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Biology 347 - General Physiology Lab - Stark and Kumar - Fall 2004
Final - 12/2/04 (each question is 1 point unless specified) 50 points total

1. Alcohol inhibits what hormone from the posterior pituitary?

ADH

2. Protanopia is red-blindness. Deuteranopia is green-blindness. What is the term for blue-blindness such as we demonstrated for small foveal visual fields?

tritanopia

3. Where are the baroreceptors that sense blood pressure located?

In the carotid sinus, aortic arch, and other large arteries of the neck and thorax.

4. What is the function of the smooth muscle of the bronchioles?

To allow airflow regulation by altering the diameter of the bronchioles.

5. How would you determine if your patient has a left or right axis deviation?

Do calculations and plotting based on QRS above and below baseline for Lead I and Lead III

6. Give a typical value for the specific gravity of urine.

1.01 (give or take)

7. What do we call the reaction in which water contributes to the splitting of glycogen into glucose molecules?

hydrolysis

8. After holding your breath for a minute, what would happen to the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid bathing the respiratory centers of the medulla?

lower

9. Why did the kidney lab web site state that " pH by itself is not very informative."

diet can affect pH

10. For a typical subject, why do you initially inflate the cuff to 180 mm Hg?

That would be above systolic but not way too high

11. What is the official term for the lung volume we determined when we used the spirometer to see who had the greatest number (about 6 liters)?

vital capacity

12. How is glucose transported on the luminal membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule?

via a sodium/glucose cotransporter

13. What is the mechanism by which ADH facilitates water resorption?

more aquaporin water transporters channels are deployed

14. What part of the nervous system mediates the bradycardia of the diving response?

parasympathetic

15. If you are careful about how you breathe, you should be able to measure each component of lung volumes with our simple spirometer except one. Which one?

residual volume

16. What is the official word for the cuff you use to measure blood pressure from the brachial artery?

sphygmomanometer

17. What do the cardiac glycosides digitalis and ouabain do?

block the sodium pump

18. Why would a lung collapse from a puncture wound between the ribs?

intrapleural space has same pressure as atmospheric

19. What is hypernatremia?

high sodium (relative to plasma)

20. What would happen to heart rate if all parasympathetic and sympathetic inputs to the heart were instantly abolished while you were relaxed?

heart would speed up

21. Blue-absorbing macular pigments are thought to protect the foveal cones. What are these chemicals?

carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin)

22. When you hear the last sound while measuring blood pressure, what is the approximate pressure within the ventricle?

At the moment arterial diastolic pressure is registered, ventricular and arterial pressures should be the same

23. What hormone does renin activate?

angiotensin

24. Why are pulse and blood pressure close to control levels during a dive with a face mask and a snorkel?

face mask prevents trigeminal stimulation, snorkel avoids apnea

25. If the SA node fails to trigger atrial excitation, the AV node, whose automaticity is slower, will eventually kick in. What would be conspicuously missing in the EKG?

P wave

26. What happens to plasma proteins at the glomerulus?

they remain in capillaries

27. What is the blood vessel leaving the glomerulus called?

efferrent arteriole

28. We used blue light to excite emission from GFP (green fluorescent protein). Why is the wavelength of fluorescent emission always longer than the wavelength for excitation?

some of electron's energy is lost before it falls back, emitting light

29. Absence of what protein is the cause of edema from liver failure?

albumin

30. What would happen if there were no surfactant in alveolar fluid?

high surface tension would make breathing difficult at best

31. Aldosterone contributes to the resorption of what material?

sodium

32. Why don't you see atrial repolarization in the EKG?

swamped out by ventricular depolarization

33. What hormone increases the deployment of calcium into bone?

calcitonin

34. What is the Heymer test for respiratory reserve?

ability to hold breath

35. Why do you only hear arterial blood flow when the pressure is between the systolic and diastolic values?

that is when it is turbulent

36. What was the most convenient way to get an accurate measurement of the heart rate during the diving lab?

use a snippit of the pulse monitor

37. Why isn't your acuity greatly compromised when you look through a yellow filter?

it would block blue light and you do not have many blue cones especially at the fovea

38. If low blood pressure is detected in the kidney, what hormone is secreted?

renin

39. A myopic patient is examined without glasses by an eye doctor using an ophthalmoscope. (S)he may not get an accurate reading (for the eye glasses prescription needed) because s(he) is subject to the same change of lens shape that compensates for near and far vision. What is this compensatory mechanism called?

accomodation

40. Why is the blood vessel exiting the glomerulus called an efferent arteriole instead of a vein?

because there is a portal system to the medulla

41. Which ventricle pumps to the pulmonary circulation?

right

42. Who would have glycosurea?

an untreated diabetic

43. What is apnea?

not breathing

44. What hormone depletes the Ca2+ from bone?

PTH

45. Repolarization to baseline of autorhythmic cells as well as muscle cells in the heart is associated with an increased permeability to what ion?

K+


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