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BIOL-415 Nerve cell mechanisms in behavior
BIOL-615 Neural bases of behavior
First test - Thursday, February 21, 2008 - Prof. Stark
All questions are short answer. 65 points total.

1. Answer at least one of these two: This particular fluid filled chamber is hard to see because it is thin and cut right down the middle when we make (name of?) this particular type of cut, right down the middle brain.

third ventrical, midsaggital

2. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body because the tract (what is the official word for when the tract crosses from one side to the other?).

decussates

3. What apparatus or type of surgery do you need to put a lesion deep into a live rat's brain?

stereotactic (same word for both questions)

4. What's the name of the most famous type of neurological surgery (psychosurgery for psychiatric patients) chopping off connections to one part of the brain?

frontal lobotomy

5. Why would a neuroscience snob tell you that the cell bodies that make the optic nerve should not be called "ganglion cells?"

because they are part of the central nervous system (hence nuclear) would be the more accurate term

6. I showed you two coronal sections. One showed caudate and putamen. The other showed the third of the three basal ganglia called (what?).

globus pallidus

7. Answer at least one of these: Cell bodies right outside the dorsal root of the spinal cord carry (what type of?) information in what direction (official word of toward the central nervous system)?

somatosensory, afferent


8. I showed you a spectacular cell, the cerebellar Purkinje cell. How could Santiago Ramon y Cajal create that picture? Answer either (1) How did he do that way back around "the turn of the century (around 1900)? or (2) How could he see that one cell when there were "zillions" of other neurons near it?

he drew it carefully, Golgi's staining technique highlights single cells in their entirety

9. Answer one of these two RELATED questions about the merits of confocal microscopy (in comparison with standard fluorescence microscopy). (1) Why do the pictures I showed you from the text look so clear? Or (2) How come I was able to put together a stack of images to rotate or to focus through?

"optical sectioning," everything out of the plane of section is not collected and many sections can be put together in a stack

10. A fancy brain imaging technique was used by former neuro student Epstein to show that early blind subjects has less tract connecting the thalamus to the (answer either) (1) Brodman area #? Or (2) lobe?

#17, occipital

11. If a vesicle were "electron lucent," what would that imply about what kind of substances it is or is not stained by?

not stained by heavy metals that are electron dense

12. Nerves can be studded with spines. Where are these? Your answer can relate to a structural compartment, or I would accept a functional answer.

dendrite, post synasptic membrane

13. "Dynein toward - end, retrograde" my-oh-my my outlines are telegraphic! Pick one and answer it: (1) Minus end of what? Or (2) Where would the transported molecule end up? Or (3) Tell about a virus transported that way.

microtubule, cell body, rabies, herpes

14. A cell membrane in the electron microscope is dark on the inside and outside and light in the middle. There aren't enough lines in myelin. Where did they go?

inner halves merge as cytoplasm is squeezed out, outer sides merge as extracellular space is squeezed out.

15. A friend tells you (s)he doing research on how to locally down-regulate oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (OMgp), so you say, "Oh yeah, that has great potential for the treatment of (what?).

axon regeneration after injury in the CNS

16. According to LS Halstead, MD, who recovered partially from the polio he had as a youth, (answer either) (1) what are the symptoms of post-polio syndrome? Or (2) What cellular events are going on in post-polio syndrome?

increased weakness as an adult, loss of the sprouting that made nerves innervate more muscle cells

17. Two resistors, R1 and R2, are hooked in series to a battery whose voltage is E, Write an equation that conveys two notions: (1) Ohm's law, and (2) two resistors in series form a voltage divider.

E=IR1+IR2

18. Is Guillan Barre syndrome caused by flu vaccination?

not proven, the frequency of GB after vaccination is the same as for non-vaccinated people

19. "The cause of the resting potential is potassium ions flowing through the potassium channel." Why is this not the whole truth?

in the equilibrium assumption, no ions need to flow for voltage

20. Why would an inside out patch be useful in studying channels gated by ligands generated by the intracellular signal transduction cascade?

can "dip" it into solutions with such ligands (like cAMP and cGMP

21. Address 1, 2, or 3. Ouabain is a (1) cardiac (2) glycoside that binds (3) a very important molecule.

can strengthen a weak heart beat, that describes the chemical bond, the sodium pump

22. Hodgkin and Keynes were studying the properties of (what?) when they measured the efflux of radioactive sodium from the squid giant axon.

the sodium pump

23. Why might a glass micropipette distort the shape of an action potential without the proper amplifier?

has high resistance and capacitance, hence makes a low pass filther that clips a fast signal

24. It seems like there ought to b e salt sensitive neurons to explain sodium appetite. However, former neuro class student Joel Geerling showed thqat neurons were sensitive to a hormone. What hormone?

aldosterone

25. In passive propagation (cable properties of the axon) why does the current carried down the axoplasm get smaller as you go further from the applied voltage?

leaks out through the membrane

26. In the classic Hodgkin-Huxley voltage clamp experiments, How did they show that the early inward current was carried by sodium ions?

replace extracellular fluie with sodium free solution

27. Explain absolute refractory period on the basis of a property of a channel.

an inactivated channel cannot be activated (but a closed channel can)

