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BIOL 347 General Physiology Lab ­p; Dr Stark
Midterm Exam ­p; Wednesday March 5, 2008
1. You know about "publish or perish" and you want to compare
two of your biology professors with respect to how much their articles have
shown up in the reference sections of more recent articles. How do you do
cited reference search in Web of Science (formerly Science Citation Index)
2. Your assignment was to make a montage of several electrocardiogram and
pulse monitor traces to post on the course web site, and you remember that
your professor said he used Photoshop to make the one he showed you. When
you're done, you pull down under "file" to "save" but
you find you can only save it as a Photoshop file. Answer one of these:
What do you need to do to make it so you can save it in many formats? Or
What type of file do you want to save it in for web posting?
(1) flatten the layers, then you can save as tiff or jpg (2) jpg
3. Assume you're my TA and I'm computer illiterate while you're savvy. Tell
me what feature of Excel is used to facilitate getting the mean and standard
deviation of the midterm exam scores for the physiology lab class.
there are functions, so you just pick AVERAGE or STDEV and show the beginning
and end of the list
4. Assume you're the research assistant for a biology professor who wants
to publish a paper with you but does not know what you have been shown in
lab. (S)he wants to try to get it accepted in the prestigious journal Science.
If the Science editors reject it, (s)he wants it to be easy to rewrite for
the Journal of Podunk Science. What do you tell the professor about how
to prepare the references?
use a data base such as EndNote b/c all you have to do is select a different
journal reference style
5. What is the name of the device you attach to your finger to detect your
6. Tightly wound multiple layers of cell membrane constitute what part of
the nervous system.
7. There is a decremental spread of the synaptic potential across the cell
to (where?) where the all-or-none spike is generated.
8. Acetylcholine binds nicotinic receptors at what location in the sympathetic
9. When we recorded the electrocardiogram with the old fashioned pen-writer,
we deliberately altered the noise and temporal aspects of the recording
high pass filter (time constant) and low pass filter (filter)
10. An ion channel selective for what divalent cation detects the arrival
of the action potential at the synaptic terminal and is essential for release
11. A heater to melt glass and strong magnets to pull the melted glass was
used to demonstrate the manufacture of (what?)
12. A stimulator is used to generate a voltage signal on an oscilloscope
set to 0.5 Volts per cm. Suppose you want to make that signal look half
as big. What would you change the setting to?
13. For just a short while, the voltage on that oscilloscope could be seen.
How did people make a more permanent record of their oscilloscope records.
14. I showed you a palm sized voltmeter with a needle that showed the voltage.
Why do neuroscientists need to use a penwriter, oscilloscope or computer
to record action potentials instead?
to get voltage as a function of time on a fast time scale
15. In the frog nerve muscle preparation, how did they record twitches in
the 1800's before they had electronics?
scratch a mark on paper with a stylus
16. In skeletal muscle (and heart muscle), most of the calcium needed to
activate the sliding filaments comes from what location?
17. These days, animal care committees are more stringent in approving animal
use proposals. They might insist that rabbits be sacrificed using an overdose
of narcotics. Why wouldn't this work for the gut smooth muscle motility
drugs affect the autonomic control of motility
18. Why would they call a corpse found soon after the crime a "stiff?"
without ATP, myosin remains bouynd to actin
19. In earlier years, physiology lab students shocked their partners' forearms.
A brief, small shock elicited a twitch. A high frequency burst of stimuli
elicited a steady contraction called (what?).
20. "Dark meat." What is this called with respect to the oxygen
utilization in metabolism?
hemoglobin (in capillaries) and myoglobin and cytochrome (in muscle) are
21. "White meat." What is this called with respect to the temporal
characteristics of a contraction elicited by one action potential?
22. What detects the stretch of the quadriceps when the patellar ligament
stretch receptor in muscle spindle
23. What is the protein that binds the calcium ions in muscle cells?
24. Why was it important to weigh some books and to put them onto the hand
grip that fed into the iWorx?
to calibrate the hand dynamometer
25. Explain to your grandmother what you are seeing on the iWorx recording
of muscle grip.
muscle cells generate electrical signals and we can record this activity
across the skin
26. We demonstrated "small field tritanopia." Why was it called
small field? Why was it called tritanopia? (two points)
small visual field, blue (blue-yellow) blindness
27. Normally we do not see the blood vessels in front of our retinas. Why
should the tricks we used make it more likely that we would see this "Purkinje
we have "learned" to ignore them (habituation) but when the light
does not come in the usual axial direction, they are suddenly visible
28. Normally, people do not report discriminating the plane of polarized
light even though the macular pigments form a polarizing filter in front
of the receptors. Why should the trick we used make it more likely that
we would see this polarization?
the subtle amount of polarization is more obvious when it is ever-changing
29. A light source may or may not be flickering above the human flicker
fusion frequency. How would you use your vision to tell if it is?
use any trick at ytour disposal to move the image og the light across your
30. Why can't most normal people see UV (ultraviolet) light?
the lens absorbs it
31. You listen to two tuning forks simultaneously and hear beats. What was
it you were demonstrating when you listened to one then the other?
the ability to discriminate frequencies that are just a few Hz apart
32. Answer either: (1) How does your eyeball "know" to stay upright
when you tilt your head slightly? Or (2) How does it do that?
