1. Answer EITHER (1) For gluconeogenesis, what chemical did the glucose come from? OR (2) For ketogenesis, what chemical did the ketone bodies come from?

amino acids, fatty acids

2. Why do diabetics get terrible infected sores on their feet?

because of neuropathy, they are not aware that they are getting, say, a blister, and, furthermore, the immune response is not as good

3. Under the influence of insulin, glucose is taken out of the blood stream into the liver, adipose tissue and (what other organ?).

skeletal muscle

4. Why, when a person with type 1 diabetes needs insulin, does (s)he need to inject it rather than eat it?

in digestion, it would be broken down into individual amino acids

5. What tells the alpha cell in the islets of Langerhans to produce glucagon?

low blood glucose

6. In the beta cell of the islets of Langerhans, how do calcium ions contribute to insulin secretion?

closed K+ channels depolarized the cell, activating voltage gated calcium channels, to assist in vesicle release

7. For cAMP, answer EITHER (1) How, molecularly does it activate protein kinase? OR (2) How could you persuade that cAMP to stick around a little longer?

(1) binds to (and removes) inhibitory subunit (2) block its breakdown with caffeine

8. What would cortisol from the adrenal cortex do to blood glucose levels?


9. Why does contraction of skeletal muscle contribute to venous return to the heart?

helps squeeze blood through valves

10. There is only one layer in the artery that is also present in a capillary. What is this cell called?


11. There is a family of curves for different amounts of sympathetic nerve stimulation where stroke volume in ml is plotted as a function of end-diastolic volume in ml. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this called? (2) In what way does this distinguish the properties of cardiac vs striated muscle as a function of length? OR (3) What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on these curves?

the Frank-Starling law, cardiac muscle does not get weaker as a function of length, it moves to the left

12. Congestive heart failure ANSWER EITHER (1) would be diagnosed if there were a low number on what reading? OR could be treated by what drug (EITHER what is it called OR what does it do)?

ejection fraction (amount of ventricular emptying) would be low, say less than 1/2, treated with sodium pump inhibitor (digitalis toxin) that increases calcium in the heart increasing contractility

13. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems regulate heart rate and contractility and hence blood pressure. How is blood pressure monitored to achieve this autonomic homeostatic blood pressure control?

with mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid bodies via the medulla

14. At what range, during the measurement of arterial blood pressure, does the needle bob up and down?

between systolic and diastolic, when the Korotkoff sounds are heard, because of the turbulent blood flow

15. When are arterial and ventricular blood pressures equal?

during systole

16. What happens to the membrane potential of a pacemaker cell during diastole?

it depolarizes

17. Long Q-T syndrome ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the abnormality? OR (2) How (and in what organism) was the ether-a-go-go gene whose human equivalent underlies long Q-T syndrome first found?

the ventricular myocardial action potential cannot become shorter during stress, Drosophila shake under ether anesthesia

18. The stress EKG ANSWER EITHER (1) What disorder is it used to diagnose? (2) How is the stress achieved? OR (3) What is the target pulse they try to get?

occluded coronary artery, treadmill or injection, 220 minus age

19. You already had a heart attack, so you carry nitroglycerine in case you have angina. Why are erectile dysfunction medications contraindicated.

there is an unsafe drop in blood pressure

20. ATRIAL fibrillation ANSWER EITHER (1) What is it? OR (2) What happens to heart rate?

extra triggers of heart beat not just SA node, obviously goes way up

21. What effect would leukotrienes have on breathing?

these mediators of inflammation would obstruct breathing

22. The partial pressure for oxygen in the atmosphere is atmospheric pressure times the fraction of the atmosphere that is oxygen. What are the major reasons that the partial pressure for oxygen in the alveoli is much lower?

there are higher proportions of water vapor and carbon dioxide, and only a fraction of the air in the lungs is refreshed during breathing

23. Cystic fibrosis ANSWER EITHER (1) How do parents take care of the children? OR (2) Molecularly OR genetically, what is wrong?

percussion (thump the chest) for more productive coughing, chloride channel because of mutation in CFTR

24. Approximatey, what is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveloi and in the pulmonary veins and in the systemic arteries (all the same) during normal tidal ventillation?

