1. For GLUT-4, ANSWER EITHER (1) How much ATP is needed to move one glucose molecule into the cell? (2) How much of this transporter is in the brain? OR (3) Where, in the cell, are most of the transporters located in fasting?

1-none, 2-none, 3-cytoplasmic vesicles

2. The insulin receptor is an enzyme. What is the chemical reaction that it catalyzes?

it is a tyrosine kinase so it puts phosphates on the amino acid tyrosine on itself and other molecules in the cascade

3. For glucagon, ANSWER EITHER (1) What does it do to the blood glucose level? OR (2) When, in your feeding-fasting cycle, is it released? OR (3) What cells secrete it?

1-raises, 2-fasting, 3-alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans

4. There are two peptides in the insulin molecule. ANSWER EITHER (1) What holds the two chains together? OR (2) How did there come to be two chains from the pro-hormone?

1-disulfide bonds between the cysteines, 2- a chunk was chopped out of the middle

5. What is the mechanism that makes this treatment useful, when an ophthalmologist uses a laser to make parts of the retina blind in order to stem the progress of diabetic retinopathy?

it decreases a signal for angiogenesis, hence less new fragile blood vessels formed

6. For Type 2 diabetes, why is the blood sugar high?

not lack of insulin, rather receptor or signal transduction cascade

7. For ketone bodies, one source of energy that circulates in the blood stream, ANSWER EITHER (1) What molecule are they produced from? (2) What organ are they produced in? OR (3) What circumstances would lead to their build-up to levels that would result in ketoacidosis?

1-fatty acids, 2-liver, 3-diabetes and low carbohydrate diet

8. "In conclusion, GLUT-2 mediated glucose uptake into a beta cell in the Islets of Langerhans is for the sake of ATP production." How does that ATP mediate the release of insulin?

increased ATP/ADP ratio closes K+ channels, depolarizing cell, activating vesicle release

9. We identified which valve closures created the first and second "lub-dub" heart sounds. By contrast, I am asking you: Which valves open first (after the beginning of ventricular contraction)?

semilunar valves (that separate ventricles from arteries)

10. "Most of the blood pressure is lost by the time blood reaches the small veins (venules), after traversing the capillaries." Then what propels blood back toward the heart through veins?

valves prevent back flow, striated muscles squeeze the veins

11. "The action potential spreads across the atria from the SA node from one myocardial cell to the next." Say something about the mechanism to expedite the action potential spread in the ventricles to the apex of the heart.

bundle of His, bundle branches and Purkinje fibers send action potentials down to apex

12. When discussing the Frank-Starling law, I contrasted the situation (for cardiac muscle) with the situation (for striated muscle) where there is a drop off at greater length in the relative tension. However, for the Frank-Starling law, we do not plot relative tension as a function of percentage of resting length. Give me the X OR the Y for the Frank Starling law.

x-ventricular end-diastolic volume (ml), y-stroke volume (ml)

13. Describe the voltage as a function of time to explain the pacemaker action of the cells in the SA node.

during diastole, the voltage depolarizes from its most hyperpolarized level down to the threshold for the action potential

14. Regarding Eindhoven's triangle: Why doesn't the distance from the wrists and ankle to the heart interfere with recording the ECG?

the huge extracellular space has virtually no resistance

15. What would happen to the duration of the QRS to T interval if you went from resting to sprinting?

the ventricular myocardial cells' action potentials must be of shorter duration or else your pulse would not be able to increase sufficiently

16. What is the mechanism by which nitroglycerine might save your life if you were experiencing angina?

even though arteries do not change size as much as arterioles, there is smooth muscle that is relaxed by the drug

17. Explain why high diastolic blood pressure (hypertension) would put an undue strain on the left ventricle.

the ventricle would need to achieve higher pressure during isovolumetric contraction before the semilunar valve would be pushed open

18. What structural specialization of trachial cells powers the mucus elevator?


19. What type of adrenergic receptor mediates the action of epinephrine, used in a rescue inhaler to relieve bronchioconstriction?

beta two

20. "You have less surface area for gas exchange." What disorder am I discussing here?


21. The partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere is 159 mm Hg. Why is the value only 105 in the alveoli?

because a much larger fraction of the total is water and carbon dioxide

22. Vital capacity plus (what?) equals total lung capacity?

residual capacity

23. At rest, the intrapleural pressure is about 756 mm Hg. Approximately what is the pressure during inspiration (breathing in)?


24. Why do premature infants have trouble breathing?

type 2 alveolar cells mature around the time of birth and without surfactant, the surface tension of water tends to close the alveoli

25. Why are chemoreceptors in the medulla more influential than those in the aortic and carotid bodies in monitoring the pH of the blood to regulate respiration?

there are no buffers in cerebrospinal fluid

26. Chloride goes into red blood cells where tissues are offloading carbon dioxide into the blood to compensate for (what coming out of the red blood cell)?


