1. What happens at the ribosome is called translation. Then why (for what process) is the Golgi apparatus required?

post-translational modifications

2. "A large fraction of the ATP is made in the mitochondrion." What process makes the ATP that is not made in the mitochondrion?


3. "A hormone is diluted by the blood stream, and so a lot more chemical signal is needed than for the a neurotransmitter from the spinal motor neuron to the muscle cell." Why is a smaller amount of hormone required when the hypothalamus signals to the anterior pituitary?

the portal system delivers it more discreetly

4. An equivalent circuit is used as a model that explains exponential functions of voltage as a function of distance along the axon or voltage as a function of time when a square wave of current is applied. Name one of the electrical components used in such an equivalent circuit.

batteries, resistors, capacitors

5. Before iodized salt, people who lived where would have been more likely to develop goiter?

inland (away from the ocean)

6. How would high dietary overdoses of iodine help some people and under what circumstances?

if exposed to radioactive iodine from a reactor leak, normal iodine would compete for incorporation into thyroxine

7. Answer either (1) Why are there rainbow colors on a drop of oil on a rain-wet road? or (2) Why are rhodopsin or hemoglobin colored molecules?

(1) from optics of layers that are different thicknesses (2) the protein has a chromophore that makes the protein colored

8. "A semipermeable membrane is part of the explanation for osmosis." Permeable to what and not permeable to what?

permeable to water but not to a larger molecule like sugar

9. "Picture an area where the gravel has been lightly shadowed by a light snow blowing from one direction." Answer either (1) What is this technique called? (2) What do the P-face particles represent? or (3) What heavy metal is used for shadowing?

1 freeze fracture 2 membrane proteins 3 platinum

10. A slide was shown where all the phospholipids of the Drosophila headwhich had been separated were clearly visualized. Answer either (1) What is the name of this technique? or (2) How come these phospholipids could be clearly visualized?

1 autoradiography (thin layer chromatography) 2 they radioactive and the radioactivity exposes photographic film

11. Tay Sachs disease: Answer either (1) Why is it called a lysosomal storage disease? (2) What molecule fails to turn over? or (3) Why would the eye and brain be affected first?

1 the substance the lysosomes fail to degrade accumulate in lysosomes 2 a glycolipid 3 there are lots of membranes with lots of membrane lipids

12. In terms of how they mediate signal transduction, state, in simple terms, the fundamental difference between a G protein coupled receptor and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

GPCR leads to transduction cascade and "second messenger" while NAChR is a channel

13. In "receptor mediated endocytosis," the pit (that becomes a vesicle) has a receptor (like the receptor for LDL) plus what famous protein that makes these pits and vesicles look the way they do in the electron microscope?


14. What would a hyperpolarizing graded potential do to the probability that a spike would be fired at the axon hillock?

decrease probability

15. "Potential is equal and opposite to chemical gradient." Answer either (1) What was assumed? or (2) Who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for doing this derivation?

1 energies of two compartments are equal 2 Nernst

16. Voltage is shown to change as an exponential function of time because of what particular component in an equivalent circuit model?


17. "Invertebrate axons propagate faster with increasing size with diminishing returns." Answer either (1) What specifically relates to radius (Don't just repeat velocity of propagation)? or (2) Why diminishing returns?

1 space (length) constant 2 it increases with the square root of the radius

18. "The AC Wheatstone bridge Cole and Curtis used went out of balance indicating that the 'unknown' resistor changed." Answer either (1) What was this resistor? or (2) When did it go out of balance?

1 the axon membrane's resistance 2 when there was an action potential

19. What does an oscilloscope allow you to measure that a voltmeter with a needle does not?

voltage as a function of time for fast events like spikes

20. "The multiple layers of membrane in myelin have less capacitance than one layer of membrane would have." How would the resistance of multiple layers relate to the resistance of one layer?

multiple layers would be much higher

21. Immune system, say something about one of the following: (1) Active immunity, polio. (2) Passive immunity, polio. or (3) Multiple sclerosis.

1 you would get this from a vaccine or from having the disease 2 you would get it from being injected with antibodies 3 you develop autoimmunity to myelin basic protein, a self protein

22. Although Ramon y Cajal used Golgi's technique, and the two shared the Nobel Prize in 1906, only Ramon y Cajal's viewpoint required the existence of synaptic connections such as Nobelist Sherrington proposed. In what way did Ramon y Cajal's vs Golgi's viewpoints differ regarding this issue?

only Ramon y Cajal thought cells were separate entities that would need to signel to eachother

23. "There are no inhibitory neuromuscular junctions (where the spinal motor neuron makes connection to the muscle cell)." Then how is the flexor inhibited in the knee-jerk reflex?

via an inhibitory interneuron in the spinal cord's gray matter

24. "While you are sitting quietly in physiology lecture, unstressed, your heart is beating slower than it would automatically." Say something about (1) the transmitter. or (2) the nerve.

