1. Obviously, a steroid hormone does not bind to a response element. How
does a steroid hormone affect a response element?
a steroid hormone binds a steroid hormone receptor and the receptor binds
the response element
2. Why would a transdermal patch be less likely than oral administration
to create problems with estrogen replacement therapy?
via the oral route, it would affect receptors in the liver plus get converted
to other forms in the liver
3. "Androgenic alopecia" ANSWER EITHER (1)Why is it not called
a sex-linked trait? OR (2) Why was it called a sex-limited trait?
1-sex linked means on the X chromosome, 2-limited to men
4. "Perinatal testosterone treatment can masculinize a female rat."
Describe the experiment and results demonstrating this regarding feeding
put a little testosterone under the skin of a newborn pup and the adult
weight will be intermediate between female (250 g) and male (500 g)
5. What does it mean when we describe arachidonic acid as "20:4?"
it is 20 carbons long and has 4 double bonds
6. "PGI2 mediates antiplatelet aggregation." How does this information
lead to a common drug treatment?
people, mostly elderly, take aspirin to prevent heart attacks
7. Each of you has 46 chromosomes in your body's somatic cells. How many
chromosomes are there in a spermatozoan?
8. Why would incontenance be a likely side effect of prostate removal surgery?
surgical resection of the urethra is necessary since the cancerous prostrate
surrounded the urethra
9. The second meiotic division for the egg, ANSWER EITHER (1) Where does
it occur? OR (2) When does it occur?
1-way up in the uterine (fallopian) tube, 2-right when the fertilization
10. Many women want to bear their children before the age of 40 because
of an increased likelihood of (what is the most famous disorder here)?
trisomy-21 (Downs syndrome)
11. Eventually, the trophoblast will become the placenta, but, on the way,
what is the intermediate structure?
12. A couple wants to use "left-overs" of in vitro fertilization
for therapy on their child. ANSWER EITHER (1) Why might it be useful? OR
(2) Why would there be an ethical issue associated with this?
1-embryonic stem cells might differentiate to replace defective cells, 2-these
could deveop into people
13. If you wanted to know something about the chromosomal or genetic makeup
of your future child, and you did not want to wait until amniocentesis could
be done, what earlier option would be available?
chorionic villus biopsy (sampling)
14. Macrophage: ANSWER EITHER (1) Why does the word end in "phage?"
OR (2) What type of white blood cell is it derived from?
1-it eats (phagocytoses) bacteria, 2-monocyte
15. Why, in the early days of AIDS, were hemopheliacs particularly susceptible?
blood banks were not safe, and clotting factor was produced from multiple
16. Why are lysosomes very important in neutrophils and monocytes?
the "digestive enzymes" (hydrolases) destroy the phagocytosed
17. For EITHER (1) ABO blood groups OR (2) Rh factor, say why you do or
do not need to worry about transfer across the placenta.
1-IgM not cross placenta, 2-IgG cross placenta
18. If you transfuse type B blood into a type A person, why would that person's
antibodies cause the red blood cells in the transfusion to clump?
19. Before the Sabin vaccine, and even before the Salk vaccine, what could
be done if someone were exposed to someone who had polio and wanted protection?
give gamma globulin, derived from people who had recovered from polio
20. A B cell, whose job is to make a plasma cell to make antibodies, is
already coated with antibodies (amazingly). ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind
of antibody is it? OR (2) What is the particular function of these antibodies?
1-IgD, 2-receptors for antigens
21. Before the child makes his or her own antibodies (by active immunity,
through exposure to pathogens) there are two sources of passive immunity.
FOR ONE, list BOTH the source of the antibody AND the category (type) of
1-IgG across placenta, 2-Ig-A mother's milk
22. A macrophage does not completely obliterate the pathogen and all its
molecules. Why, in terms of communication with a helper T lymphocyte, is
it presents the antigen to the T lymphocyte
23. Where are the cell bodies for the touch receptors in the skin?
in the dorsal root ganglion just outside the spinal cord
24. "The Pacinian corpuscle has rapid adaptation." How does that
relate to its particular function?
that means it responds to vibration and is useful for active feeling (moving
your fingertips) touch
25. Lemniscal system. ANSWER EITHER (1) Where is the tract in the spinal
cord? (2) Which side of the spinal cord is it in (relative to where the
receptor is)? OR (3) What is the function of this submodality?
1-dorsal columns, 2-same side (ipsilateral), 3-fine touch (as opposed to
26. The somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex for the face is as big
as for arms, legs and torso put together. This is also true for the motor
areas. How did scientists show this?
gently stimulating areas in the brain of an awake subject
27. A cell in the precentral gyrus sends an axon that decussates (crosses
to the other side) in the medulla and eventually synapses with a cell in
the ventral horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. What is the function
of this tract?
voluntary motor output
28. "People with Parkinson's disease have flattened affect..."
