1. Once glucose is split in half, there are two duplicate pathways leading
to two respective pyruvic acids. Each limb generates 2 ATPs. Why, then,
does glycolysis, as a whole, generate only 2 ATPs?
two ATPs were used up in glycolysis
2. Regenerating NAD (from NADH plus H+) is essential for what process?
3. Adenylate cyclase converts (what?) into cAMP?
4. A hydrogen is split into H+ plus what?
5. Blood samples are taken from a mouse before and after insulin is injected
and measured with a blood glucose meter. What happens to the blood glucose
it goes way down
6. Insulin is made from a precursor (a prohormone). Say something about
what the molecular structure of insulin is and/or how it relates to the
two peptide chains are linked by disulfide bonds after a peptide is cleaved
7. Why would the vitreous of the eye become less transparent after long-term
leakage from blood vessels created by angiogenesis
8. Metabolism of glucose transported into a beta cell in the islets of Langerhans
increases ATP. How does this ATP mediate the secretion of insulin?
it closes a potassium channel that depolarizes the cell causing calcium
influx for vesicle release
9. Backslosh through leaky heart valves. Answer either (1) What is the term
for this that makes reference to heart sounds? or (2) What bacterial disease
might lead to this?
heart murmur, rheumatic fever
10. After the atrio-ventricular valves snap shut but before the semilunars
open, the ventricles contract and build up pressure. What happens to the
volume of blood in the ventricles during this period?
it stays the same
11. There are many layers in an artery. Only one of these layers of cells
is present in a capillary. What is this type of cell called?
12. There is a family of curves for different amounts of sympathetic nerve
stimulation where stroke volume in ml is plotted as a function of ventricular
end-diastolic volume in ml. Answer either (1) What is this called? (2) In
what way does this distinguish the properties of cardiac vs striated muscle
as a function of length? or (3) What effect does sympathetic stimulation
have on these curves?
Frank-Starling law, cardiac muscle does not get weakker as a function of
length, it moves them up and to the left
13. Parasympathetic and sympathetic portions of the autonomic nervous system
affect heart rate, acting on the SA (and AV) nodes. What additional direct
affect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the heart?
sympathetic NS increases myocardial contractility
14. What would have to happen to the shape of the action potential of a
ventricular myocardial cell to compensate for the increased heart rate that
accompanies heavy exercise?
the long duration action potential would get shorter
15. If, for some reason, the signal that should have originated in the SA
node were not transmitted appropriately, the heart would still beat. What
would drive this heart beat?
the automaticity of the AV node
16. HCN channels. Answer either (1) What is the cyclic nucleotide referred
to by "CN?" or (2) What do we call the unusual electrophysiology
mediated by the HCN channel?
cAMP, pacemaker potential or diastolic depolarization
17. "Here, quick, chew this aspirin and drink it down." If this
stopped a heart attack in progress, how would it do that?
18. "Action potentials that originate in the SA node pass from one
atrial myocardial cell to another and usually usually trigger the AV node
before it would have fired automatically." Say why spreading from one
myocardial cell to the next is not a full explanation of action potential
spread in the ventricles.
bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers get the action potential
to the apex first
19. Name one of the 4 risk factors for heart attack that ranks higher than
high blood pressure, prior heart attack, smoking, diabetes
20. What specialization in the trachea powers the mucus elevator?
21.. Epinephrine would help a person having an asthma attack. What completely
different approach could be used, in this case to control inflammation?
antileukotriene like Singulaire
22. Name one component that separates air in the alveloi from red blood
type I alveolar cell, basal lamina, endothelial cell
23. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the pulmonary vein is 40 mm
Hg. What is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the systemic arteries?
duh! there was no gas exchange between the two
24. "Water's surface tension would tend to collapse (close) alveoli."
