1. Once glucose is split in half, there are two duplicate pathways leading to two respective pyruvic acids. Each limb generates 2 ATPs. Why, then, does glycolysis, as a whole, generate only 2 ATPs?

two ATPs were used up in glycolysis

2. Regenerating NAD (from NADH plus H+) is essential for what process?

anaerobic glycolysis

3. Adenylate cyclase converts (what?) into cAMP?

ATP

4. A hydrogen is split into H+ plus what?

an electron

5. Blood samples are taken from a mouse before and after insulin is injected and measured with a blood glucose meter. What happens to the blood glucose level?

it goes way down

6. Insulin is made from a precursor (a prohormone). Say something about what the molecular structure of insulin is and/or how it relates to the prohormone.

two peptide chains are linked by disulfide bonds after a peptide is cleaved and discarded

7. Why would the vitreous of the eye become less transparent after long-term diabetes.

leakage from blood vessels created by angiogenesis

8. Metabolism of glucose transported into a beta cell in the islets of Langerhans increases ATP. How does this ATP mediate the secretion of insulin?

it closes a potassium channel that depolarizes the cell causing calcium influx for vesicle release

9. Backslosh through leaky heart valves. Answer either (1) What is the term for this that makes reference to heart sounds? or (2) What bacterial disease might lead to this?

heart murmur, rheumatic fever

10. After the atrio-ventricular valves snap shut but before the semilunars open, the ventricles contract and build up pressure. What happens to the volume of blood in the ventricles during this period?

it stays the same

11. There are many layers in an artery. Only one of these layers of cells is present in a capillary. What is this type of cell called?

endothelial cell

12. There is a family of curves for different amounts of sympathetic nerve stimulation where stroke volume in ml is plotted as a function of ventricular end-diastolic volume in ml. Answer either (1) What is this called? (2) In what way does this distinguish the properties of cardiac vs striated muscle as a function of length? or (3) What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on these curves?

Frank-Starling law, cardiac muscle does not get weakker as a function of length, it moves them up and to the left

13. Parasympathetic and sympathetic portions of the autonomic nervous system affect heart rate, acting on the SA (and AV) nodes. What additional direct affect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the heart?

sympathetic NS increases myocardial contractility

14. What would have to happen to the shape of the action potential of a ventricular myocardial cell to compensate for the increased heart rate that accompanies heavy exercise?

the long duration action potential would get shorter

15. If, for some reason, the signal that should have originated in the SA node were not transmitted appropriately, the heart would still beat. What would drive this heart beat?

the automaticity of the AV node

16. HCN channels. Answer either (1) What is the cyclic nucleotide referred to by "CN?" or (2) What do we call the unusual electrophysiology mediated by the HCN channel?

cAMP, pacemaker potential or diastolic depolarization

17. "Here, quick, chew this aspirin and drink it down." If this stopped a heart attack in progress, how would it do that?

inhibit clotting

18. "Action potentials that originate in the SA node pass from one atrial myocardial cell to another and usually usually trigger the AV node before it would have fired automatically." Say why spreading from one myocardial cell to the next is not a full explanation of action potential spread in the ventricles.

bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers get the action potential to the apex first

19. Name one of the 4 risk factors for heart attack that ranks higher than family history.

high blood pressure, prior heart attack, smoking, diabetes

20. What specialization in the trachea powers the mucus elevator?

cilia

21.. Epinephrine would help a person having an asthma attack. What completely different approach could be used, in this case to control inflammation?

antileukotriene like Singulaire

22. Name one component that separates air in the alveloi from red blood cells.

type I alveolar cell, basal lamina, endothelial cell

23. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the pulmonary vein is 40 mm Hg. What is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the systemic arteries?

duh! there was no gas exchange between the two

24. "Water's surface tension would tend to collapse (close) alveoli." Answer either (1) How does physiology take care of this problem? or (2) People with what condition have a real problem because of this?

surfactant, premature babies

25. "The buffering capacity of blood keeps high carbon dioxide from changing pH much." Then how does physiology improve on this sensitivity in chemoreceptors in the medulla?

