1. If there were no crossing over, how many different combinations of chromosomes would there be in a human gamete?

two to the 23 power, a very high number

2. What is the PSA test?

for prostate specific antigen, test for prostate cancer

3. The quality of life is frequently diminished after prostate surgery because of (list ONE of the consequences).

incontenence, impotence

4. What is the corpus albicans?

what is left when the corpus luteum regresses (when it is not maintained by gonadotropins)

5. In two meiotic divisions, how many gametes are formed from one oogonial cell in the human?


6. ANSWER EITHER (1) When (in the course of meiotic divisions) does fertilization occur? OR (2) Where does fertilization occur?

at the secondary oocyte stage before the second meiotic division, way up un the uterine (Fallopian) tube

7. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the name of the ball of cells that implants? OR (1) Where does it implant?

blastocyst, endometrium (uterus)

8. What divides to create identical twins?

the inner cell mass

9. "The development of the female reproductive structures is the default pathway." Name ONE of the two substances that make it this way.

testosterone, Mullerian inhibiting factor

10. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the name of the famous blood disease in European royal families? OR (2) What was wrong with the blood in these people?

hemophelia, blood did not clot

11. After a bacterium is phagocytosed by a neutrophil, how is it destroyed?

a primary lysosome full of "digestive enzymes" merges with the phagosome

12. What does a monocyte become, a cell outside the blood stream that is very dangerous to bacteria?

a macrophage

13. Explain the name "eosinophil."

eosin is a dye for staining cells and these cells like eosin

14. Why is type O the universal donor

it has no antigens

15. In the news: Why do you think they gave a blood product from an ebola survivor to an ebola patient?

passive immunity from gamma globulin

16. What were the different viruses Edward Jenner and Lady Montague used in their pioneering contributions in the fight against disease?

cow pox and small pox

17. What type of white blood cell forms a clone of memory and plasma cells?

a B lymphocyte

18. ANSWER BOTH How does (1) a newborn AND (2) an infant-todler have the immunities the mother has?

across the placenta IgG, IgA from breast feeding

19. After digesting a foreign particle, the macrophage presents the foreign antigens it obtained to the helper T cell. Name ONE of the two molecules (one on the macrophage and one on the helper T cell) involved in that communication.

class-2 MHC molecule (on macrophage) and CD4 coreceptor

20. What is the function of the post-central gyrus?

primary somatosensory projection in the brain

21. Why would it be useful for a touch receptor to respond to vibration?

for active feeling of a textured surface

22. Where is the decussation (cross-over from the ipsilateral to the contralateral side) for the lemniscal system?

in the medulla

23. "There is a 'magnification' for the representation of the hand and the face relative to the arms and legs. Where?

sensory cortex, also motor cortex

24. A neuron in the precentral gyrus (pyramidal system) makes its synapse onto what neuron?

the spinal motor neuron

25. What is the function of the basal nuclei (basal ganglia)?

coordinate (smoothen out) voluntary motor movements

26. You all have the protein coded for by the gene involved in Huntington's disease. And yet you do not have Huntington's disease (hopefully). What is the difference for people who do, in fact, have Huntington's disease?

they have more CAG repeats (coding for glutamines)

27. They used to claim that there were 4 primaries in the sense of taste, salty, sour, sweet, and bitter. Nowadays, they have added a fifth. What is the fifth?

umami, richness, glutamate

28. What is the specific kind of protein molecule that serves as an olfactory receptor?

g protein coupled receptor

29. "cAMP acts as a ligand in olfactory receptors." Say something to elaborate this point.

the G protein cascade has cAMP as the "second messenger" and cAMP opens the channel in the cell membrane, and so this ligand acts on the channel from inside the cell

30. Rather than projecting to the cerebral cortex, the sense of smell projects to the limbic system. Name a structure in the limbic system

olfactory bulb, fornix, hippocampus, amygdala, mammillary body, hypothalamus

31. In the semicircular canals, the saccule, the utricle, and the cochlea, there are "hair" cells. What are the hairs?

cilia and stereocilia

32. What does the value 0.0002 dynes/cm2 have to do with hearing?

it is the denominator in the ratio of pressures in the definition of dB

33. The fluid pressure is transferred from the stirrup (stapes) ANSWER EITHER (1) to (name of the "inner ear drum?") OR (2) is released at (what other "window" facing the middle ear?)

oval window, round window

34. How did you know that those two tuning forks I passed around the room differed by only a few Hz?

there were just a few beats per second

35. On the pathway from the organ of Corti, there are synapses in (what place?) between the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex.


36. Protanopia and deuteranopia are eye defects that are diagnosed with that book and that clear plastic box of colored chips I passed around the class. What molecules are missing in these diseases respectively?

long and middle wavelength cone opsins

37. If the ciliary muscle contracts... ANSWER EITHER (1) What is that process which changes the lens shape called? OR (2) What sort of vision is best if the ciliary muscle does contract?

accomodation, near vision

38. In a demonstration, I held up a lamp with blue and UV (ultraviolet) lights, and I claimed that both looked the same to one of my eyes. Why could you not see the UV light (while I could)?

your lens blocks UV

39. BME graduate student Yasaman Chehreghanianzabi showed a slide of hydrogel being injected onto a spinal cord. Why would you do this?

to localize drug release to injured nerve

40. Why would the blindness of retinitis pigmentosa be localized in a ring around the point of visual fixation, leading to tunnel vision?

rods degenerate, and that is where rods are predominant

41. Looking with an ophthalmoscope, why does the area around the fovea look orange?

the macula lutea houses the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin that protect the foveal cones from blue light

42. ANSWER EITHER (1) What do we call the value 6.63 x 10-34 joule-s? OR (2) What calculation did we use it for?

called Planck's constant, energy of one photon

43. What cells phagocytose the shed tips of the rods and cones?

retinal pigment epithelium

44. Say something about the involvement of phosphodiesterase in visual transduction.

activated by alpha subunit of transducin, breaks down cGMP and so channel closes

45. Say something about the garbage that accumulates in cells of the aging human eye.

called lipofuscin, autofluoresces yellow, in retinal pigment epithelium cells, from shed photoreceptor tips

46. When light hits the chromophore of rhodopsin, what it the immediate effect?

retinal isomerizes from 11-cis to all-trans

47. Name the dietary precursor of retinal.

beta carotene

48. Electrical recording from the whole Drosophila eye and behavioral measurements of the attraction of Drosophila to light told us about the contributions of specific receptor types (R7 and R1-6) to spectral sensitivity? How could such crude techniques give receptor-specific data?

sev eliminated R7 and rdgB eliminated R1-6

49. The ganglion cells form the axons of the optic nerve. Ultimately, the pathway reaches the visual part of the cerebral cortex. In between, where are there synapses?

thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus)

50. When light hits the rod, what happens to the membrane channel?

it closes

Return to syllabus

Return to Stark home page

This page was last updated on November 25, 2014