1. T4 (one of the thyroxine molecules) comes up to a cell's membrane in
the company of a carrier protein; eventually thyroxine binds a receptor
that binds a response element. Give another detail to complete the story
of how it activates transcription of a gene.
turns to T3, retinoic acid binds another receptor that binds an adjacent
2. Where did the arachidonic acid, the precursor of leukotrienes and prostaglandins,
a membrane phospholipid
3. If you go in for a planned surgery, why would they probably tell you
to stop taking aspirin or ibuprofen starting a few weeks earlier?
they inhibit clotting
4. You are studying mitochondrial DNA in humans. Was that inherited from
the father, the mother, or both?
only the mother
5. Peristalsis in the vas deferens serves what purpose?
propel semen during ejaculation
6. Oh sure, incontinence and impotence are side effects of prostate surgery
to be avoided. But there is a more fundamental reason that surgery is not
performed as much as it used to be. What is this reason?
it does not increase survival
7. "For the male, you get one division, then you get another division,
and you get 4 sperm cells." How does meiosis in the female compare?
3 polar bodies degenerate leaving one gamete
8. A sperm is just about to fertilize an "egg" but it has not
quite yet. Answer either (1) What is this prefertilization egg called? OR
(2) Where in the process of meiosis, is this "egg?"
secondary oocyte has finished first meiotic division but not second
9. For cloning Dolly, answer either (1) Why do you need a surrogate mother?
OR (2) What do you put into the surrogate mother?
ball of cells blastocyst
10. Why don't you hear quite so much about the controversy of human embryonic
stem cell research and therapies anymore these day?
it is possible to make a pluripotent stem cell from skin
11. To test for chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, what advantage does
chorionic villus biopsy have over amniocentesis?
it is done earlier
12. Why didn't any of Tsarevich Alexis's four sisters get hemophelia?
it is X-linked
13. After a neutrophil phagocytoses a bacterium, what does the cell do to
destroy this bacterium?
merges the endosome with a lysosome
14. Why do they use the word "chemotaxis" regarding phagocytic
white blood cells (neutrophils and monocytes)?
they migrate to (are attracted to) the site of the injury
15. Why would Type A red blood cells form into clumps if transfused into
a person with type B blood?
each antibody molecule could bind to 2 cells
16. Why would it be useful to give Rh antibodies to an Rh minus mother who
has just given birth to an Rh positive baby?
this passive immunity treatment would keep her from making her own antibodies
that could attack her next Rh positive fetus
17. The first time you get a certain disease, it might make you sick for
many days. If you are exposed again, you might get well quickly if you got
sick at all. Explain this on the basis of clones that develop into plasma
cells, etc, from a naive B cell.
now we have memory cells able to jump start the next specific plasma cells
18. Independently, you develop two different antibodies to the same antigen
molecule. I contend that there is a vanishingly low possibility that these
antibodies are the same. Why would I say such a thing?
they are specific to any 5-15 amino acid subset of the entire protein
19. Pick one of the two antibody types involved and tell me how an infant
has immunity before (s)he develops is or her own?
IgG crosses the placenta and IgA from milk works after that
20. A sensory neuron's axon goes past the dorsal root ganglion and makes
connections in the spinal cord's gray matter to a spinal motor neuron and/or
an association neuron (interneuron). Where else does this input connect
it goes up via spinal tracts toward the brain
21. In the 1800's, Broca delineated a brain area critical for speech. How
did he do this?
after death, looked at brains of patients whose speech had been damaged
22. Bradykinin is made at the site of an injury from a blood borne precursor
to stimulate what kind of receptor?
a nociceptor (a chemoreceptor)
23. For the fasciculus graciculus and the fasciculus cuneatus, say something
about (1) ipsilateral vs contralateral, or (2) where, in the spinal cord,
these tracts are located.
decussation to the contralateral side is in the medulla after the first
synapse, dorsal columns
24. For heart attack, state one of the famous places for referred pain.
neck, left arm
25. What is the significance of the big hand and the big face in the map
of the postcentral gyrus?
there is greater "magnification" (the 2 point threshold is a smaller
26. A cell in the precentral gyrus has an axon in the lateral corticospinal
tract and makes a synapse onto what cell?