on that side of the blood brain barrier, the cerebrospinal fluid has no buffers

26. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the pulmonary vein is 40 mm Hg. How would hyperventillation affect this?

cut it in half

27. Why would it be advantageous for some animals to use uric acid instead of urea to eliminate nitrogenous wastes?

less water is lost

28. Where does the efferent arteriole from the glomerulus go to next?

vasa recta, capillary bed around loop of Henle

29.Where (answer either cellular location or molecule) is energy used to resorb glucose across a cell in the kidney tubule?

basolateral surface, sodium pump

30. ADH (antiduretic hormone, alias vasopressin). Answer (1) What channels are regulated by ADH? or (2) Where (specifically) does ADH have its effects?

water channels (aquaporins), collecting duct

31. Say something about backward movement or reverse peristalsis at the cardiac oriface.

vomiting, rats cannot do it so they do not return to tastes that made them sick

32. What is the cause of stomach ulcer?

acid, bacterium Helicobacter pylori

33. What is the use of bicarbonate secretion from the pancreas?

neutralize acidy coming from stomach

34. "Salt and glucose facilitate the absorption of water across the intestinal epithelium." Under what circumstances would this knowledge allow you to save somebody's life?

give someone with Cholera Gatorade before EMS personnel come to hook up an IV

35. In a healthy person, urobilinogen is eliminated via the urine and (how else?).

in the feces

36. Facilitated by bile salts and catalyzed by lipase, triglyceride plus two water molecules is converted into (what three molecules?) in the intestinal lumen?

a monoglyceride plus two fatty acids

37. Obese mutant mice are deficient in leptin. Answer either (1) where (in a normal animal) leptin is made or (2) what part of the brain it affects.

adipose tissue,

38. Why would we refer to oxytocin as a "neurosecretion" but not ACTH?

oxytocin comes from nerve cells of the hypothalamus, ACTH from endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary

39. Answer one of the following: Releasing hormones are produced by (what structure?) and have their effect on (what structure?) after being carried by (what conduit?).

hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, portal vessel

40. Under the influence of growth hormone, bones get longer while you are growing. How does growth hormone affect bones after you are full grown?

acromegaly, they get thicker

41. Glucocorticoids - answer either - (1) are produced where? (be specific) or (2) feed back to the anterior pituitary to inhibit the release of (what hormone?).

adrenal cortex (ok if you wrote zona fasciculata and reticularis), ACTH

42. Steroids of the ovary are secreted by what specific portion(s) of the ovary?

follicle, corpus luteum

43. Fertility is blocked by the pill...answer one of these: (1) How is fertility blocked? or (2) Why would there still be menstruation every month?

no ovulation (b/c no LH or FSH [b/c of steroids in the pill]), steroids build up endometrium, then lack of steroids let it break down

44. Why would a couple only need to abstain from intercourse for a few days per month to avoid pregnancy?

egg only present and viability are limited as is the viability of sperm delivered near the time when the egg is present up in the uterine tube

45. Something the size of the fertilized egg, but further developed, implants into the receptive endometrium. A portion develops into an endocrine-secreting tissue. Answer either (1) What is the function of the hormone it produces? or (2) What is the chemical nature of the hormone it produces?

maintain the corpus luteum, peptide

46. Vitamin D has effects more similar to (which?) calcitonin or parathormone. Explain (justify).

increase blood calcium like parathormone

47. An osteoclast contributes to the regulation of blood calcium ... Answer either (1) under the influence of what hormone? (2) how?

parathormone, secrete HCl to break down calcium phosphate and enzyme to break down collagen

48. The synthesis of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 7-Dehydrocholesterol involves kidney, liver, and (what other organ?).

skin

49. Upstream of a gene, there is a place where a steroid protein receptor combined with a steroid hormone binds. What is this area in the DNA called?

a response element

50. Say something about why estrogen replacement therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis is not universally advised.

increase breast cancer, heart attack and stroke

Last updated Nov 7, 2011

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