeling touch of a textured surface
66. Your fingertips, tongue, and lips are very sensitive for fine touch.
For instance a small thing stuck between your teeth feels bigger to your
tongue than it looks when you floss it out. How is this difference (your
legs, back and arms are not as sensitive) represented on the postcentral
bigger areas for lips, fingertips and tongue
67. For motor function, describe the function of either (1) tie internal
capsule, or (2) the nigrostriatal tract.
internal capsule has axons from precentral gyrus in corticospinal tract,
nigrostriatal tract sends dopamine from substantia nigra to striatum
68. A cell body in the precentral gyrus sends an axon through a decussation
in the medulla oblongata. Where does that axon make its synapse?
onto the spinal motor neuron in the ventral horn of the spinal cord gray
69. Gustatory receptors connect to cranial nerves that project to the brain.
Name one of the three places in this projection pathway.
medulla, thalamus, postcentral gyrus
70. What is the cause of the difference among the students in the physiology
class as to whether they could taste PTC?
genetic, non-tasters are homozygous recessive
71. When a G protein coupled cascade in an olfactory receptor alters the
cAMP level, what does this cAMP do?
gates a channel
72. Say something about what "hair" means with respect to hair
cells in the vestibular or auditory systems.
real cilium=kinociliun and cilia-like stereocilia
73. "Helmholtz probably thought the basilar membrane was like a harp
when he formulated his place theory." That is one way of looking at
the finding. In what way did Bekesy's Nobel prize winning data disprove
such a model?
74. Blind spot, answer either (1) In terms of anatomy, why is this found
on the temporal VISUAL field? or (2) Why is that area blind?
because the optic nerve exits the eye on the nasal RETINAL field, there
can be no receptors where the optic nerve exits the eye
75. Why would you have tunnel vision in retinitis pigmentosa?
loss or rods in the mid-periphery