1. Obviously, a steroid hormone does not bind to a response element. How does a steroid hormone affect a response element?

a steroid hormone binds a steroid hormone receptor and the receptor binds the response element

2. Why would a transdermal patch be less likely than oral administration to create problems with estrogen replacement therapy?

via the oral route, it would affect receptors in the liver plus get converted to other forms in the liver

3. "Androgenic alopecia" ANSWER EITHER (1)Why is it not called a sex-linked trait? OR (2) Why was it called a sex-limited trait?

1-sex linked means on the X chromosome, 2-limited to men

4. "Perinatal testosterone treatment can masculinize a female rat." Describe the experiment and results demonstrating this regarding feeding behavior.

put a little testosterone under the skin of a newborn pup and the adult weight will be intermediate between female (250 g) and male (500 g)

5. What does it mean when we describe arachidonic acid as "20:4?"

it is 20 carbons long and has 4 double bonds

6. "PGI2 mediates antiplatelet aggregation." How does this information lead to a common drug treatment?

people, mostly elderly, take aspirin to prevent heart attacks

7. Each of you has 46 chromosomes in your body's somatic cells. How many chromosomes are there in a spermatozoan?


8. Why would incontenance be a likely side effect of prostate removal surgery?

surgical resection of the urethra is necessary since the cancerous prostrate surrounded the urethra

9. The second meiotic division for the egg, ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does it occur? OR (2) When does it occur?

1-way up in the uterine (fallopian) tube, 2-right when the fertilization occurs

10. Many women want to bear their children before the age of 40 because of an increased likelihood of (what is the most famous disorder here)?

trisomy-21 (Downs syndrome)

11. Eventually, the trophoblast will become the placenta, but, on the way, what is the intermediate structure?


12. A couple wants to use "left-overs" of in vitro fertilization for therapy on their child. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why might it be useful? OR (2) Why would there be an ethical issue associated with this?

1-embryonic stem cells might differentiate to replace defective cells, 2-these could deveop into people

13. If you wanted to know something about the chromosomal or genetic makeup of your future child, and you did not want to wait until amniocentesis could be done, what earlier option would be available?

chorionic villus biopsy (sampling)

14. Macrophage: ANSWER EITHER (1) Why does the word end in "phage?" OR (2) What type of white blood cell is it derived from?

1-it eats (phagocytoses) bacteria, 2-monocyte

15. Why, in the early days of AIDS, were hemopheliacs particularly susceptible?

blood banks were not safe, and clotting factor was produced from multiple donors

16. Why are lysosomes very important in neutrophils and monocytes?

the "digestive enzymes" (hydrolases) destroy the phagocytosed material

17. For EITHER (1) ABO blood groups OR (2) Rh factor, say why you do or do not need to worry about transfer across the placenta.

1-IgM not cross placenta, 2-IgG cross placenta

18. If you transfuse type B blood into a type A person, why would that person's antibodies cause the red blood cells in the transfusion to clump?

19. Before the Sabin vaccine, and even before the Salk vaccine, what could be done if someone were exposed to someone who had polio and wanted protection?

give gamma globulin, derived from people who had recovered from polio

20. A B cell, whose job is to make a plasma cell to make antibodies, is already coated with antibodies (amazingly). ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind of antibody is it? OR (2) What is the particular function of these antibodies?

1-IgD, 2-receptors for antigens

21. Before the child makes his or her own antibodies (by active immunity, through exposure to pathogens) there are two sources of passive immunity. FOR ONE, list BOTH the source of the antibody AND the category (type) of antibody.

1-IgG across placenta, 2-Ig-A mother's milk

22. A macrophage does not completely obliterate the pathogen and all its molecules. Why, in terms of communication with a helper T lymphocyte, is this useful?

it presents the antigen to the T lymphocyte

23. Where are the cell bodies for the touch receptors in the skin?

in the dorsal root ganglion just outside the spinal cord

24. "The Pacinian corpuscle has rapid adaptation." How does that relate to its particular function?

that means it responds to vibration and is useful for active feeling (moving your fingertips) touch

25. Lemniscal system. ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is the tract in the spinal cord? (2) Which side of the spinal cord is it in (relative to where the receptor is)? OR (3) What is the function of this submodality?

1-dorsal columns, 2-same side (ipsilateral), 3-fine touch (as opposed to pain)

26. The somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex for the face is as big as for arms, legs and torso put together. This is also true for the motor areas. How did scientists show this?

gently stimulating areas in the brain of an awake subject

27. A cell in the precentral gyrus sends an axon that decussates (crosses to the other side) in the medulla and eventually synapses with a cell in the ventral horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. What is the function of this tract?

voluntary motor output

28. "People with Parkinson's disease have flattened affect..." ANSWER EITHER (1) What does "flattened affect" mean? OR (2) ...because of a lack of what chemical?

