1. After a peptide is clipped out of the prohormone, what holds the two
resulting chains of insulin together?
2. A person with type 1 diabetes has his blood glucose pretty much under
control. Why does he need to test his blood rather than his urine to precisely
control his levels by insulin injection.
glucose only shows up in the urine when it is really high in the blood
3. Adipose tissue, answer one (1) Insulin stimulates uptake of (you need
only state one of the two)? OR (2) Inside the cell, it is converted into
(you need only list one of the two)?
glucose and fatty acids, glucose to glycerol then fatty acids added to make
4. What is the unique function of the ATP generated from glucose metabolism
in the beta cell of the islets of Langerhans?
ligand to close potassium channels to depolarize the cell for calcium entry
and insulin exocytosis
5. In contrast with the insulin receptor, an RTK (receptor tyrosine kinase),
the glucagon receptor is a (what?).
G protein coupled receptor
6. Cyclic AMP binds to an inhibitory subunit. When a cell is activated by
glucagon, what enzyme gets activated as a result?
protein kinase (PKA=A-kinase)
7. Chordae tendineae, answer either (1) What do they connect to? OR (2)
Why are they important?
from ventricular papillary muscles to tricuspid and bicuspid (AV) valves,
to reinforce valves so that ventricular pressure does not blow them out
into the atria
8. A cell lines the capillary. Answer either (1) What is this cell type
called? OR (2) What specialization does this cell exhibit if it is called
endothelial, has windows (holes)
9. How is it that the electrical activity of the heart can be recorded from
as far away as the extremities?
there is virtually no resistance in the extracellular fluid between the
heart and the extremities, also a lot of cells in the heart function in
10. Why would alternating muscle contraction and relaxation increase venous
muscle contraction would squeese the vein and push blood past the next one-way
11. In addition to the sympathetic nervous system and precapillary sphincters,
what mechanism restricts blood flow to the extremities in times of stress?
12. The beginning of ventricular contraction is referred to as "isovolumetric."
What event ends that phase where the ventricle contracts without the volume
of blood changing?
the opening of the semilunar valves
13. The length-tension curve for striated muscle differs significantly (and
thankfully) from the Frank-Starling law. For either the (1) "percentage
resting length" axis or for the (2) "relative tension" axis,
identify the corresponding axes for the Frank Starling law.
ventricular end diastolic volume, stroke volume
14. For either (1) cuff pressure above the patient's systolic pressure,
OR for (2) cuff pressure below the diastolic pressure, say why no sounds
are heard in the bracheal artery.
those Korotkoff sounds were only during turbulent blood flow
15. Both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems affect SA and AV
nodes. In addition, what other direct affect does the sympathetic nervous
system have in the heart?
sympathetic nervous system increases ventricular contractility
16. Name one of the specialized sets of fibers that speeds the action potential
from the AV node to the ventricular myocardium especially in the apex of
atrioventricular bundle (of His), right and left bundle branches, Purkinje
17. Re-entry of excitation - Why might myocardial cells have an action potential
that occurs too early, i.e. before the next heart beat that originates from
the SA node?
an action potential going from cell to cell around an area with non-conducting
tissue resulting from damage would arrive at cells that are no nolger refractory
sooner than the next SA trigger would arrive
18. "How the sympathetic nervous system opens the trachea is different
from how an alpha adrenergic agonist like Neosynephrine causes vasoconstriction
in the case of nasal congestion." Elaborate.
by relaxing smooth muscle, it opens airways while it causes vasoconstriction
by constricting smooth muscle in nasal passages
19. Give a surface area explanation for why it is more work for someone
with emphysema to breathe.
because alveoli merge, there are fewer and they are bigger, less surface
area, so person has to breathe a lot more to get the same air exchange
20. The partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli is much lower than in the
inspired air. Why?
water and carbon dioxide, virtually zero in inspired air, is much higher
in alveoli, also not all the air exchanges
21. What would happen to your breathing if all the nerves to the diaphragm
and intercostal muscles were severed?
