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BIOL 347 General Physiology Laboratory, Midterm, Wednesday February 24, 2016 ­p; Prof. Stark, All questions are short answer. 50 points total

1. What do you call it when you divide the standard deviation by the square root of n?

standard error

2. From one peak to the next, we obtain T2-T1 (plethysmograph reading). How do we calculate the pulse rate from that?

60/(T2-T1)

3. On the inside of the elbow is the place you need to take a pulse to locate the stethoscope for the traditional way of getting blood pressure with a cuff. What is that artery called?

brachial

4. What transmitter RECEPTOR is used in the ganglion of both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?

nicotinic

5. Using the fluorescence of GFP (green fluorescent protein) in the Drosophila eye AND/OR the fluorescence of paper in UV (ultraviolet) light as an example, relate the wavelengths for excitation and emission.

shorter wavelength excites, then some energy is lost, that's why the emission is at a longer wavelength

6. There was a Mercury arc lamp on the fluorescence microscope I had in your classroom. What did we use instead of an arc lamp on the confocal microscope?

A laser

7. You get onto the Web of Science, then you choose "cited reference search" and type in "Stark WS" and check the paper I wrote with Katz in 1991. What is particularly unique about the list that appears when you select "finish search?" (In other words, what can you learn that you did not know before?)

all the papers published after 1991 that cited Katz et al.

8. In the old days, if you wanted to resubmit a manuscript to a different journal, it was a nuisance to retype all the references in a different format. Why is that no longer an issue for the tech-savvy scientist or secretary anymore?

reference databases like endnote allow you to pick a different journal style

9. A polygraph and an oscilloscope display voltage as a function of (what)?

time

10. In the demonstration with two tuning forks, answer either (1) What did we hear when both were held to one ear simultaneously? (2) WHY was it important that we did this? OR (3) What was demonstrated when we noted that they sounded different when we held them to one ear sequentially?

beats to prove they differed by a few Hz then we showed that you can detect a very small frequency difference

11. Olfactory receptors have axons. Where do these axons terminate?

olfactory bulb (first cranial "nerve" of the brain)

12. What do you expect would have happened if a taster put the PTC test strip in his or her mouth while holding the nose shut. Justify your answer.

still taste terrible b/c it is taste (not olfaction)

13. Why can't you immediately taste a sugar cube placed on your dry tongue?

must be dissolved to be tasted by gustatory receptors.

14. How did you test whether your two cochleas were equally sensitive?

hold the tuning fork medially on the forehead (Weber test)

15. List the five tastes mediated on the tongue.

salt, sour, umami, bitter, sweet

16. A diagram showing that different places in the basilar membrane moved in response to different types of stimuli explained (what aspect of human hearing?).

frequency discrimination

17. We placed a vibrating tuning fork on the mastoid process until it was not heard then moved it close to the subject's ear. Then we did the reverse. ANSWER EITHER (1) What test were we performing? OR (2) What SPECIFIC defect was being tested for?

the Rinne Test, conductive deafness

18. You are driving down the road when you see something that makes you let up on the gas pedal and slam on the brake. What is the fastest time you can expect for this reaction?

if you base your answer on the average visual reaction time in our experiment, it would be maybe a little less than half a second

19. Relevant to the Haidinger's brushes demonstration, answer either (1) What would these macular pigments look like in an ophthalmoscope? Or (2) Where would you see these macular pigments while examining the eye with an ophthalmoscope?

(1) the macula (area around the fovea) looks yellow (2) at the fovea

20. "Blue (short wavelength) cones, that mediate blue-yellow vision, contribute very little to high acuity vision." Describe how one of our two demonstrations showed this.

difficulty reading through a blue filter, difficulty seeing small blue and yellow dots from a distance

21. Dr Beatty said that an optometrist might be the first to notice a (1) high cholesterol problem or (2) a brain tumor. Answer (for one of these) how this is seen.

arteries are shiny, optic nerve bulges

22. If you shake a flashlight from the side on your eyelid, ANSWER EITHER (1) What is this phenomenon called? OR (2) What do you see?

the Purkinje Tree, the blood vessels in front of the retina

23. Dr. Beatty showed a picture of pigment on the inside of the cornea that also could clog drainage and lead to what condition that could cause blindness?