1-lack of appretiation of quality (goodness-badness), 2-dopamine

29. Let's assume you do not have Huntington's chorea in your family. At the location of your gene, where someone with Huntington's has 42-66 CAG repeats, what do you have?

you do have CAG repeats, but fewer (15-34)

30. In taste receptor cells, channels or G protein cascades all cause an increase in cytoplasmic calcium ions. What function does this increase in calcium serve?

mediate synaptic vesicle release

31. What is common about all the olfactory receptor cells that feed to one glomerulus in the olfactory bulb?

they all respond to the same primary

32. Olfactory transduction ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind of molecule binds the odorant? (2) What kind of channel is used? OR (3) What chemical is the ligand for this channel?

1-G protein coupled receptor, 2-sodium-calcium, nonspecific cation, 3-cAMP

33. There are 3 semicircular canals plus (name one other component) in the vestibular system.

utricle, saccule

34. "Tip links connect the tips of stereocilia." ANSWER EITHER (1) Describe the structural anatomy of tip links and stereocilia. OR (2) Describe how the tip links assist in the mechanotransduction in the hair cell.

1-extracellular material connecting the tip of one "cilium" to the next, 2-they help pull open or relax closed the mechanoreceptive channels

35. Say something about how a bat catches a moth in the dark.

ultrasound, echolocation, listen for echos

36. One tuning fork clearly had a higher pitch than the other. How did you know that they differed by only a few Hz?

you could hear just a few beats per second when listening to both simultaneously

37. What makes it possible that potassium ions flow in through the mechanoreceptive channels in auditory receptor cells?

stria vascularis makes endolymph a high potassium extracellular fluid

38. The vestibulocochlear nerve (eighth cranial nerve) makes its first synapse in the cochlear nucleus. Why would it not be possible to find nerves in that cochlear nucleus involved in sound localization?

it is not until the next synapse when you get input from both ears

39. Fixating on an X with your right eye, there is a place off to the right where you are blind. Reconcile that fun "blind spot" demonstration with my statement that the optic nerve exits the eye on the nasal side.

off to the right means on the temporal visual field, and, because the image is inverted, that is the nasal retinal field

40. "Vitamin A is the chromophore of rhodopsin." ANSWER EITHER (1) Describe the structure of the protein component. OR (2) What happens to the vitamin A when light hits it?

1-spans membrane 7 times, G-protein linked receptor, 2-changes shape (from 11-cis to all trans)

41. New proteins are biosynthesized and deployed into membranes at the base of the outer segment, then these membranes are sloughed a few weeks later. ANSWER EITHER (1) Where do these membranes go? OR (2) What fundamental cell transport process gets these membranes to where they are going?

1-into retinal pigment epithelium, 2-phagocytosis

42. For near vision, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the shape of the lens (relative to the shape for distance vision)? (2) What is the status of the suspensory ligaments (relative to the status for distance vision)? OR (3) What is the status of the ciliary muscle?

1-rounder, 2-slack, 3-contracted

43. Why would we use the term "tunnel vision" for the blindness in retinitis pigmentosa?

rods in a circle around the point of fixation degenerate

44. A grid your eye care professional gave an 80 year old patient looks different one day. Why is this a medical emergency?

one form of AMD (age-related macular degeneration) can be treated

45. Lateral inhibition is the type of neural processing that contributes to detection of features such as contrast, movement and color. In the human retina, name one of retinal cell types that make horizontal connections.

horizontal cell, amacrine cell

46. "A human subject can see 6-14 quanta (photons) of 500 nm light absorbed by rods in a rod-rich area in the mid-peripheral retina." How did Hecht, Schlaar and Pirenne conclude from those data that one rod can "see" one photon?

those few quanta hit an area of 500 rods and it is unlikely that 2 photons are absorbed by one rod

47. "The blue (short wavelength) cone opsin is coded for by a gene on human chromosome #7 and the rod rhodopsin's gene is on chromosome #3." On which chromosome are the other opsin genes?

middle and long wavelength opsins are near each other on the X

48. In phototransduction, the heterotrimeric G protein's alpha subunit activates an enzyme. For EITHER Drosophila OR humans, what is that enzyme?

phospholipase C or cGMP" PDE

49."Vitamin A is the chromophore of rhodopsin." We get this vitamin A from what dietary precursor?

carotenoids like beta carotene

50. Using psychophysics, your professor studied himself and some subjects he recruited and concluded that the lens absorbs about 4 log units of 350 nm light. How did I reach this conclusion?

subjects without a lens are that much more sensitive to that UV wavelength than subjects with a lens

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last revised 12/5/2013