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BIOL 347 General Physiology Laboratory, Midterm, Wednesday February 24,
2016 ­p; Prof. Stark, All questions are short answer. 50 points total
1. What do you call it when you divide the standard deviation by the square
root of n?
2. From one peak to the next, we obtain T2-T1 (plethysmograph reading).
How do we calculate the pulse rate from that?
3. On the inside of the elbow is the place you need to take a pulse to locate
the stethoscope for the traditional way of getting blood pressure with a
cuff. What is that artery called?
4. What transmitter RECEPTOR is used in the ganglion of both sympathetic
and parasympathetic nervous systems?
5. Using the fluorescence of GFP (green fluorescent protein) in the Drosophila
eye AND/OR the fluorescence of paper in UV (ultraviolet) light as an example,
relate the wavelengths for excitation and emission.
shorter wavelength excites, then some energy is lost, that's why the emission
is at a longer wavelength
6. There was a Mercury arc lamp on the fluorescence microscope I had in
your classroom. What did we use instead of an arc lamp on the confocal microscope?
7. You get onto the Web of Science, then you choose "cited reference
search" and type in "Stark WS" and check the paper I wrote
with Katz in 1991. What is particularly unique about the list that appears
when you select "finish search?" (In other words, what can you
learn that you did not know before?)
all the papers published after 1991 that cited Katz et al.
8. In the old days, if you wanted to resubmit a manuscript to a different
journal, it was a nuisance to retype all the references in a different format.
Why is that no longer an issue for the tech-savvy scientist or secretary
reference databases like endnote allow you to pick a different journal style
9. A polygraph and an oscilloscope display voltage as a function of (what)?
10. In the demonstration with two tuning forks, answer either (1) What did
we hear when both were held to one ear simultaneously? (2) WHY was it important
that we did this? OR (3) What was demonstrated when we noted that they sounded
different when we held them to one ear sequentially?
beats to prove they differed by a few Hz then we showed that you can detect
a very small frequency difference
11. Olfactory receptors have axons. Where do these axons terminate?
olfactory bulb (first cranial "nerve" of the brain)
12. What do you expect would have happened if a taster put the PTC test
strip in his or her mouth while holding the nose shut. Justify your answer.
still taste terrible b/c it is taste (not olfaction)
13. Why can't you immediately taste a sugar cube placed on your dry tongue?
must be dissolved to be tasted by gustatory receptors.
14. How did you test whether your two cochleas were equally sensitive?
hold the tuning fork medially on the forehead (Weber test)
15. List the five tastes mediated on the tongue.
salt, sour, umami, bitter, sweet
16. A diagram showing that different places in the basilar membrane moved
in response to different types of stimuli explained (what aspect of human
17. We placed a vibrating tuning fork on the mastoid process until it was
not heard then moved it close to the subject's ear. Then we did the reverse.
ANSWER EITHER (1) What test were we performing? OR (2) What SPECIFIC defect
was being tested for?
the Rinne Test, conductive deafness
18. You are driving down the road when you see something that makes you
let up on the gas pedal and slam on the brake. What is the fastest time
you can expect for this reaction?
if you base your answer on the average visual reaction time in our experiment,
it would be maybe a little less than half a second
19. Relevant to the Haidinger's brushes demonstration, answer either (1)
What would these macular pigments look like in an ophthalmoscope? Or (2)
Where would you see these macular pigments while examining the eye with
(1) the macula (area around the fovea) looks yellow (2) at the fovea
20. "Blue (short wavelength) cones, that mediate blue-yellow vision,
contribute very little to high acuity vision." Describe how one of
our two demonstrations showed this.
difficulty reading through a blue filter, difficulty seeing small blue and
yellow dots from a distance
21. Dr Beatty said that an optometrist might be the first to notice a (1)
high cholesterol problem or (2) a brain tumor. Answer (for one of these)
how this is seen.
arteries are shiny, optic nerve bulges
22. If you shake a flashlight from the side on your eyelid, ANSWER EITHER
(1) What is this phenomenon called? OR (2) What do you see?
the Purkinje Tree, the blood vessels in front of the retina
23. Dr. Beatty showed a picture of pigment on the inside of the cornea that
also could clog drainage and lead to what condition that could cause blindness?
glaucoma from pressure build-up when the aqueous humor does not drain, ganglion
24. A light shown in one eye does not lead to pupil constriction in either
eye, while light shown into the other eye elicits constriction in both eyes.
