1. Answer EITHER (1) For gluconeogenesis, what chemical did the glucose
come from? OR (2) For ketogenesis, what chemical did the ketone bodies come
amino acids, fatty acids
2. Why do diabetics get terrible infected sores on their feet?
because of neuropathy, they are not aware that they are getting, say, a
blister, and, furthermore, the immune response is not as good
3. Under the influence of insulin, glucose is taken out of the blood stream
into the liver, adipose tissue and (what other organ?).
4. Why, when a person with type 1 diabetes needs insulin, does (s)he need
to inject it rather than eat it?
in digestion, it would be broken down into individual amino acids
5. What tells the alpha cell in the islets of Langerhans to produce glucagon?
low blood glucose
6. In the beta cell of the islets of Langerhans, how do calcium ions contribute
to insulin secretion?
closed K+ channels depolarized the cell, activating voltage gated calcium
channels, to assist in vesicle release
7. For cAMP, answer EITHER (1) How, molecularly does it activate protein
kinase? OR (2) How could you persuade that cAMP to stick around a little
(1) binds to (and removes) inhibitory subunit (2) block its breakdown with
8. What would cortisol from the adrenal cortex do to blood glucose levels?
9. Why does contraction of skeletal muscle contribute to venous return to
helps squeeze blood through valves
10. There is only one layer in the artery that is also present in a capillary.
What is this cell called?
11. There is a family of curves for different amounts of sympathetic nerve
stimulation where stroke volume in ml is plotted as a function of end-diastolic
volume in ml. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this called? (2) In what way does
this distinguish the properties of cardiac vs striated muscle as a function
of length? OR (3) What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on these
the Frank-Starling law, cardiac muscle does not get weaker as a function
of length, it moves to the left
12. Congestive heart failure ANSWER EITHER (1) would be diagnosed if there
were a low number on what reading? OR could be treated by what drug (EITHER
what is it called OR what does it do)?
ejection fraction (amount of ventricular emptying) would be low, say less
than 1/2, treated with sodium pump inhibitor (digitalis toxin) that increases
calcium in the heart increasing contractility
13. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems regulate heart rate
and contractility and hence blood pressure. How is blood pressure monitored
to achieve this autonomic homeostatic blood pressure control?
with mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid bodies via the medulla
14. At what range, during the measurement of arterial blood pressure, does
the needle bob up and down?
between systolic and diastolic, when the Korotkoff sounds are heard, because
of the turbulent blood flow
15. When are arterial and ventricular blood pressures equal?
16. What happens to the membrane potential of a pacemaker cell during diastole?
17. Long Q-T syndrome ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the abnormality? OR (2)
How (and in what organism) was the ether-a-go-go gene whose human equivalent
underlies long Q-T syndrome first found?
the ventricular myocardial action potential cannot become shorter during
stress, Drosophila shake under ether anesthesia
18. The stress EKG ANSWER EITHER (1) What disorder is it used to diagnose?
(2) How is the stress achieved? OR (3) What is the target pulse they try
occluded coronary artery, treadmill or injection, 220 minus age
19. You already had a heart attack, so you carry nitroglycerine in case
you have angina. Why are erectile dysfunction medications contraindicated.
there is an unsafe drop in blood pressure
20. ATRIAL fibrillation ANSWER EITHER (1) What is it? OR (2) What happens
to heart rate?
extra triggers of heart beat not just SA node, obviously goes way up
21. What effect would leukotrienes have on breathing?
these mediators of inflammation would obstruct breathing
22. The partial pressure for oxygen in the atmosphere is atmospheric pressure
times the fraction of the atmosphere that is oxygen. What are the major
reasons that the partial pressure for oxygen in the alveoli is much lower?
there are higher proportions of water vapor and carbon dioxide, and only
a fraction of the air in the lungs is refreshed during breathing
23. Cystic fibrosis ANSWER EITHER (1) How do parents take care of the children?
OR (2) Molecularly OR genetically, what is wrong?
percussion (thump the chest) for more productive coughing, chloride channel
because of mutation in CFTR
24. Approximatey, what is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the
alveloi and in the pulmonary veins and in the systemic arteries (all the
same) during normal tidal ventillation?