40 mm Hg

25. Why are premature babies placed in high oxygen incubators?

without surfactant, breathing is difficult

26. Why are chemoreceptors in the medulla more effective than those in the aortic and carotid bodies in controlling respiration?

the pH decrease from increased CO2 are not buffered in the cerebrospinal fluid of the medulla

27. Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve ANSWER EITHER (1) For 100% saturation on the Y axis, what is the partial pressure of oxygen on the X axis? OR (2) For 40 mm Hg on the X axis, what is the percent saturation on the Y axis?

100 mm Hg, 75% saturation

28. In the chloride shift, when chloride comes out of the red blood cell, ANSWER EITHER (1) What goes in? (2) Where does the shift go in this direction?

bicarbonate (HCO3-), lungs

29. People with gout have high levels of what substance?

uric acid

30. "There is something like a portal system for each of the million nephrons in each kidney." The first capillary bed is the glomerulus. What is the second capillary bed called?

peritubulary capillaries or vasa recta

31. Where (answer EITHER cellular location OR molecule) is energy used to resorb glucose across a cell in the kidney tubule?

basolateral surface, sodium pump

32. "In the proximal convoluted tubule, sodium is actively transported, while chloride and water follow passively." How is this different in the ascending loop of Henle?

water is not allowed across

33. Aldosterone ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does it come from? (2) What kind of molecule is it? OR (3) How does it assist in osmoregulation?

adrenal cortex, steroid (mineralocorticoid), promotes sodium resorption

34. Angiotensin ANSWER EITHER (1) What hormone from the kidney causes angiotensin's activation? OR (2) Why would some patients be given inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors)?

renin, for hypertension

35. Why would you prescribe Warfarin to a patient?

prevent any problem having to do with a blood clot (thrombus, embolism), for instance heart attack (coronary thrombosis)

36. The pH optimum for trypsin is about 9. What is the pH optimum for pepsin?

about 2

37. What does the pancreas do (and with what chemical) to the pH of the juice passing the pyloric sphincter to the duodenum?

neutralizes acid with bicarbonate

38. What does cholera toxin do to absorption across the intestinal epithelium?

disrupts water absorption by a cAMP dependent mechanism

39. What are the products when pancreatic lipase acts on a triglyceride molecule in the lumen of the duodenum?

monoglyceride and 2 fatty acids

40. Using the correct terminology about the drug's effect on appetite (hunger), tell me about amphetamine.

it is anorexigenic (it causes anorexia)

41. A hormone from the anterior or posterior pituitary is what kind of molecule?


42. Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nuceus and archate nucleus are all part of what important part of the brain involved in motivation, among other things?


43. Ovulation and the conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does the hormone that triggers these come from? OR (2) What is the chemical nature of this hormone?

pituitary, peptide

44. How does the rhythm method of birth control work?

a 4-day window around the approximate time of ovulation when sperm and egg can be viable

45. Would the corpus luteum build up and break down in women who are taking the pill? (Include in your answer why or why not.)

no b/c steroids of the pill inhibit FSH and LH which would build the follicle into the corpus luteum

46. The breakdown of the endometrium ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this called? OR (2) Why does it break down?

decline in progesterone (and estrogen)

47. What happens if there is too much growth hormone in the adult?

acromegaly, bones get thicker, not longer

48. A story was told about thyroid hormone and salmon. What aspects of the salmon life cycle are regulated by different levels of thyroid hormone?

migration from spawning in fresh water stream to foraging in salt water to mating in stream

49. What hormone triggers calcium release from the bones in order to maintain homeostasis of blood calcium?


50. Sunlight on the skin is involved in the activation of what hormone?

vitamin D, specifically conversion of 7-Dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D3

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last updated 10/21/2015