1. T4 (one of the thyroxine molecules) comes up to a cell's membrane in the company of a carrier protein; eventually thyroxine binds a receptor that binds a response element. Give another detail to complete the story of how it activates transcription of a gene.

turns to T3, retinoic acid binds another receptor that binds an adjacent response element

2. Where did the arachidonic acid, the precursor of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, come from?

a membrane phospholipid

3. If you go in for a planned surgery, why would they probably tell you to stop taking aspirin or ibuprofen starting a few weeks earlier?

they inhibit clotting

4. You are studying mitochondrial DNA in humans. Was that inherited from the father, the mother, or both?

only the mother

5. Peristalsis in the vas deferens serves what purpose?

propel semen during ejaculation

6. Oh sure, incontinence and impotence are side effects of prostate surgery to be avoided. But there is a more fundamental reason that surgery is not performed as much as it used to be. What is this reason?

it does not increase survival

7. "For the male, you get one division, then you get another division, and you get 4 sperm cells." How does meiosis in the female compare?

3 polar bodies degenerate leaving one gamete

8. A sperm is just about to fertilize an "egg" but it has not quite yet. Answer either (1) What is this prefertilization egg called? OR (2) Where in the process of meiosis, is this "egg?"

secondary oocyte has finished first meiotic division but not second

9. For cloning Dolly, answer either (1) Why do you need a surrogate mother? OR (2) What do you put into the surrogate mother?

ball of cells blastocyst

10. Why don't you hear quite so much about the controversy of human embryonic stem cell research and therapies anymore these day?

it is possible to make a pluripotent stem cell from skin

11. To test for chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, what advantage does chorionic villus biopsy have over amniocentesis?

it is done earlier

12. Why didn't any of Tsarevich Alexis's four sisters get hemophelia?

it is X-linked

13. After a neutrophil phagocytoses a bacterium, what does the cell do to destroy this bacterium?

merges the endosome with a lysosome

14. Why do they use the word "chemotaxis" regarding phagocytic white blood cells (neutrophils and monocytes)?

they migrate to (are attracted to) the site of the injury

15. Why would Type A red blood cells form into clumps if transfused into a person with type B blood?

each antibody molecule could bind to 2 cells

16. Why would it be useful to give Rh antibodies to an Rh minus mother who has just given birth to an Rh positive baby?

this passive immunity treatment would keep her from making her own antibodies that could attack her next Rh positive fetus

17. The first time you get a certain disease, it might make you sick for many days. If you are exposed again, you might get well quickly if you got sick at all. Explain this on the basis of clones that develop into plasma cells, etc, from a naive B cell.

now we have memory cells able to jump start the next specific plasma cells

18. Independently, you develop two different antibodies to the same antigen molecule. I contend that there is a vanishingly low possibility that these antibodies are the same. Why would I say such a thing?

they are specific to any 5-15 amino acid subset of the entire protein

19. Pick one of the two antibody types involved and tell me how an infant has immunity before (s)he develops is or her own?

IgG crosses the placenta and IgA from milk works after that

20. A sensory neuron's axon goes past the dorsal root ganglion and makes connections in the spinal cord's gray matter to a spinal motor neuron and/or an association neuron (interneuron). Where else does this input connect to?

it goes up via spinal tracts toward the brain

21. In the 1800's, Broca delineated a brain area critical for speech. How did he do this?

after death, looked at brains of patients whose speech had been damaged by stroke

22. Bradykinin is made at the site of an injury from a blood borne precursor to stimulate what kind of receptor?

a nociceptor (a chemoreceptor)

23. For the fasciculus graciculus and the fasciculus cuneatus, say something about (1) ipsilateral vs contralateral, or (2) where, in the spinal cord, these tracts are located.

decussation to the contralateral side is in the medulla after the first synapse, dorsal columns

24. For heart attack, state one of the famous places for referred pain.

neck, left arm
 
25. What is the significance of the big hand and the big face in the map of the postcentral gyrus?

there is greater "magnification" (the 2 point threshold is a smaller distance)
 
26. A cell in the precentral gyrus has an axon in the lateral corticospinal tract and makes a synapse onto what cell?

the spinal motor neuron

27. Compare a person with Huntington's chorea with a normal person. How does either the relevant (1) gene or (2) protein differ?

