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BIOL 2600 Human Physiology, Fall 2017, Prof. Stark
Second Hourly Exam, Monday November 6, Short Answer

1. Blood samples are taken from a mouse before and after insulin is injected and measured with a blood glucose meter. What happens to the blood glucose level?

it goes way down

2. What donates the phosphate when the insulin receptor gets phosphorylated?

ATP

3. During fasting, what will happen to the level of ketone bodies in the blood?

increase

4. What process is mediated by the entry of Ca2+ into the pancreatic beta cell?

release of vesicles

5. There is a family of curves for different amounts of sympathetic nerve stimulation where stroke volume in ml is plotted as a function of ventricular end-diastolic volume in ml. Answer either (1) What is this called? (2) In what way does this distinguish the properties of cardiac vs striated muscle as a function of length? or (3) What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on these curves?

Frank-Starling law, cardiac muscle does not get weaker as a function of length, it moves them up and to the left

6. "The T wave represents the repolarization of the ventricles." Why was there no equivalent wave representing the repolarization of the atria?

it was hidden under QRS

7. Although the electrical signal would pass from one myocardial cell to the next, specialized fibers hurry it to much of the ventricular muscle synchronously. What are these fibers?

bundle of His, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

8. Where does the vena cava (superior and inferior) empty into?

right atrium

9. Why is the wall of the left ventricle thicker than the wall of the right ventricle?

systemic circulation is higher pressure than pulmonary

10. Approximately what is the pressure in the left ventricle when the semilunar valve (to the aorta) opens?

at that moment it should equal diastolic pressure

11. When, in the heart cycle, do the bicuspid and tricusid (atrio-ventricular) valves snap shut?

at the beginning of ventricular contraction

12. The time between the QRS and the T represents the action potential duration for what specific cell type?

ventricular myocardial cell

13. What is the function of an arteriovenous anastomosis?

shunt blood past peripheral vascular bed

14. Name one of the 4 risk factors for heart attack that ranks higher than family history.

high blood pressure, prior heart attack, smoking, diabetes

15. A person drops over outdoors and has no pulse. To keep him or her alive until medical equipment and personnel arrive, (answer either) (1) What is the name of the procedure you would perform? Or (2) How would this keep the victim alive?

CPR, it keeps the brain alive

16. Why is the expression "referred pain" sometimes applied to the pain experienced during a heart attack?

pain from viscera and heart is projected onto the somatosensory map, thus for the heart, classic symptoms of shooting pain in left shoulder and neck especially in men

17. How does nitroglycerine help to relieve angina pectoris?

relax artery smooth muscle

18. The total lung capacity equals the tidal volume plus (what)? Hint, there should be several components to your answer.

inspiratory and expiratory reserves plus residual volume

19. Epinephrine would help a person having an asthma attack. What completely different approach could be used, in this case to control inflammation?

antileukotriene like Singulaire

20. Why do people with emphysema need to breathe more?

with fewer alveoli, there is less area for gas exchaqnge

21. The partial pressure for oxygen in the atmosphere is atmospheric pressure times the fraction of the atmosphere that is oxygen. What are the major reasons that the partial pressure for oxygen in the alveoli is much lower?

there are higher proportions of water vapor and carbon dioxide

22. For cystic fibrosis, (answer one of these) (1) A gene, mutated in cystic fibrosis, codes for what? (2) What are the symptoms? Or (3) How does the parent treat those symptoms on a daily basis?

CFTR, a chloride channel, thick mucus, thump chest for productive coughing

23. What happens to ventilation when pH goes down in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

more acidity implies more carbon dioxide, so you breathe harder

24. Relative to curve where % oxygen saturation is plotted as a function of partial pressure for oxygen for adult hemoglobin, how would you place the curve for fetal hemoglobin?

fetal oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is to the left of the adult

25. Why does chloride come out of red blood cells in the lungs?

so bicarbonate can come in for the generation of carbon dioxide to be exhaled

26. What accumulates in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome?

uric acid

27. Na+, Cl- and H2O are all recovered in the proximal convoluted tubule. Which involve active transport?

Na+

28. What is the tube that connects the kidney with the bladder?

ureter

29. "A disruption in the Humboldt current might have an effect on bird droppings." Fill in a few of the details missing in that telegraphic statement.

bird droppings - uric acid, nitrogen fertilizer, birds eat anchovies which thrive b/c of Humboldt driving upwelling

30. In the glomerulus, fluid passes through the fenestrated capillary endothelium plus (what?) on its way to Bowman's capsule.

pedicels of podocytes

31. What change in appetite would occur if the adrenal glands were removed?

you would crave salt

32. What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus monitor and why is it in a good location to do this job?

blood pressure, near afferent arteriole

33. Renin activates what hormone?

angiotensin II

34. The opposite of dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction) happens in digestion. What is this called?

hydrolysis

35. What is the purpose of bicarbonate secretion by the pancreas?

neutralize stomach acid for intestine

36. What are zymogen granules in pancreatic acinar cells?

contain precursors of digestive enzymes like trypsinogen

37. Repeated fatty metamorphosis of liver from alcohol binges leads to what scarring disorder?

cirrhosis

38. Proteins are broken into amino acids, and amino acids are what move across the basolateral border of the intestinal epithelium. How does this differ for the apical surface?

di- and tri-peptides also move across the brush border

39. In a healthy person, urobilinogen is eliminated via the urine and (how else?).

in the feces

40. In reference to lipase in the intestinal lumen, tell me either (1) What is the source of lipase? Or (2) What are the products when it acts on a triglyceride?

pancreas, monoglyceride plus two fatty acids

41. What hormone from adipose tissue contributes to weight regulation?

leptin

42. The portal vessel in the digestive system connects the intestine (where absorption takes place) to that organ?

liver where detoxification takes place (via the hepatic portal vessel)

43. Glucocorticoids - answer either - (1) are produced where? (be specific) or (2) feed back to the anterior pituitary to inhibit the release of (what hormone?).

adrenal cortex (ok if you wrote zona fasciculata and reticularis), ACTH

44. With respect to its effects in the breast and in the uterus, what type of cell is affected by oxytocin?

smooth muscle

45. One capillary net is in the infundibulum and receives its hormones as neurosecretions from the paraventricular and preoptic areas of the hypothalamus. Obviously, I am describing a portal system. Where is the second capillary net?

anterior pituitary

46. What is the name of the disorder of too much growth hormone as an adult?

acromegaly

47. Why would a couple only need to abstain from intercourse for a few days per month to avoid pregnancy?

egg only present and viability is limited as is the viability of sperm delivered near the time when the egg is present up in the uterine tube

48. A surge of LH leads to what changes in the ovary? (There are two answers but you need provide only one.)

ovulation, conversion of the follicle to the corpus luteum

49. "The follicle includes a 'rind' of cells and the egg enclosed in this rind." What does this rind do?

secretes estrogen

50. Although steroids in the birth control pill would have a trophic effect, building up the endometrium, they block pregnancy. By what mechanism?

by inhibiting FSH and LH, they prevent ovulation

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last updated 11/1/2017