glaucoma from pressure build-up when the aqueous humor does not drain, ganglion cells die

24. A light shown in one eye does not lead to pupil constriction in either eye, while light shown into the other eye elicits constriction in both eyes. Where does this patient have neurological damage?
optic nerve of the first eye

25. What were we determining in the experiment where we measured the distance from the x to the blindspot and the distance from your eye to the card?

the visual angle off of fovea where the optic nerve is located

26. Twice, using two different monochromators, we demonstrated that yellow was "unique" for human vision. What does that mean?

change the wavelength just a little and the stimulus becomes green or orange

27. What is special about the proteins that make up the lens in terms of form and function?

like all proteins other than pigments, they are transparent if nicely arranged, particular proteins are not important since they don't actively do anything, assigned to the lens by "gene sharing."

28. How do the ligaments AND lens respond to ciliary muscle contraction AND relaxation?

slacken/rounder and taught/flat respectively

29. Instead of synthesizing new GLUT4 when it is needed, the cell houses GLUT4 in vesicles. Why is this a useful strategy?

deployment can be immediate

30. Relating GLUT2 to GLUT4, why don't beta cells of the islets of Langerhans signal insulin release all the time?

only in the fed state is GLUT2's Km exceeded by the blood glucose level

31. High blood sugar leads to all kinds of health problems on a long-term basis. Why is low blood sugar a much more immediate problem, a medical emergency?

lack of glucose in the brain leads to coma

32. In addition to those macrophages that phagocytose, say something about the alternatively activated macrophages.

resolve inflammation, promote tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, they arrive late in diabetic wounds

33. In the experiment with mice, why did we start with an injection of glucagon instead of insulin?

we had not, in the past, been able to reverse insulin's hypoglycemia with glucagon

34. In addition to changes in the immune response, why do diabetics get such terrible sores?

neuropathy (numbness) they do not feel the injury until it is really bad

35. When does insulin release from the islets of Langerhans usually happen?

typically released following feeding and large amounts of glucose are available for storage and utilization by body

36. Genevieve Hilliard, a graduate student in Prof Shornick's immunology lab, is studying the effect of Manuka honey on wound healing. Why did they enlist the collaboration with Prof Sell in the Biomedical Engineering (BME) Department?

he fashioned a scaffold to sustain delivery

37. Why should you NOT recap the needle before disposing of it?

that is when you might stab yourself

38. One of the solutions had EDTA and another had sodium pyrophosphate at pH 6.4. State what one of these was intended to do.

EDTA would take away (chelate) the calcium, sodium pyrophosphate at slightly acidic pH soluabilzes myosin

39. When there is no calcium near the sliding filaments, what does tropomyosin do?

covers sites on actin that myosin head groups could bind to

40. Vestibular ocular reflex, vergence, and pursuit. What major type of eye movement is missing from that list?

saccade

41. We applied a mild electrical shock to Joel's forearm and got a twitch. What did we then do to get tetany?

increased the frequency

42. What eye reflex allows your eye to stay upright even though your head may be rotating?

vestibular ocular reflex

43. I Xeroxed a page from the Rubaiyat and a paragraph from Voyage of the Beagle. For the latter, I enlarged the paragraph. Why?

the poem's eye movements would be less extended than the paragraph's

44. Acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, sodium and potassium channels to carry the action potential in the plasmalemma, calcium channels (DHP receptors) to carry the action potential in the transverse tubules (T-tubules). What channel is missing in that list in excitation-contraction coupling?

calcium channels (Ryanodine receptors) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum

45. Co-transport with sodium and a sodium-potassium pump are involved in glucose uptake across the intestinal epithelium. What else?

a facilitated transporter for glucose GLUT2

46. Why was it important to weigh some books to put them onto the hand grip that fed into the iWorx?

to calibrate

47. Why did you use the plethysmograph in the reflex experiments?

to show when the stimulus occurred

48. The record on the screen goes for 1 minute while the total record is 10 minutes. Other than scrolling, how can you see your whole record on the screen at one glance?

compress with the two mountain peak icon

49.What was the name (OR abbreviation) of that noisy recording of muscular activity you got with those sticky electrodes?

electromyograph (EMG)

50. What is the Jendrassik Maneuver?

hands cupped and interlocked in front of your chest with elbows pointing out. It is a distraction.

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