1 acetylcholine 2 vagus 10th cranial nerve, parasympathetic

25. Among the chemical intermediates in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine from tyrosine, there is a chemical that was eventually shown to be a neurotransmitter in its own right. What is this chemical?


26. "Acetylcholine's action is terminated by acetylcholinesterase." By contrast, what entirely different mechanism is predominant in the inactivation of norepinephrine?


27. For clostridial toxins, botulinum and tetanus toxin, answer one of the following. (1) Why would you squeeze blood out of a deep dirty puncture wound in the finger? (2) What is the name of the protein which these proteases cleave? or (3) Which specific membrane houses this protein?

1 flush out the bacteria 2 synaptobrevin=VAMP=vSNARE 3 vesicle membrane

28. Why doesn't the alpha subunit of the G protein keep activating adenylate cyclase forever?

when it catalyses GTP conversion to GDP plus phosphate, the alpha subunit reassociates with beta-gamma

29. In the thoraco-lumbar system, in the sympathetic chain of ganglia, postganglionic cells use nicotinic receptors to what neurotransmitter?


30. The autonomic nervous system would influence the heart rate (at the SA=sinoatrial node) with 2 types of receptors, beta-1 receptors plus (what other receptor)?


31. I remind you that the sympathetic nervous system mediates vasoconstriction in peripheral vascular beds. Now your turn. What part of the autonomic nervous system meciates vasodilation (hyperemia) in muscle?


32. Why doesn't a molecule of cGMP keep mediating smooth muscle relaxation (in arterioles in the corpus cavernosum) forever?

a phosphodiesterase converts cGMP to GMP

33. In terms of banding pattern, what is the place where there is myosin but no actin?

H band

34. Actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin. Name another important muscle protein of each sarcomere of a striated muscle fiber.

titin dystrophin

35. Why, in terms of actin and myosin, is the tension a muscle can achieve lower for a muscle at 160% of its resting length than for a muscle at its "ideal" resting length?

less overlap of actin and myosin

36. After inorganic phosphate is released from the binding pocket and before ATP binds to the myosin head... Answer one of the following (1) What is released from the binding site? of (2) What happens upon this release?

ADP power stroke

37. "Fewer muscle cells are innervated by one motor neuron in extraocular eye muscles than for the calf muscle?" What is this assembly of muscle cells innervated by one neuron called?

a motor unit

38. What drug (or, alternatively, answer what this drug does) would be given to a patient with myasthenia gravis?

neostigmine, inhibit acetylcholinesterase

39, What is the poison that blocks nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction?


40. What enzyme functions in your spinal motorneuron but is not functioning in people with one familial type of ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)?


41. Nicotinic receptor, sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium channel, voltage-gated sodium channel. One channel in the muscle cell is missing from this list. Answer either (1) for what ion? or (2) in what specific location?

calcium (2) T-tubules

42. Name a pigment that makes turkey drumstick meat dark (in comparison with white meat).

hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome

43. Plasma glucose, plasma free fatty acids, muscle triglyceride. What huge source of muscle energy is missing from that list?

muscle glycogen

44. Activation of end plates on nuclear chain fibers... Answer either (1) comes out by what specific nerve cell type? or (2) ia useful for what reason?

(1) gamma motor neuron (2) preset stretch of stretch receptor

45. Action potentials in smooth muscle cells lead to an increase in cytoplasmic calcium ions. Answer either (1) Where did this calcium come from? or (2) What is the calcium binding protein?

(1) from outside the cell (2) calmodulin

46. In digestion, monomers are broken out of polymers by hydrolysis. What is it called when monomers are put together?

dehydration synthesis

47. Regarding the carbohydrate in milk, answer either (1) What is that sugar called? or (2) Why is it thought that adult Caucasians of Northern European origin are more likely to be able to digest this sugar than adults of other ethnic origins?

(1) lactose (2) they evolved in the company of dairy husbandry

48. Glycerol is a 3 carbon chain with an alcohol (-OH) on each carbon. Each fatty acid that gets linked to glycerol has an acid (-COOH) group. How were the alcohols and acids altered to make the ester bond?

water was taken out

49. "Salts of Cholesterol" Answer either (1) What is the function? or (2) Where are they made in your body?

(1) emulsify fats (2) liver

50. Urea is manufactured in your body from carbon dioxide plus what waste?


Last updated 10/5/11

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