ANSWER EITHER (1) What does "flattened affect" mean? OR (2) ...because
of a lack of what chemical?
1-lack of appretiation of quality (goodness-badness), 2-dopamine
29. Let's assume you do not have Huntington's chorea in your family. At
the location of your gene, where someone with Huntington's has 42-66 CAG
repeats, what do you have?
you do have CAG repeats, but fewer (15-34)
30. In taste receptor cells, channels or G protein cascades all cause an
increase in cytoplasmic calcium ions. What function does this increase in
mediate synaptic vesicle release
31. What is common about all the olfactory receptor cells that feed to one
glomerulus in the olfactory bulb?
they all respond to the same primary
32. Olfactory transduction ANSWER EITHER (1) What kind of molecule binds
the odorant? (2) What kind of channel is used? OR (3) What chemical is the
ligand for this channel?
1-G protein coupled receptor, 2-sodium-calcium, nonspecific cation, 3-cAMP
33. There are 3 semicircular canals plus (name one other component) in the
34. "Tip links connect the tips of stereocilia." ANSWER EITHER
(1) Describe the structural anatomy of tip links and stereocilia. OR (2)
Describe how the tip links assist in the mechanotransduction in the hair
1-extracellular material connecting the tip of one "cilium" to
the next, 2-they help pull open or relax closed the mechanoreceptive channels
35. Say something about how a bat catches a moth in the dark.
ultrasound, echolocation, listen for echos
36. One tuning fork clearly had a higher pitch than the other. How did you
know that they differed by only a few Hz?
you could hear just a few beats per second when listening to both simultaneously
37. What makes it possible that potassium ions flow in through the mechanoreceptive
channels in auditory receptor cells?
stria vascularis makes endolymph a high potassium extracellular fluid
38. The vestibulocochlear nerve (eighth cranial nerve) makes its first synapse
in the cochlear nucleus. Why would it not be possible to find nerves in
that cochlear nucleus involved in sound localization?
it is not until the next synapse when you get input from both ears
39. Fixating on an X with your right eye, there is a place off to the right
where you are blind. Reconcile that fun "blind spot" demonstration
with my statement that the optic nerve exits the eye on the nasal side.
off to the right means on the temporal visual field, and, because the image
is inverted, that is the nasal retinal field
40. "Vitamin A is the chromophore of rhodopsin." ANSWER EITHER
(1) Describe the structure of the protein component. OR (2) What happens
to the vitamin A when light hits it?
1-spans membrane 7 times, G-protein linked receptor, 2-changes shape (from
11-cis to all trans)
41. New proteins are biosynthesized and deployed into membranes at the base
of the outer segment, then these membranes are sloughed a few weeks later.
ANSWER EITHER (1) Where do these membranes go? OR (2) What fundamental cell
transport process gets these membranes to where they are going?
1-into retinal pigment epithelium, 2-phagocytosis
42. For near vision, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the shape of the lens (relative
to the shape for distance vision)? (2) What is the status of the suspensory
ligaments (relative to the status for distance vision)? OR (3) What is the
status of the ciliary muscle?
1-rounder, 2-slack, 3-contracted
43. Why would we use the term "tunnel vision" for the blindness
in retinitis pigmentosa?
rods in a circle around the point of fixation degenerate
44. A grid your eye care professional gave an 80 year old patient looks
different one day. Why is this a medical emergency?
one form of AMD (age-related macular degeneration) can be treated
45. Lateral inhibition is the type of neural processing that contributes
to detection of features such as contrast, movement and color. In the human
retina, name one of retinal cell types that make horizontal connections.
horizontal cell, amacrine cell
46. "A human subject can see 6-14 quanta (photons) of 500 nm light
absorbed by rods in a rod-rich area in the mid-peripheral retina."
How did Hecht, Schlaar and Pirenne conclude from those data that one rod
can "see" one photon?
those few quanta hit an area of 500 rods and it is unlikely that 2 photons
are absorbed by one rod
47. "The blue (short wavelength) cone opsin is coded for by a gene
on human chromosome #7 and the rod rhodopsin's gene is on chromosome #3."
On which chromosome are the other opsin genes?
middle and long wavelength opsins are near each other on the X
48. In phototransduction, the heterotrimeric G protein's alpha subunit activates
an enzyme. For EITHER Drosophila OR humans, what is that enzyme?
phospholipase C or cGMP" PDE
49."Vitamin A is the chromophore of rhodopsin." We get this vitamin
A from what dietary precursor?
carotenoids like beta carotene
50. Using psychophysics, your professor studied himself and some subjects
he recruited and concluded that the lens absorbs about 4 log units of 350
nm light. How did I reach this conclusion?
subjects without a lens are that much more sensitive to that UV wavelength
than subjects with a lens
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last revised 12/5/2013