(1) vestibular system (2) 2 muscles/eye are used to rotate it
33. It was known for many decades that your visual reaction time was much
slower than your auditory reaction time. Why is your vision so slow?
in phototransduction, cGMP must difuse from discs where it is made to the
cell membrane where the channels are
34. A membrane on the white of your eye gets inflamed and you have pink
eye. What is this membrane called?
35. What's different about the people who can vs cannot taste PTC?
there is a gene for that bitter receptor, TT or Tt taste, tt do not
36. A friend who did not take the wonderful course asks why dogs' eyes sometimes
appear to glow yellow and you reply "That's because of a layer called
37. Your acuity is so good that you can read the line of smaller print below
the 20/20 line on the Snellen chart. Explain why we say your vision is 20/15.
you can see at 20 feet what most people see at 15 feet
38. Why can't you taste your food when you are very congested?
most of what we consider to be "taste" is olfaction, and odorants
cannot get to the olfactory epithelium
39. What is it called when you fixate on a red dot then see green when you
shift your gaze to a white background?
40. You dissect the front half of the eye from the back and you see ligaments
holding the lens. Answer either (1) What muscle also connects to these ligaments?
Or (2) What is the word for the function, poor in people over 40, of this
muscle and these ligaments?
(1) ciliary (2) accomodation
41. Then you plop out the lens. Answer either (1) What is the name of the
fluid filled compartment have you exposed? Or (2) What is the name of the
disorder your eye care professional tests for if pressure builds up in this
(1) aqueous humor (2) glaucoma
42. What is wrong with your eye if you need an astigmatism correction in
cornea is uneven in refracting
43. You are showing a friend an eye dissection when (s)he says "I hear
that the middle of the retina is oxygen deprived. You've seen the blood
vessels on the vitreal side of the retina. How do you show the blood vessels
on the other side of the retina?
peel off the choroid and tapetum and there is the choriocapillaris, a faint
44. If you had done poorly on the Rinne Test, where the tuning fork was
moved from the bone to beside the ear, what would be specifically wrong
with you (and what wouldn't)?
conduction (from the ear drum to the oval window), obviously your cochlea
45. A figure in your book says "Taste buds are located on the dorsal
surface of the tongue." Actually they are located on what structure
(and that structure, your answer, in turn, is located on the surface of
46. What do we mean when we say that the pancreas is mostly an exocrine
in addition to endocrine function, it has a duct to the small intsetine
for digestive enzyme (precursors)
47. The insulin that is released in the fed state favors the formation of
what polymer in muscle?
48. How would an overdose of insulin affect uptake of glucose into cells
in the brain?
b/c there is less blood glucose, glucose uptake would be reduced
49. You just came down with diabetes but you don't know it yet. In the "pee"
lab, the urinalysis strip is positive for glucose in your urine. Does your
kidney still retrieve glucose that is filtered out of the body?
yes, but its transport capability is saturated
50. How is it that liver cell membranes become more permeable to glucose
uptake in the fed state?
insulin mediates deployment of glucose transporter molecules to the membrane
51. We get a reading of 150 on the glucose meter. What are the units?
52. We inject "IP." Where does the injection fluid go?
into the intraperotineal cavity
53. How do you figure out how much anesthetic to give your mouse?
on the basis of weight
54. Relate how we determine electrical axis with Eindhoven's triangle.
we measure ECG waves from the different ECG "leads." with two
wrists and an ankle, different leads come from different connections of
positive, negative and ground electrodes
55. How does the electrical signal get from one heart muscle cell to another?
by gap junctions
56. Right before the ventricles contract, the arterial blood pressure is
the diastolic level
57. How does the typical resting pulse relate to the rate sinoatrial pacemaker
cells would have if there were no autonomic input.
slower b/c of parasympathetic
58. (a) A change in the action potential of (what cell type?) would explain
the shorter QRS to T time during exertion?
ventricular myocardial spike gets shorter
58 (b) How should your recording have looked? (Please draw two consecutive
EKGs before and after exercise.)
show the ECGs closer togetner and tthe QRS and T closer
59. What is the status of the valves between the atria and the ventricles
they are open
60. Which cells automatically depolarize during diastole?
pacemaker cells in the SA (sinoatrial) node (also in the AV node)
61. What event marks the end of isovolumic ventricular contraction?
the opening of the valves to the arteries (aortic and pulmonary semilunar
62. Your systolic blood pressure is 120. What are the units?
63. How much blood flows from the left ventricle to the aorta during diastole?
64. (a) Why can you hear sounds from the artery inside your elbow as the
cuff pressure is lowered from the systolic to the diastolic pressure?
turbulent blood flow
64. (b) What is the name of this artery?
65. Why did they decide that the mean arterial blood pressure should be
closer to the diastolic than to the systolic pressure?
you are in diastole more time than you are in systole
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