28. What would be a useful property (of a cell) when choosing a cell type for heterologous expression of a channel?

should not express the channel already, should be eukaryotic so thatpost-translational modifications wold be the same

29. "Human ether-a-go-go." Why would mutants be considered to be conditional when they were first found in Drosophila?

shaking only seen under ether anesthesia

30. How does the shaker protein detect voltage?

S4, with it's positive charges, rotates

31. Why would the electric organ of the electric eel be better than the squid giant axon for cloning the sodium channel?

expresses plenty of channel

32. Give one of the three possible membrane compartments where calcium channels would be important in muscle contraction.

pre-"synaptic" membrane, t-tbule, sarcoplasmic reticulum

33. Knowing about cystic fibrosis might help you to understand the channel for what neurotransmitter?

GABA

34. Give one of the several reasons why alumni Michelle Li, also Johnnie Moore, used PC12 cells in their published research.

35. Compare the conductance of a gap junction channel with that of a potassium channel.

way higher

36. What's with the "36" when they call the gap junction protein in the thalamus "Cx36?"

molecular weight

397 How did Nobel Prize winner Loewi prove that a substance released by the vagus slows the heart?

solution bathing heart slowed by vagus stimulation slows another heart

38. What property of the neuromuscular junction rationalizes Sir Sherrington referring to the spinal motor neuron as "the final common pathway" of "the integrative action of the nervous system?

since there is only excitation at the vertebrate n.m.j, the motor neuron is the last place excitation and inhibition can integrate

39. If you observed a coated vesicle near a synapse, say whether it is in the process of exocytosing and justify your answer.

no. endocytosing, those are the pits with clathrin

40. Relate vesicle release with either (1) improperly canned goods, (2) dangers of terrorism against civilians, or (3) facial cosmetic treatment.

BoTox decreases release, form heat resistant endospores turning into anaerobic bacteria that make a potent toxin that can be injected to decrease face wrinkles

41. Why, in Sir Bernard Katz's Nobel Prize-winning experiment, did they refer to "end plate potentials" instead of "postsynaptic potentials?"

neuromuscular junction was used to model a synapse

42. More important than monamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), how is the action of norepinephrine terminated?

reuptake

43. Considering the localization in the perikaryon of translation (protein synthesis) talk about the location of function of enzymes responsible for synthesis of norepinephrine and acetylcholine.

steps in terminal so anterograde transport from cell body

44. Tell me 2 of 3 products, fragments "chopped" from pre-proenkephalin A. Be very specific.

signal sequence, met enkephalin, leu enkephalin

45. Contrast the presence or lack of l- vs d- isomers for DOPA, dopamine, and norepinephrine.

dopa cold be l or d, also NE but dopamine's carbons do not have 4 separate groups

46. The white communicating ramus is on the way to (what?) and the gray communicating ramus is on the way from (what? - same answer).

sympathetic ganglion

47. Atropine affects the enteric nervous system to achieve (what?)?

decrease in gastrointestinal motility

48. Out of the four CNS locations from which autonomic nerves eminate, where is the origin of the nerves that mediate erection?

sacraol spinal cord

49. With respect to the corpus cavernosum, "norepinephrine contracts smooth muscle via alpha-1 receptors." What is the functional effect?

inhibit erection by decreasing blood flow through arterioles

50. NO activates guanylyl cyclase (GC) an enzyme whose product is (what?).

cGMP

51. I heard on a TV talk show "an enzyme in turkey makes you sleepy." Correct that incorrect statement, at least with respect to the conventional wisdom.

an amino acid, tryptophan, not an enzyme

52. In terms of regulation of neurotransmitter action, how does Prozac affect mood?

seretonin reuptake is inhibited

53. Melatonin is made (answer one of the following) (1) from what neurotransmitter? Or (2) predominantly in what part of the brain?

5HT (serotonin) pineal

54. How did they show that the Raphe nuclei send serotonin all over the brain?

histochemical fluorescence tract tracing, formaldehyde turned serotonin into a fluorescent product

55. The discovery that MPTP was a contaminant in a bad batch of heroin helped to develop an animal model to study (what?).

Parkinson's disease

56. What is bradykinesia?

decreased movement seen in Parkinson's

57. Although it sounds barbaric, electroconvulsive shock is still sometimes used for the treatment of (what?).

depression

58. Opiates displaced tritiated naloxone to help Pert and Snyder identify what molecule?

opiate receptor

59. Lysophosphatidylinositol is converted to 2-arachiconylglyceol, an endogenous transmitter related to what drug?

cannibis (marijuana)

60. "Acetylcholine is used in the sympathetic nervous system." Where?

at ganglia

61. How would alpha bungarotoxin help the snake get its prey?

paralyze

62. What is missing and where in myasthenia gravis?

nicotinic receptors at end plate

63. Some anesthetics, Valium, and barbiturates affect what kind of receptor for what neurotransmitter?

channel for GABA (GABA-A receptor)

64. With dopamine as the ligand and the inhibitory G protein, what happens to the level of what famous "second messenger?"

cAMP goes down

65. The blind Drosophila mutant norp A has no photoreceptor potential and lacks phospholipase. Name either one of the two products of this enzyme or the precursor. Abbreviations will suffice

PIP2 -> IP3 + DAG


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