1. What are the cells that produce glucagon called?

alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans

2. What does an echocardiogram (ultrasound) show that an electrocardiogram does not?

you see the beating heart, the valves moving, the thickness of the walls

3. What is the cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus?

autoimmunity kills the beta cells

4. Why does poorly controlled diabetes lead to diabetic retinopathy?

angiogenisis leads to blood vessels that leak into the vitreus

5. What would glucagon do to a liver cell?

stimulate glycogenolysis and glucose export

6. Why does contraction of skeletal muscle contribute to venous return to the heart?

helps squeeze blood through valves

7. Why do the semilunar valves snap shut (and produce the second heart sound ("dub").

as ventricles relax, back pressure from the arteries is higher than the ventricular pressure

8. When the atria contract, how much does this contribute to the ventricular volume as ventricular systole begins?

not much, maybe 10 out of 120 ml

9. You pump the cuff to 140 mm Hg, and you hear Korotkoff sounds. ANSWER EITHER (1) What should you do next? OR (2) What does that mean about your patient's blood pressure?

try pumping it higher, (s)he has high systolic blood pressure

10. What would happen to the duration of the action potential of a ventricular myocardial cell during exercise?

it would shorten to accomodate a faster heart rate

11. Why would there still be a heart beat if the SA node did not fire?

the AV node would fire (eventually since it has a slower automaticity)

12. Why does aspirin help to prevent a heart attack?

it inhibits clotting

13. When a person's heart has stopped, what does CPR achieve?

it keeps the brain alive until the heart can be sparked with a defibrillator

14. Increasing LDL would be bad. Why would increasing LDL receptors be good?

receptor-mediated endocytosis via coated vesicles would remove LDL

15. What powers the mucus elevator?

ciliary beat

16. Why is the burning of fossil fuels expected to cause global warming?

atmospheric carbon dioxide acts like the glass in a green house

17. Why is the partial pressure of oxygen lower in alveoli than in the atmosphere?

values are normalized down because of high H2O and CO2 in alveloi

18. Approximately what is the intrapleural pressure during expiration during tidal breathing

757 mm Hg, just a little more than at the peak or trough of tidal breathing but still less than atmospheric pressure

19. Giving approximate numbers in mm Hg, say what happens to the arterial partial pressure for carbon dioxide as you go from normal ventilation to hyperventilation.

goes from 40 to 20

20. About what is the percent oxyhemoglobin saturation in veins when you are at rest?

75%

21. When carbon dioxide is moving from the blood to the alveoli, what happens to chloride and why?

it moves out of the red blood cell so that bicarbonate from the plasma can move into the red blood cell

22. Prostaglandin inhibitors ANSWER EITHER (1) Why are they called NSAIDS? OR (2) How do they inhibit prostaglandins?

they are antii-nflmmatory (like steroids, but different mechanism) and prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation; they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins

23. The vasa recta (peritubular capillaries) are "wired" in series with what capillary tuft?

glomerulus

24. Inulin clearance ANSWER EITHER (1) Rather than injecting inulin, there is a more convenient test involving (what?) substance that is already in the body. OR (2) What specific aspect of kidney function is being tested?

creatinine, glomerular filtration

25. In addition to facilitated diffusion across the basolateral surface of the proximal convoluted tubule, name ONE other type of transport PLUS its location for glucose recovery.

co-transport with sodium on the apical surface and the sodium-potassium ATPase on the basolateral surface

26. Why does the drinking preference of an adrenalectomized rat change (and how does it change)?

because of lack of aldosterone, kidney does not resorb salt and rat prefers salty water

27. Regarding the hormone involved in water recovery from the collecting duct ANSWER EITHER (1) What gland does it come from? (be specific) OR (2) What kind of molecule is the hormone?

posterior pituitary, peptide

28. If the blood volume goes way down, ANSWER EITHER (1) What hormone does the kidney secrete to compensate? OR (2) What specific part of the kidney produces this hormone?

renin, juxtaglomerular apparatus (granular cells, macula densa)

29. Why do they serve Gatorade to runners during a marathon?

salt appetite because of salt loss through perspiration

30. Regarding the proteolytic enzyme in the stomach, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the name of its precursor? OR (2) What cells produce this protein?

pepsinogen, chief

31. What is the structure that regulates gastric emptying into the duodenum?

pyloric sphincter

32. Regarding cholera, ANSWER EITHER (1) What are the symptoms? OR (2) What signalling is disrupted?

life-threatening diarrhea, G-protein signalling via cAMP

33. What is the source of the zymogen chymotrypsinogen?

pancreas

34. Regarding the liver's function in detoxification ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the name of the blood vessel that delivers material from the intestines? OR (2) What do biochemists call the smooth endoplasmic reticulum that houses the enzymes for detoxification?

hepatic portal vessel, microsomal fraction

35. Regarding the hormone leptin ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does it come from? OR (2) What structure does it affect?

adipose tissue, hypothalamus (arcuate nucleus)

36. A hormone suggested to help social behavior, eye contact and social skills in children with autism is more commonly associated with (what?)

milk ejection, also labor and delivery

37. "I will refer to growth hormone and prolactin as 'non-trophic' hormones." Why are the other hormones from the anterior pituitary trophic hormones?

they cause other endocrine glands to release hormones

38. If you did not have sufficient glucocorticoid secretion ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this disease called? OR (2) Why might a person with this disease, like President Kennedy, look like he has a nice sun tan?

addison's disease, there is too much ACTH from decreased feedback and ACTH is similar to melanocyte stimulating hormone

39. "Some hormones and digestive hormones are activated by being cleaved from a larger precursor." From the anterior pituitary, (1) name EITHER the famous precursor OR (2) Name ONE of the hormones produced from this precursor.

proopiomelanocortin, ACTH MSH endorphins enkephalins

40. Menstruation is triggered by a decrease in what hormone(s)?

progesterone (and estrogen)

41. In addition to housing the developing "egg," what does the follicle do?

secrete estrogen

42. How is the corpus luteum maintained in the first few months after implantation?

human corionic gonadotropin

43. How is the endometrium maintained in the first few months of pregnancy?

progesterone from the corpus luteum

44. What does an osteoclast do to regulate blood levels of calcium ions?

under the influence of parathyroid hormone, it dissolves calcium phosphate in bone using HCl

45. List, in order (first to last steps), the three organs required for the biosynthesis, in humans, of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol.

skin-liver-kidney

46. Surprisingly, a male steroid hormone is in the biosynthetic pathway from one female steroid hormone to another female steroid hormone. List these three hormones in order from first to last.

progesterone, testosterone, estrogen (estradiol-17beta)

47. The hormone response element is upstream of (what?).

target gene, coding sequence

48. Why did they think a transdermal patch for estrogen replacement therapy was better than oral administration?

hepatic portal vessel delivers to the liver which has estrogen receptors and also converts estrogen to different forms

49.What effect would castration have on the seminal vesicle?

seminal vesicle would be smaller

50. What kind of molecule is a steroid hormone receptor?

protein


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This page was last updated on October 9, 2014