it would cease
22. Why do chemoreceptors in the medulla react more to high carbon dioxide
than those of the carotid and aortic bodies?
there are no buffers in the cerebrospinal fluid
23. What development occurs right around the normal time of birth that facilitates
type 2 alveolar cells mature and surfactant secretion begins
24. What would happen if the air pressure in the intrapleural space reached
equilibrium with atmospheric pressure?
the lung would collapse (pneumothorax)
25. Uric acid, answer one of the following. (1) Why is it useful for some
animals to use uric acid rather than urea for nitrogen elimination? OR (2)
Why is it an oversimplification to claim that uric acid in joints causes
the pain of gout?
conserves water, it is the inflammation (prostaglandins) caused by the uric
acid that hurts
26. What is the geometry of the second capillary bed in the nephron?
the vasa recta wraps around the loop of Henle, in along the descending loop
and out along the ascending loop
27. In addition to fenestrated endothelium, what structural specialization
contributes to glomerular filtration?
pedicels of podocytes make a sieve
28. "In the ascending limb, sodium is actively transported, chloride
follows passively but the ascending limb is impermeable to water."
Why is this ultimately useful in water resorption?
by making the interstitial fluid hypertonic, the aquaporins in the collecting
duct can bring water out of the urine
29. What would be the cause of death of a rat whose adrenal glands had just
been removed and returned to its cage with rat chow and water available
all the time?
30. "During this heat wave, drink plenty of fluids, but limit your
intake of alcohol." Why this latter tidbit of advice?
alcohol's inhibition of ADH would mean water loss through the kidneys
31. We discussed many different blood vessels in the nephron. Which regulates
the angiotensin system?
32. "Digestion of starch that starts in the mouth is of little value."
Why did I say that?
amylase action is terminated by the stomach's pepsin and HCl
33. Why is it useful that the chief cell produces pepsinogen rather than
so it does not digest itself
34. What is the source of material that neutralizes acidity as stomach contents
move to the small intestine?
bicarbonate comes from the pancreas
35. CyclicAMP signaling is important in water absorption in the intestine.
What bacterial toxin can disrupt this cAMP-dependent water resorption?
36. In addition to individual amino acids, what products of proteolytic
enzymes are transported across the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium?
dipeptides and tripeptides
37. Bile pigments result from the recycling of what kind of CELL?
red blood cells
38. Regarding oxytocin and ADH, the portal system connecting the hypothalamus
to the pituitary is not utilized. Elaborate.
neurosecretions from axon terminals in the posterior pituitary, cell bodies
in the hypothalamus
39. Give the abbreviations of the two gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary.
FSH & LH
40. A cancer in the pituitary cells that would produce growth hormone would
produce what syndrome in the adult?
41. Cretinism is from shortage of what hormone at what phase in life?
42. ACTH is a peptide produced by being cut out of a larger precursor named
43. In terms of homeostasis (negative feedback control) what circumstances
lead to the initial output of FSH from the pituitary.
low estrogen and progesterone meams no negative feedback
44. In addition to initiating the formation of the corpus luteum, a burst
of LH does what?
leads to ovulation
45. How is it that "the pill" does not prevent menstruation?
progesterone (and estrogen) stimulate buildup of the endometrium, dud pills
at the end allow breakdown
46. Which hormone allows calcium to be borrowed from bone to increase blood
47. Sunlight, 25-Hydroxylase, and 1-alpha-Hydroxylase provide what to the
blood stream? (A specific or a general name would be acceptable.)
"vitamin D" = 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3
48. On what molecule AND where (in relation to exons and introns) does the
steroid hormone - steroid hormone receptor complex bind?
the response element is upstream of the protein's coding sequence on the
49. "You might think that 5-year-old boys have different behavior than
girls of the same age because of circulating testosterone levels."
What is the more accurate statement about the cause of behavior differences
at that age?
neonatal testosterone organizes the male brain, then there is very little
testosterone until puberty
50. To mediate the effects of testosterone in males, aromatase converts
it to what hormone that is more commonly associated with females?
Last modified 11/2/2012
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