Answer either (1) How does physiology take care of this problem? or (2)
People with what condition have a real problem because of this?
surfactant, premature babies
25. "The buffering capacity of blood keeps high carbon dioxide from
changing pH much." Then how does physiology improve on this sensitivity
in chemoreceptors in the medulla?
on that side of the blood brain barrier, the cerebrospinal fluid has no
26. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the pulmonary vein is 40 mm
Hg. How would hyperventillation affect this?
cut it in half
27. Why would it be advantageous for some animals to use uric acid instead
of urea to eliminate nitrogenous wastes?
less water is lost
28. Where does the efferent arteriole from the glomerulus go to next?
vasa recta, capillary bed around loop of Henle
29.Where (answer either cellular location or molecule) is energy used to
resorb glucose across a cell in the kidney tubule?
basolateral surface, sodium pump
30. ADH (antiduretic hormone, alias vasopressin). Answer (1) What channels
are regulated by ADH? or (2) Where (specifically) does ADH have its effects?
water channels (aquaporins), collecting duct
31. Say something about backward movement or reverse peristalsis at the
vomiting, rats cannot do it so they do not return to tastes that made them
32. What is the cause of stomach ulcer?
acid, bacterium Helicobacter pylori
33. What is the use of bicarbonate secretion from the pancreas?
neutralize acidy coming from stomach
34. "Salt and glucose facilitate the absorption of water across the
intestinal epithelium." Under what circumstances would this knowledge
allow you to save somebody's life?
give someone with Cholera Gatorade before EMS personnel come to hook up
35. In a healthy person, urobilinogen is eliminated via the urine and (how
in the feces
36. Facilitated by bile salts and catalyzed by lipase, triglyceride plus
two water molecules is converted into (what three molecules?) in the intestinal
a monoglyceride plus two fatty acids
37. Obese mutant mice are deficient in leptin. Answer either (1) where (in
a normal animal) leptin is made or (2) what part of the brain it affects.
38. Why would we refer to oxytocin as a "neurosecretion" but not
oxytocin comes from nerve cells of the hypothalamus, ACTH from endocrine
cells of the anterior pituitary
39. Answer one of the following: Releasing hormones are produced by (what
structure?) and have their effect on (what structure?) after being carried
by (what conduit?).
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, portal vessel
40. Under the influence of growth hormone, bones get longer while you are
growing. How does growth hormone affect bones after you are full grown?
acromegaly, they get thicker
41. Glucocorticoids - answer either - (1) are produced where? (be specific)
or (2) feed back to the anterior pituitary to inhibit the release of (what
adrenal cortex (ok if you wrote zona fasciculata and reticularis), ACTH
42. Steroids of the ovary are secreted by what specific portion(s) of the
follicle, corpus luteum
43. Fertility is blocked by the pill...answer one of these: (1) How is fertility
blocked? or (2) Why would there still be menstruation every month?
no ovulation (b/c no LH or FSH [b/c of steroids in the pill]), steroids
build up endometrium, then lack of steroids let it break down
44. Why would a couple only need to abstain from intercourse for a few days
per month to avoid pregnancy?
egg only present and viability are limited as is the viability of sperm
delivered near the time when the egg is present up in the uterine tube
45. Something the size of the fertilized egg, but further developed, implants
into the receptive endometrium. A portion develops into an endocrine-secreting
tissue. Answer either (1) What is the function of the hormone it produces?
or (2) What is the chemical nature of the hormone it produces?
maintain the corpus luteum, peptide
46. Vitamin D has effects more similar to (which?) calcitonin or parathormone.
increase blood calcium like parathormone
47. An osteoclast contributes to the regulation of blood calcium ... Answer
either (1) under the influence of what hormone? (2) how?
parathormone, secrete HCl to break down calcium phosphate and enzyme to
break down collagen
48. The synthesis of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 7-Dehydrocholesterol
involves kidney, liver, and (what other organ?).
49. Upstream of a gene, there is a place where a steroid protein receptor
combined with a steroid hormone binds. What is this area in the DNA called?
a response element
50. Say something about why estrogen replacement therapy for the prevention
of osteoporosis is not universally advised.
increase breast cancer, heart attack and stroke
Last updated Nov 7, 2011
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