1. What are the cells that produce glucagon called?
alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans
2. What does an echocardiogram (ultrasound) show that an electrocardiogram
you see the beating heart, the valves moving, the thickness of the walls
3. What is the cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus?
autoimmunity kills the beta cells
4. Why does poorly controlled diabetes lead to diabetic retinopathy?
angiogenisis leads to blood vessels that leak into the vitreus
5. What would glucagon do to a liver cell?
stimulate glycogenolysis and glucose export
6. Why does contraction of skeletal muscle contribute to venous return to
helps squeeze blood through valves
7. Why do the semilunar valves snap shut (and produce the second heart sound
as ventricles relax, back pressure from the arteries is higher than the
8. When the atria contract, how much does this contribute to the ventricular
volume as ventricular systole begins?
not much, maybe 10 out of 120 ml
9. You pump the cuff to 140 mm Hg, and you hear Korotkoff sounds. ANSWER
EITHER (1) What should you do next? OR (2) What does that mean about your
patient's blood pressure?
try pumping it higher, (s)he has high systolic blood pressure
10. What would happen to the duration of the action potential of a ventricular
myocardial cell during exercise?
it would shorten to accomodate a faster heart rate
11. Why would there still be a heart beat if the SA node did not fire?
the AV node would fire (eventually since it has a slower automaticity)
12. Why does aspirin help to prevent a heart attack?
it inhibits clotting
13. When a person's heart has stopped, what does CPR achieve?
it keeps the brain alive until the heart can be sparked with a defibrillator
14. Increasing LDL would be bad. Why would increasing LDL receptors be good?
receptor-mediated endocytosis via coated vesicles would remove LDL
15. What powers the mucus elevator?
16. Why is the burning of fossil fuels expected to cause global warming?
atmospheric carbon dioxide acts like the glass in a green house
17. Why is the partial pressure of oxygen lower in alveoli than in the atmosphere?
values are normalized down because of high H2O and CO2 in alveloi
18. Approximately what is the intrapleural pressure during expiration during
757 mm Hg, just a little more than at the peak or trough of tidal breathing
but still less than atmospheric pressure
19. Giving approximate numbers in mm Hg, say what happens to the arterial
partial pressure for carbon dioxide as you go from normal ventilation to
goes from 40 to 20
20. About what is the percent oxyhemoglobin saturation in veins when you
are at rest?
21. When carbon dioxide is moving from the blood to the alveoli, what happens
to chloride and why?
it moves out of the red blood cell so that bicarbonate from the plasma can
move into the red blood cell
22. Prostaglandin inhibitors ANSWER EITHER (1) Why are they called NSAIDS?
OR (2) How do they inhibit prostaglandins?
they are antii-nflmmatory (like steroids, but different mechanism) and prostaglandins
are mediators of inflammation; they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins
23. The vasa recta (peritubular capillaries) are "wired" in series
with what capillary tuft?
24. Inulin clearance ANSWER EITHER (1) Rather than injecting inulin, there
is a more convenient test involving (what?) substance that is already in
the body. OR (2) What specific aspect of kidney function is being tested?
creatinine, glomerular filtration
25. In addition to facilitated diffusion across the basolateral surface
of the proximal convoluted tubule, name ONE other type of transport PLUS
its location for glucose recovery.
co-transport with sodium on the apical surface and the sodium-potassium
ATPase on the basolateral surface
26. Why does the drinking preference of an adrenalectomized rat change (and
how does it change)?
because of lack of aldosterone, kidney does not resorb salt and rat prefers
27. Regarding the hormone involved in water recovery from the collecting
duct ANSWER EITHER (1) What gland does it come from? (be specific) OR (2)
What kind of molecule is the hormone?
posterior pituitary, peptide
28. If the blood volume goes way down, ANSWER EITHER (1) What hormone does
the kidney secrete to compensate? OR (2) What specific part of the kidney
produces this hormone?
renin, juxtaglomerular apparatus (granular cells, macula densa)
29. Why do they serve Gatorade to runners during a marathon?
salt appetite because of salt loss through perspiration
30. Regarding the proteolytic enzyme in the stomach, ANSWER EITHER (1) What
is the name of its precursor? OR (2) What cells produce this protein?
31. What is the structure that regulates gastric emptying into the duodenum?
32. Regarding cholera, ANSWER EITHER (1) What are the symptoms? OR (2) What
signalling is disrupted?
life-threatening diarrhea, G-protein signalling via cAMP
33. What is the source of the zymogen chymotrypsinogen?
34. Regarding the liver's function in detoxification ANSWER EITHER (1) What
is the name of the blood vessel that delivers material from the intestines?
OR (2) What do biochemists call the smooth endoplasmic reticulum that houses
the enzymes for detoxification?
hepatic portal vessel, microsomal fraction
35. Regarding the hormone leptin ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does it come from?
OR (2) What structure does it affect?
adipose tissue, hypothalamus (arcuate nucleus)
36. A hormone suggested to help social behavior, eye contact and social
skills in children with autism is more commonly associated with (what?)
milk ejection, also labor and delivery
37. "I will refer to growth hormone and prolactin as 'non-trophic'
hormones." Why are the other hormones from the anterior pituitary trophic
they cause other endocrine glands to release hormones
38. If you did not have sufficient glucocorticoid secretion ANSWER EITHER
(1) What is this disease called? OR (2) Why might a person with this disease,
like President Kennedy, look like he has a nice sun tan?
addison's disease, there is too much ACTH from decreased feedback and ACTH
is similar to melanocyte stimulating hormone
39. "Some hormones and digestive hormones are activated by being cleaved
from a larger precursor." From the anterior pituitary, (1) name EITHER
the famous precursor OR (2) Name ONE of the hormones produced from this
proopiomelanocortin, ACTH MSH endorphins enkephalins
40. Menstruation is triggered by a decrease in what hormone(s)?
progesterone (and estrogen)
41. In addition to housing the developing "egg," what does the
42. How is the corpus luteum maintained in the first few months after implantation?
human corionic gonadotropin
43. How is the endometrium maintained in the first few months of pregnancy?
progesterone from the corpus luteum
44. What does an osteoclast do to regulate blood levels of calcium ions?
under the influence of parathyroid hormone, it dissolves calcium phosphate
in bone using HCl
45. List, in order (first to last steps), the three organs required for
the biosynthesis, in humans, of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol.
46. Surprisingly, a male steroid hormone is in the biosynthetic pathway
from one female steroid hormone to another female steroid hormone. List
these three hormones in order from first to last.
progesterone, testosterone, estrogen (estradiol-17beta)
47. The hormone response element is upstream of (what?).
target gene, coding sequence
48. Why did they think a transdermal patch for estrogen replacement therapy
was better than oral administration?
hepatic portal vessel delivers to the liver which has estrogen receptors
and also converts estrogen to different forms
49.What effect would castration have on the seminal vesicle?
seminal vesicle would be smaller
50. What kind of molecule is a steroid hormone receptor?
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This page was last updated on October 9, 2014