the spinal motor neuron
27. Compare a person with Huntington's chorea with a normal person. How
does either the relevant (1) gene or (2) protein differ?
more CAG repeats, more glutamines
28. Where is the first synapse in the taste projection?
at the base of the receptor cell
29. How does depolarization in the salt and acid receptor lead to release
of synaptic transmitter vesicles?
open calcium channel
30. Two different odorant stimuli stimulate two different olfactory receptor
molecules. What is the same and what is different about these receptor molecules?
they are both G protein linked receptors, but they have slightly different
structures to bind different odorants
31. Unlike the other "special senses," there is no area in the
cerebral cortex for the sense of smell. Give the name of one brain area
(or give the name of the entire network of brain areas) for where olfaction
limbic system = hypothalamus + hippocampus + + amygdala + mammillary body
+ olfactory bulb + olfactory tract
32. Let's say that a hair cell at rest has its stereocilia sticking straight
out. If the hair cells are bent in one direction AND the other direction,
what happens, answering either for (1) the receptor cell itself OR (the
depolarize vs hyperpolarize, increase vs decrease firing rate
33. In terms of either what is in the membrane OR how an extracellular protein
assists, say how transduction in hair cells works.
a mechanoreceptive channel, tip links
34. In the definition for sound intensity, there is a ratio, 20 times the
log to the base 10 of this ratio. Answer either (1) This is a ratio of what
kind of measurement? (2) The value of the denominator is 0.0002 - what are
pressure, dynes per square cm
35. For the apical portion of a hair cell, answer either (1) What is the
name of the fluid that bathes it? OR (2) What is unusual about this fluid?
endolymph, high in K+
36. Bekesy partially confirmed Helmholtz's place theory, What are the differences
in place for a 500 Hz stimulus vs a 2000 Hz stimulus?
lower nearer helicotrema, higher near oval window
37. For the human, in addition to intensity difference between the two ears,
what cue is used for auditory localization.
difference in time of arrival
38. In an eye exam, they check your eye pressure. If it is too high, answer
either (1) Which cells die? OR (2) Which portion of the eye does not drain
ganglion cells, aqueous humor (anterior chamber)
39. Why doesn't the image focus on the retina for uncorrected myopia?
the eyeball is too long
40. When, in accomodation, the lens assumes a somewhat flattened shape,
answer either (1) What kind of vision is this good for? (2) What is the
status of the ciliary muscle? OR (3) What is the status of the suspensory
distance vision, relaxed, tight
41. Say something about intraocular lens implants: (1) They are implanted
during what kind of surgery? OR (2) At first, they transmitted what kind
of light that was thought to be damaging to the retina (later, they manufactured
them to block this kind of light).
cataract removal, UV
42. If the third cranial nerve (the oculomotor nerve) is activated, what
happens to the pupil?
43. There are carotenoids in front of the foveal cones, the macular pigments.
Answer either (1) What are the chemicals they are made of? OR (2) What is
the function thought to be?
zeaxanthin and lutein, block blue light that might damage foveal cones
44. Other than serving as the "black paint" that keeps light from
reflecting around the eye, state another function of the retinal pigment
phagocytose shed rod disks, chemical reactions to replenish 11-cis-retinal
45. An electrode is placed into a rod cell in the dark. When light is turned
on, the cell becomes more negative. Explain in terms of channel and ligand.
a sodium (calcium) channel closes b/c there is less cGMP gating it
46. Hereditary retinal degeneration in Drosophila and in the human: these
mutations affect what kinds of proteins?
molecules of the visual transduction cascade
47. After the G protein, an enzyme is activated, and some products of that
enzyme affect the channel. For Drosophila or for the vertebrate rod, give
the name of an enzyme or the product of an enzyme.
D: PLC IP3 DAG, V: PDE cGMP
48. At what part of the process of membrane turnover in Drosophila photoreceptor
cells do primary lysosomes come into play?
they merge with the ingested material (multivesicular body) to break it
49. People and Drosophila obtain vitamin A through their diet. Name one
of the famous dietary precursors of vitamin A (they are dimers of vitamin
beta carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein
50. For either Drosophila or for rats, answer either (1) Say something that
happens upon vitamin A deprivation. OR (2) Can vision be restored by vitamin
they get less sensitive and the photoreceptors get smaller, vision recovers
Last updated Dec 5, 2012
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