1. What happens in a cell of the SA node during diastole?

it depolarizes automatically

2. Your patient has episodes of bradycardia (slow heartbeat) and the electrocardiogram shows no P wave during these episodes. How is the heartbeat triggered?

slower than the SA node's automaticity, the AV node kicks in

3. Why would you expect the Q-T interval to become shorter during exercise?

to allow for faster pulse

4. You pump up the cuff to 140 mm Hg, listen, and get ready to start lowering the pressure in the cuff. Oddly, you do not have silence, you have sounds. What does this suggest, and what should you try next?

the person's systolic pressure is higher than 140 so pump it up higher and start lowering again

5. When listening to a heartbeat, there are two distinct sounds that can be heard. Most commonly they are called "lubb" and "dubb". For one of these, what process is actually occurring to make that sound?

lubb corresponds to the closure of the AV valves and the beginning of the ventricular systole.
dubb occurs as the semilunar valves close and corresponds to the end of systole.

6. Where does the 1/3 come from in the following equation: MAP=(diastolic pressure)+(1/3)*(pulse pressure)?

the heart's contraction cycle spends one-third of its time in systole, and two-thirds in diastole.

7. About what fraction of the end-diastolic ventricular volume is ejected during systole?

about 60%

8. Tell me the function of EITHER type 1 or type 2 alveolar cells. (Make sure you specify which cell you are answering for.)

I-gas exchange, II-surfactant

9. Why would a smoker have a worse problem after asbestos exposure?

smoking paralyzes the alveoli that power the mucus elevator

10. How did we obtain Tidal Volume in LabScribe?

value of V2-V1 function on the volume channel

11. In the respiration lab, define FEV1

forced expiratory volume at 1 Second: the maximum amount of air a subject expires in one second.

12. During tidal breathing (half a liter), less than half a liter of fresh outside air enters the alveoli. Why?

the dead space, air in the airways, was from the lungs, not from outside during inhalation

13. Why is the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli lower than in the atmosphere?

because there is considerable water vapor and carbon dioxide in the lungs

14. In pneumothorax (a stab wound through the rib cage) how much does the intrapleural pressure change, and in what direction?

to go UP to atmospheric, only a few mm of Hg

15. Using statistics that you know from this course (and perhaps elsewhere), how would you say how EVR's IQ (143) relates to the average (100)?

nearly 3 standard deviations above the mean

16. A patient with damage to the frontal cortex failed to show skin conductance changes to emotional stimuli. Without connecting any electrodes, what other symptoms were obvious?

lose job, made bad decisions, hard time making decisions

17. What were the units for conductance in the GSR lab?

micro Siemens

18. Briefly describe ONE of these two types of skin conductance (tonic and phasic).

- Tonic: baseline level of skin conductance w/o any discrete environmental event, referred to as SCL
- Phasic: changes when events take place with environmental stimuli

19. Describe or draw how the pulse monitor looks as the cuff pressure is decreased across the systolic blood pressure.

goes from flat line to small blips

20. When is the heart rate higher, breathing in or breathing out, and why?

higher during inhalation, because of vagal tone (respiratory sinus arrhthmia, RSA)

21. Give one example of why high vagal tone is considered good.

heart rate varies less during stressful activity, in children, it is associated with less behavioral inhibition (shyness) in novel situations, less vulnerable to depression and anxiety, less blood pressure response to stress, less vulnerability to hypertension and coronary heart disease

22. In the Vagal Tone lab, what mild cognitive stressor was used while measuring pulse, heart rate and blood pressure?

spelling words backwards

23. Why would you expect the urine volume in the beer group to be different from the volume in the water group?

inhibits ADH

24. Why were pH and specific gravity the only data we collected from the test strips?

they were the only quantitative data

25. In addition to filtration and secretion, what does the nephron do?

reabsorption

26. Regarding PhD candidate Craig Hill's presentation, name one of the three principal adaptations that allow painted turtles to survive 5 months of anoxic hibernation.

profound metabolic depression, large glycogen stores in liver, large extracellular buffering capacity (shell and skeleton).

27. Where is vasopressin secreted and how does it relate to our pee lab?

posterior Pituitary and it is related to the increased volume of urine after beer and coffee

28. Contest this statement "Glucose is in the urine of diabetics because they have kidneys that cannot reabsorb glucose."

there is so much glucose in the filtrate that resorption, though working, is saturated

29. FOR EITHER Describe what (1) primitive urine (glomerular filtrate) or (2) definitive (final) urine consists of.

1 primitive: similar to the blood's plasma in composition except that large molecules (plasma proteins) are excluded, 2 definitive: toxic byproducts of metabolism and substances in excess, high tonicity but no sodium chloride

30. If a person presents with bilateral lower back pain, do they have kidney stones? How does renal colic (due to kidney stones) manifest?

likely not kidney stones, since there would need to be two simultaneous kidney stones, which is rare. Kidney stones tend to cause unilateral pain that progresses from flank to groin.

31. What is different about the blood involved in priapism?

blood involved in the prolonged erection is more viscous or sludgy

32. ANSWER EITHER (1) What is the name of a non-invasive treatment for a kidney stone that obstructs the ureter OR (2) How does it work?

lithotripsy, ultrasound shock wave treatment used to break up kidney stones

33. What does Q10 equal if a 10oC temperature increase leads to a doubling of the rate of the process?

two

34. What is the difference between homiotherms and poikioltherms?

warm-blood (constant body temperature) and cold-blooded (variable body temperature).

35. On a cold morning, while you are enjoying a warm cup of coffee, a dark-winged butterfly suns itself before it is ready to face the day. How do you refer to its temperature regulation?

heliothermic

36. Why did we insist that you take your warm and cold water samples from containers with bubblers to start at time zero?

to make certain the water was maximally oxygenated

37. Theoretically, metabolism should go up with temperature within a certain range. Explain why it levels off and drops above this range.

proteins denature

38. We used the crayfish Procambarus clarkii to measure Q10. Is it a homeotherm or a poikioltherm? Justify your answer.

poikiolterm because they have variable body temperatures.

39. What portion of the changes you monitored with your face in the water would you attribute to the sympathetic nervous system?

rise in blood pressure

40. What portion of the changes you monitored with your face in the water would you attribute to the parasympathetic nervous system?

decreased heart rate

41. Suppose the resting pulse is 72, typical for most people. You have a strip of 10 seconds from the power lab during a cold face dip where there are 6 heartbeats. How was the pulse changed?

duh? ([6beats/10s]x[60s/1min]=36beats/min, goes to half resting)

42. A fast beat is called tachycardia. What do we call a slow heartbeat?

bradycardia

43. Why does a seal's lactic acid go up only after the dive is complete?

blood flow to muscles, metabolizing anaerobically, was cut off during the dive and then opens back up

For questions 44-47, go here

44. This white matter is seen in the midsaggital view as... (name either of the two tracts).

fornix, hippocampal comisure

45. What is this structure?

lateral geniculate nucleus (thalamus)

46. If you saw these fibers on the ventral view of the brain, how would that area be labeled?

pons

47. If you removed this septum, you would see a structure. What is the function of the structure you would see?

coordination of voluntary muscle movements

For questions 48-50, go here

48. Give one of the many possible names associated with this structure.

striatum, putamen, globus pallidus, basal ganglia (nuclei), lentiform (lenticular) nucleus (body)

49. To what sensory system does this structure belong

vision

50. State ONE of the functions of this nerve seen coming out of the cerebral peduncles.

eye movements, eyelid movements (somatic motor), pupil constriction, accomodation (autonomic)

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last revised May 2, 2017