Where does this patient have neurological damage?
optic nerve of the first eye
25. What were we determining in the experiment where we measured the distance
from the x to the blindspot and the distance from your eye to the card?
the visual angle off of fovea where the optic nerve is located
26. Twice, using two different monochromators, we demonstrated that yellow
was "unique" for human vision. What does that mean?
change the wavelength just a little and the stimulus becomes green or orange
27. What is special about the proteins that make up the lens in terms of
form and function?
like all proteins other than pigments, they are transparent if nicely arranged,
particular proteins are not important since they don't actively do anything,
assigned to the lens by "gene sharing."
28. How do the ligaments AND lens respond to ciliary muscle contraction
slacken/rounder and taught/flat respectively
29. Instead of synthesizing new GLUT4 when it is needed, the cell houses
GLUT4 in vesicles. Why is this a useful strategy?
deployment can be immediate
30. Relating GLUT2 to GLUT4, why don't beta cells of the islets of Langerhans
signal insulin release all the time?
only in the fed state is GLUT2's Km exceeded by the blood glucose level
31. High blood sugar leads to all kinds of health problems on a long-term
basis. Why is low blood sugar a much more immediate problem, a medical emergency?
lack of glucose in the brain leads to coma
32. In addition to those macrophages that phagocytose, say something about
the alternatively activated macrophages.
resolve inflammation, promote tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, produce
anti-inflammatory cytokines, they arrive late in diabetic wounds
33. In the experiment with mice, why did we start with an injection of glucagon
instead of insulin?
we had not, in the past, been able to reverse insulin's hypoglycemia with
34. In addition to changes in the immune response, why do diabetics get
such terrible sores?
neuropathy (numbness) they do not feel the injury until it is really bad
35. When does insulin release from the islets of Langerhans usually happen?
typically released following feeding and large amounts of glucose are available
for storage and utilization by body
36. Genevieve Hilliard, a graduate student in Prof Shornick's immunology
lab, is studying the effect of Manuka honey on wound healing. Why did they
enlist the collaboration with Prof Sell in the Biomedical Engineering (BME)
he fashioned a scaffold to sustain delivery
37. Why should you NOT recap the needle before disposing of it?
that is when you might stab yourself
38. One of the solutions had EDTA and another had sodium pyrophosphate at
pH 6.4. State what one of these was intended to do.
EDTA would take away (chelate) the calcium, sodium pyrophosphate at slightly
acidic pH soluabilzes myosin
39. When there is no calcium near the sliding filaments, what does tropomyosin
covers sites on actin that myosin head groups could bind to
40. Vestibular ocular reflex, vergence, and pursuit. What major type of
eye movement is missing from that list?
41. We applied a mild electrical shock to Joel's forearm and got a twitch.
What did we then do to get tetany?
increased the frequency
42. What eye reflex allows your eye to stay upright even though your head
may be rotating?
vestibular ocular reflex
43. I Xeroxed a page from the Rubaiyat and a paragraph from Voyage of the
Beagle. For the latter, I enlarged the paragraph. Why?
the poem's eye movements would be less extended than the paragraph's
44. Acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, sodium and potassium
channels to carry the action potential in the plasmalemma, calcium channels
(DHP receptors) to carry the action potential in the transverse tubules
(T-tubules). What channel is missing in that list in excitation-contraction
calcium channels (Ryanodine receptors) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum
45. Co-transport with sodium and a sodium-potassium pump are involved in
glucose uptake across the intestinal epithelium. What else?
a facilitated transporter for glucose GLUT2
46. Why was it important to weigh some books to put them onto the hand grip
that fed into the iWorx?
47. Why did you use the plethysmograph in the reflex experiments?
to show when the stimulus occurred
48. The record on the screen goes for 1 minute while the total record is
10 minutes. Other than scrolling, how can you see your whole record on the
screen at one glance?
compress with the two mountain peak icon
49.What was the name (OR abbreviation) of that noisy recording of muscular
activity you got with those sticky electrodes?
50. What is the Jendrassik Maneuver?
hands cupped and interlocked in front of your chest with elbows pointing
out. It is a distraction.
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