40 mm Hg
25. Why are premature babies placed in high oxygen incubators?
without surfactant, breathing is difficult
26. Why are chemoreceptors in the medulla more effective than those in the
aortic and carotid bodies in controlling respiration?
the pH decrease from increased CO2 are not buffered in the cerebrospinal
fluid of the medulla
27. Oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve ANSWER EITHER (1) For 100% saturation
on the Y axis, what is the partial pressure of oxygen on the X axis? OR
(2) For 40 mm Hg on the X axis, what is the percent saturation on the Y
100 mm Hg, 75% saturation
28. In the chloride shift, when chloride comes out of the red blood cell,
ANSWER EITHER (1) What goes in? (2) Where does the shift go in this direction?
bicarbonate (HCO3-), lungs
29. People with gout have high levels of what substance?
30. "There is something like a portal system for each of the million
nephrons in each kidney." The first capillary bed is the glomerulus.
What is the second capillary bed called?
peritubulary capillaries or vasa recta
31. Where (answer EITHER cellular location OR molecule) is energy used to
resorb glucose across a cell in the kidney tubule?
basolateral surface, sodium pump
32. "In the proximal convoluted tubule, sodium is actively transported,
while chloride and water follow passively." How is this different in
the ascending loop of Henle?
water is not allowed across
33. Aldosterone ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does it come from? (2) What kind
of molecule is it? OR (3) How does it assist in osmoregulation?
adrenal cortex, steroid (mineralocorticoid), promotes sodium resorption
34. Angiotensin ANSWER EITHER (1) What hormone from the kidney causes angiotensin's
activation? OR (2) Why would some patients be given inhibitors of angiotensin
converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors)?
renin, for hypertension
35. Why would you prescribe Warfarin to a patient?
prevent any problem having to do with a blood clot (thrombus, embolism),
for instance heart attack (coronary thrombosis)
36. The pH optimum for trypsin is about 9. What is the pH optimum for pepsin?
37. What does the pancreas do (and with what chemical) to the pH of the
juice passing the pyloric sphincter to the duodenum?
neutralizes acid with bicarbonate
38. What does cholera toxin do to absorption across the intestinal epithelium?
disrupts water absorption by a cAMP dependent mechanism
39. What are the products when pancreatic lipase acts on a triglyceride
molecule in the lumen of the duodenum?
monoglyceride and 2 fatty acids
40. Using the correct terminology about the drug's effect on appetite (hunger),
tell me about amphetamine.
it is anorexigenic (it causes anorexia)
41. A hormone from the anterior or posterior pituitary is what kind of molecule?
42. Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nuceus and archate nucleus
are all part of what important part of the brain involved in motivation,
among other things?
43. Ovulation and the conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum ANSWER
EITHER (1) Where does the hormone that triggers these come from? OR (2)
What is the chemical nature of this hormone?
44. How does the rhythm method of birth control work?
a 4-day window around the approximate time of ovulation when sperm and egg
can be viable
45. Would the corpus luteum build up and break down in women who are taking
the pill? (Include in your answer why or why not.)
no b/c steroids of the pill inhibit FSH and LH which would build the follicle
into the corpus luteum
46. The breakdown of the endometrium ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this called?
OR (2) Why does it break down?
decline in progesterone (and estrogen)
47. What happens if there is too much growth hormone in the adult?
acromegaly, bones get thicker, not longer
48. A story was told about thyroid hormone and salmon. What aspects of the
salmon life cycle are regulated by different levels of thyroid hormone?
migration from spawning in fresh water stream to foraging in salt water
to mating in stream
49. What hormone triggers calcium release from the bones in order to maintain
homeostasis of blood calcium?
50. Sunlight on the skin is involved in the activation of what hormone?
vitamin D, specifically conversion of 7-Dehydrocholesterol to vitamin D3
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last updated 10/21/2015