27. If nothing is wrong with your glomerular filtration, name something in your blood stream that would NOT be passed into the glomerular capsule.

proteins, blood cells

28. Why is the blood vessel exiting the glomerulus called the "efferent arteriole" instead of being called a venule?

because it connects to a second capillary bed (a portal system)

29. Name one of the two cell types that contribute to glomerular filtration.

fenestrated capillary endothelium, podocyte

30. "Diabetics' kidneys cannot pump glucose back into the bloodstream." False! Then why is there glucose in the urine of untreated diabetics?

they pump, but there is so much glucose that the pump saturates

31. Salt appetite, ANSWER EITHER (1) A hormone from (what endocrine gland?) is associated with salt appetite? (2) That hormone affects (what specific part of the nephron?)? OR (3) What is the name of this hormone?

1-adrenal cortex, 2-ascending loop of Henle. 3-aldosterone

32. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does it come from? OR (2) Which specific part of the nephron does it act on?

1-posterior pituitary (hypothalamus), 2-collecting duct

33. "In conclusion, you see, salivary amylase serves little purpose." Why did I say that?

its action is terminated in the stomach

34. Why is it necessary to use a slow-acting poison like WARFarin to poison a rat?

they won't continue eating something that made them sick

35. "Therefore, I suggest that you keep a few bottles of Gatorade around the house, because you are not going to want to run to the store to buy it." This recommendation came after talking about a cAMP cascade's function in the small intestine. Say something else (fill in something between cAMP and my recommendation) about this story.

cholera toxin disrupts water resorption, an electrolectrolyte coctail with glucose facilitates rehydration when dehydrated

36. Why does the pancreas put out bicarbonate?

to neutralize the acidity of stomach content emptying into the duodenum

37. "Carboxypeptidase is an exopeptidase." ANSWER EITHER (1) What specific function of carboxypeptidase gives it this name? OR (2) Why is it called an exopeptidase?

1-it cuts off the amino acid at the carboxy terminal of the peptide, 2- it cuts at the end, not in from the end

38. "The microsomal fraction gets the first crack at detoxifying anything in what you eat." ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the microsomal fraction? (2) Where was this microsomal fraction obtained? OR (3) How is it that absorbed food is delivered for the microsomal fraction to do its work?

1-the hepatocyte's smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 2-grinding up liver, 3-because of the hepatic portal vessel

39. When you transport lipids across the basolateral surface of the intestinal epithelial cells, ANSWER EITHER (1) In what molecular conglomerate is the triglyceride transported? (2) What is the nature of this transport? OR (3) What vessel transports the absorbed materials away from the intestine?

1-combined with protein (chylomicrons), 2-exocytosis, 3-lacteal

40. Say something about how the parietal cells "know" there is food in the stomach and that they need to secrete HCl.

amino acids stimulate G cells to make gastrin that stimulates ecl cell to make histamine that stimulates parietal cell

41. "Agouti-related protein is orexigenic." Provide a partial translation.

although the name implies something about coat color, it is a protein in the hypothalamus that favors eating

42. "In women, oxytocin affects smooth muscle in the mammary gland for the ejection of milk." Where else, or in what other circumstances, do women have smooth muscle controlled by oxytocin?

in the uterus for labor and delivery

43. For ACTH, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the large porohormone protein from which the ACTH peptide is derived? OR (2) What hormone stimulates melanin-containing cells in the skin? (This hormone is similar to ACTH, and too much ACTH would therefore make your skin darker.)


44. Fortunately, in the transition from normal childhood to adolescent development, growth hormone release stops. What happens if this release continues (or starts up again) as an adult?

bones get thicker (acromegaly)

45. Zona glomerulosa, Zona faciculata, and Zona reticularis: ANSWER EITHER (1) Name ONE hormone from ONE of these tissues. OR (2) What kind of chemical are the hormones from these tissues?

1-cortisol, aldosterone, 2-steroid

46. A story was told about thyroid hormone and salmon. What aspects of the salmon life cycle are regulated by different levels of thyroid hormone?

migration from spawining in fresh water stream to foraging in salt water ocean to mating in stream

47. A mature follicle is subjected to a surge of lutenizing hormone. ANSWER EITHER (1) What happens to the "egg?" OR (2) What happens to the rest of the follicle?

1-ovulated, 2-becomes corpus luteum

48. Regarding birth control by the pill, ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind of hormone is in the pill? OR (2) Why would it keep the woman from getting pregnant?

1-steroid, prevent ovulation by inhibiting FSH and LH

49. After implantation, what happens to the progesterone level?

maintained (but now by HCG instead of LH)

50. In terms of the uterus, what is happening during menstruation?

endometrium which had built up breaks down

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last revised 11/4/2013