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BIOL 347 General Physiology Laboratory, Midterm, Wednesday May 2, 2018 ­p; Prof. Stark, All questions are short answer. 50 points total

1. How much ventricular filling is the result of the atrial beat?

a very small fraction, maybe 1/5, a very small volume, maybe 20 ml, because open valves have the ventricles filling during the entire time of diastole

2. With one electrode on each wrist and one ankle, you have Eindhoven's triangle and you can record the ECG. Why is this not enough to give you the electrical axis?

"leads" as opposed to electrodes, require several (actually two) different directions

3. Why would you expect the Q-T interval to become shorter during exercise?

to allow for faster pulse

4. You pump up the cuff to 140 mm Hg, listen, and get ready to start lowering the pressure in the cuff. Oddly, you do not have silence, you have sounds. What does this suggest, and what should you try next?

the person's systolic pressure is higher than 140 so pump it up higher and start lowering again

5. Suppose you know for certain that two subjects have hearts that are in the same position and the same orientation. One has an axis deviation, the other does not. Explain.

it is an electrical axis, one may have a heart murmur and a ventricular hypertrophy

6. What causes the AV valves (tricuspid and bicuspid valves) to close?

build up of ventricular pressure

7. What happens in a cell of the SA node during diastole?

it depolarizes automatically

something about +R -T, Something about autoscale on 5 leads

8. Why was it useful that the autoscale function for the six lead ECG scaled all the leads together?

you would not want to have changed the size for lead 1 differently from the size for lead 2 while determining the electrical axis

9. In a tidal inspiration (500 ml) explain why only 350 ml of fresh air reaches the alveoli.

150 is in dead space including the trachea so the first 150 ml you breathe in was what you were in the process of breathing out

10. Of the various components of lung volume, what was the one your iWorx program could not measure?

residual volume

11. Why was it important to keep the spirometer tube in the upright position when being used by the volunteer?

to avoid problems with condensation developing in the airflow tubes

12. What was the vital capacity of the biggest people in the physiology lab?

6 liters

13. How is most CO2 transferred through the circulatory system back to the lungs?

as Bicarbonate (HCO3)-

14. What allows for the fetus to receive enough oxygen across the placenta?

fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than maternal hemoglobin

15. Why would a smoker have a worse problem after asbestos exposure?

smoking paralyzes the cilia that power the mucus elevator

16. Say something about how much the parasympathetic nervous system counteracts the sympathetic nervous system in the activation of eccrine sweat glands.

it does not

17. A patient with damage to the frontal cortex failed to show skin conductance changes to emotional stimuli. Without connecting any electrodes, what other symptoms were obvious?

lose job, made bad decisions, hard time making decisions

18. Electrodermal system, ANSWER EITHER (1) What do we call the inverse of resistance? OR (2) What are the units?

conductance, Siemens (microSiemens)

19. Describe or draw how the pulse monitor looks as the cuff pressure is decreased across the systolic blood pressure (when the blood pressure cuff was connected to iWorx).

goes from flat line to small blips

20. When is the heart rate higher, breathing in or breathing out, and why?

higher during inhalation, because of vagal tone (respiratory sinus arrhthmia, RSA)

21. In the Vagal Tone lab, what mild cognitive stressor was used while measuring pulse, heart rate and blood pressure?

spelling words backwards

22. What is the neurotransmitter responsible for sweat production?


23. Why did we insist that you take your warm and cold water samples from containers with bubblers to start at time zero?

to make certain the water was maximally oxygenated

24. On a cold morning, while you are enjoying a warm cup of coffee, a dark-winged butterfly suns itself before it is ready to face the day. How do you refer to its temperature regulation?


25. Write the equation for cellular respiration. Theoretically, what else (other than oxygen use) could be measured to determine metabolic rate?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O plus energy, CO2 formation

26. What happens to the metabolic rate of the painted turtle during anoxia?

it decreases

27. In addition to measuring carbon dioxide production, you could determine metabolic rate in animals by measuring (what?)

duh oxygen consumption

28. What does Q10 equal if a 10oC temperature increase leads to a doubling of the rate of the process?


29. Why does reaction rate as a function of temperature reach a peak and then drop off?

proteins denature

30. If a person presents with bilateral lower back pain, do they have kidney stones? How does renal colic (due to kidney stones) manifest?

likely not kidney stones, since there would need to be two simultaneous kidney stones, which is rare. Kidney stones tend to cause unilateral pain that progresses from flank to groin.

31. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the name of a non-invasive treatment for a kidney stone that obstructs the ureter OR (2) How does it work?

lithotripsy, ultrasound shock wave treatment used to break up kidney stones

32. What is different about the blood involved in priapism?

blood involved in the prolonged erection is more viscous or sludgy

33. In addition to filtration and secretion, what does the nephron do?


34. Why didn't we collect any group data from the urine strips other than pH and specific gravity?

everything else was qualitative, not quantitative

35. Why would you expect the urine volume in the beer group to be different from the volume in the water group?

inhibits ADH

36. Name a part of the nephron between the glomerulus and the collecting duct.

proximal and distal colvoluted tubules, loop of Henle (and descending and ascending portions)

37. What portion of the changes you monitored with your face in the water would you attribute to the sympathetic nervous system?

rise in blood pressure

38. What portion of the changes you monitored with your face in the water would you attribute to the parasympathetic nervous system?

decreased heart rate

39. Why does a seal's lactic acid go up only after the dive is complete?

blood flow to muscles, metabolizing anaerobically, was cut off during the dive and then opens back up

40. Why would you expect smaller changes when the dive is done with the face mask (compared to the dive without the face mask)?

covers 1/3 of the trigeminal input (the area around the eyes)

41. Suppose the resting pulse is 72, typical for most people. You have a strip of 10 seconds from the power lab during a cold face dip where there are 6 heartbeats. How was the pulse changed?

duh? ([6beats/10s]x[60s/1min]=36beats/min, goes to half resting)

For Questions 45-50, see the second figure page

45. From a different perspective, you peeled off the hippocampus and saw this. Answer either (1) What is it called (specifically)? Or (2) What (functional) system is it part of?

lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, visual

46. From a different perspective, you saw this structure hiding in the lateral ventricle behind the septum pellucidum. What is it?

head of the caudate nucleus

47. What is the name of this colossal body?

duh, corpus callosum

48. The hippocampus, shown here, is associated with white matter over its surface plus two tracts that can be seen in (or near) mid-sagittal section. One of those three would suffice for the answer.

fimbria, fornix, hippocampal commisure

49. A structure associated with the visual system is here. Answer either (1) What is it called in the sheep? (2) What is it called in the frog? Or (3) In combination with a nearby auditory structure, both bilateral, what name indicates this foursome?

superior colliculus, optic tectum, corpora (lamina) quadrigemina

50. When you cut off the cerebellum and looked at the floor of the fourth ventricle, what was this structure called (viewed from that perspective)?

brachium pontis of the cerebellar peduncle

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this page was last revised 4/20/2018