more CAG repeats, more glutamines

28. Where is the first synapse in the taste projection?

at the base of the receptor cell
 
29. How does depolarization in the salt and acid receptor lead to release of synaptic transmitter vesicles?

open calcium channel

30. Two different odorant stimuli stimulate two different olfactory receptor molecules. What is the same and what is different about these receptor molecules?

they are both G protein linked receptors, but they have slightly different structures to bind different odorants
 
31. Unlike the other "special senses," there is no area in the cerebral cortex for the sense of smell. Give the name of one brain area (or give the name of the entire network of brain areas) for where olfaction projects.

limbic system = hypothalamus + hippocampus + + amygdala + mammillary body + olfactory bulb + olfactory tract

32. Let's say that a hair cell at rest has its stereocilia sticking straight out. If the hair cells are bent in one direction AND the other direction, what happens, answering either for (1) the receptor cell itself OR (the postsynaptic neuron

depolarize vs hyperpolarize, increase vs decrease firing rate

33. In terms of either what is in the membrane OR how an extracellular protein assists, say how transduction in hair cells works.

a mechanoreceptive channel, tip links

34. In the definition for sound intensity, there is a ratio, 20 times the log to the base 10 of this ratio. Answer either (1) This is a ratio of what kind of measurement? (2) The value of the denominator is 0.0002 - what are the units?

pressure, dynes per square cm

35. For the apical portion of a hair cell, answer either (1) What is the name of the fluid that bathes it? OR (2) What is unusual about this fluid?

endolymph, high in K+

36. Bekesy partially confirmed Helmholtz's place theory, What are the differences in place for a 500 Hz stimulus vs a 2000 Hz stimulus?

lower nearer helicotrema, higher near oval window

37. For the human, in addition to intensity difference between the two ears, what cue is used for auditory localization.

difference in time of arrival

38. In an eye exam, they check your eye pressure. If it is too high, answer either (1) Which cells die? OR (2) Which portion of the eye does not drain properly?

ganglion cells, aqueous humor (anterior chamber)

39. Why doesn't the image focus on the retina for uncorrected myopia?

the eyeball is too long

40. When, in accomodation, the lens assumes a somewhat flattened shape, answer either (1) What kind of vision is this good for? (2) What is the status of the ciliary muscle? OR (3) What is the status of the suspensory ligaments?

distance vision, relaxed, tight

41. Say something about intraocular lens implants: (1) They are implanted during what kind of surgery? OR (2) At first, they transmitted what kind of light that was thought to be damaging to the retina (later, they manufactured them to block this kind of light).

cataract removal, UV

42. If the third cranial nerve (the oculomotor nerve) is activated, what happens to the pupil?

it closes

43. There are carotenoids in front of the foveal cones, the macular pigments. Answer either (1) What are the chemicals they are made of? OR (2) What is the function thought to be?

zeaxanthin and lutein, block blue light that might damage foveal cones

44. Other than serving as the "black paint" that keeps light from reflecting around the eye, state another function of the retinal pigment epithelium.

phagocytose shed rod disks, chemical reactions to replenish 11-cis-retinal

45. An electrode is placed into a rod cell in the dark. When light is turned on, the cell becomes more negative. Explain in terms of channel and ligand.

a sodium (calcium) channel closes b/c there is less cGMP gating it

46. Hereditary retinal degeneration in Drosophila and in the human: these mutations affect what kinds of proteins?

molecules of the visual transduction cascade

47. After the G protein, an enzyme is activated, and some products of that enzyme affect the channel. For Drosophila or for the vertebrate rod, give the name of an enzyme or the product of an enzyme.

D: PLC IP3 DAG, V: PDE cGMP

48. At what part of the process of membrane turnover in Drosophila photoreceptor cells do primary lysosomes come into play?

they merge with the ingested material (multivesicular body) to break it down

49. People and Drosophila obtain vitamin A through their diet. Name one of the famous dietary precursors of vitamin A (they are dimers of vitamin A).

beta carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein

50. For either Drosophila or for rats, answer either (1) Say something that happens upon vitamin A deprivation. OR (2) Can vision be restored by vitamin A replacement?

they get less sensitive and the photoreceptors get smaller, vision recovers

Last updated Dec 5, 2012

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