1. What information (and in what direction) is carried by axons of the cells
in the dorsal root ganglion?__
somatosensory (also muscle stretch, etc.) afferent
2. Why would a neuroscience snob tell you that the cell bodies that make
the optic nerve should not be called "ganglion cells?"__
because they are part of the central nervous system (hence nuclear) would
be the more accurate term
3. Occlusion of one internal carotid might not be fatal because of (what
structural adaptation?)._ _
circle of Willis
4. In explaining fluorescence, why is the emission a longer wavelength than
energy is lost before a photon is re-emitted
5. "Fluorescent- or gold-labeled secondary body." Answer either
(1) What specific molecule does the secondary antibody bind to? or (2) Why
gold? (referring to immunocytochemistry)__
primary antibody, electron dense
6. How was Ramon y Cajal able to produce pictures of neurons in intricate
Golgi's technique fully stained one cell. Since surrounding cells were not
stained, he could draw the ones that were stained__
7. "Histochemical fluorescence was used in the 1960's to trace the
dopamine tracts from the substantia nigra." Answer either (1) What
was it that fluoresced? Or (2) How did they (researchers in the 1960's)
determine these tract pathways?__
(1) dopamine (reacted chemically) (2) histological sections allowed following
the tracks that fluoresced
8. Lashley, concluding that memories were stored all over the cerebral cortex,
came up with the term "equipotentiality." By contrast, textbooks
colorize the cortex to present what alternative viewpoint on how the cortex
represents specific sensory and motor systems?_ _
localization of function
9. What is the explanation for CMT subject JH not knowing that he ruptured
his Achilles tendon?
loss of sensation
10. When JH, our subject with CMT (the peripheral neuropathy) showed us
how small his calves are, he made an analogy to what famous viral demyelinating
11. Even when CMT disease patient JH had high arches and hammer toes from
an early age, how is it conceivable that he was not diagnosed until age
doctors only look at feet if the patient is a diabetic
12. In the neurons and glia lecture, we referred to two components of the
blood brain barrier between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid. Identify
one of these.
capillary endothelium plus astrocyte end foot
13. "Major and minor dense lines alternate in the layers of myelin."
Answer either (1) What makes up the major line? (2) What makes up the minor
line? Or (3) What is meant by dense?
(1) the two intracellular membrane sides (2) the two extracellular membrane
sides (3) electron dense, dark in a transmission electron microscope
14. Relate the concept of the motor unit with Halstead's theory of the cause
of post-polio syndrome.
one spinal motor neuron innervates multiple muscle cells. Surviving ones
sprout to innervate more during recovery. These sprouts are lost in post-polio
15. EAE (experimental allergic [autoimmune] encephalitis) is an animal model
for what disorder?
16. Ouabain is applied to the cell. Answer either (1) Why does the resting
potential change by only a few mV? or (2) Why doesn't the resting potential
go away completely?
3 sodiums to 2 potassiums make the pump electrogenic, otherwise potentials
are based on huge reservoirs of ion gradients that would run down very slowly
if the pump were blocked
17. If I were on the ordinate (Y axis) and V were on the abscissa (X axis),
what electrical term is used to describe the slope of the line?
18. In contrast with "all-or-none" give the general term for those
smaller potentials of variable size that can be either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing.
(One is for sensory receptor potentials the other for synaptic potentials.)
19. After being open, sodium channels have something, and the word "close"
does not fully convey the meaning of (what is the correct word)?
20. In Hodgkin and Keynes' classic experiment on the sodium pump, how did
they obtain numbers for the Y-axis (ordinate) that relate to sodium efflux?
measured radioactivity after loading axon with radioactive sodium
21. People who thought vaccines caused autism sometimes blamed what mercury-based
22. Explain why the electrical potential calculated with the Nernst equation
is called the equilibrium potential.
the assumption (electrical and chemical potentials equal and opposite, or
total energies of both systems are equal) is tantamount to equilibrium
23. When the AC (fast) Wheatstone bridge of Cole and Curtis swung out of
balance, what did that tell us about the membrane events at that moment?
resistance changed (decreased) during action potential
24. Loss of what hormone, from an adrenalectomy, would make a rat crave
25. Why would long QT syndrome limit a person's ability to respond to stress?
inability to have shorter action potential in the ventricular myocardium
would limit how fast the pulse can get
26. "The time constant is independent of radius." Then why are
giant axons faster?
the space constant relates to the square root of the radius
27. To hold the voltage of a squid giant axon at a clamped level of 0 mV,
Hodgkin and Huxley had to pump current out through the membrane at 0.5 ms
(fairly early) to compensate for what?
28. A certain voltage is applied at one place in an axon. On the basis of
passive spread only (no action potentials) what would be the voltage (relative
to the applied voltage) one space constant away? (Your answer can be very
1/3 approximates 1/e
29. What would be the cause of death if you ate a puffer fish?
sodium channel block, no action potentials
30. Why was it useful to obtain conditional mutants (like temperature- or
ether-sensitive mutants), rather than ordinary mutants, to isolate genes
like shaker and ether-a-go-go in Drosophila?
channelopathy mutants would be lethal
31. Why do they distinguish Shaker vs Electrophorus channels as tetramer
it takes 4 shaker proteins, the electrophorus protein has all 4 domains
in one big molecule
32. How does the shaker protein detect voltage?
s4, with it's positive charges, rotates
33. Some potassium channels do show inactivation. What part of the molecule
stopper on the N-erminus
34. Why do they refer to "omega figures" in the ultrastructure
vesicles in the process of release are shaped like Greek letter omega
35. What happens to the conductance at the postsynaptic ionotropic receptors
for K+ and Cl- for the IPSP?
they go up
36. With very low Ca2+, upon stimulating the motor neuron's axon, the end
plate potential (EPP) was usually 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, etc mV. What other size
37. "Silencing of synaptotagmin in PC12 cells inhibits Ca2+-evoked
catecholamine release." Why does calcium elicit release if synaptotagmin
is not inhibited?
calcium, coming in through calcium channels, mediates vesicle release
38. "Botulism and tetanus toxins cleave synaptobrevin." Precisely
what membrane is synaptobrevin on?
39. Suppose you voltage clamp a postsynaptic neuron to a level negative
to the reversal potential. What would you record (postsynaptically) if you
activated a cell making a GABAergic synapse?
in this case it would depolarize
40. Name a protein involved in recycling of synaptic vesicle membrane.
41. Reuptake is the standard mechanism for the termination of neurotransmitter
action. In contrast, how is the action of acetylcholine terminated?
breakdown by acetylcholinesterase
42. "The nicotinic receptor is ionotropic." Translate: What is
the transmitter? What is the molecular structure of the receptor? (Answer
acetylcholine gates a channel
43. How is POMT (proopiomenanocortin) processed to yield beta-endorphin?
44. Say something about how vesicles or enzymes for transmitter synthesis
get from the cell body to the synaptic terminal.
axon transport along microtubules
45. Give one of the two possible reasons a diet high in tryptophan might
make you sleepy.
precursor to serotonin and to melatonin
46. Acetylcholine and nicotinic receptors are used in parasympathetic ganglia.
What transmitter and transmitter receptor would you find at sympathetic
47. Cyclic GMP's breakdown is inhibited by what drug (or class of drugs)?
viagra (also Levitra Cialis) ED meds
48. On the news was the case of a defendant blaming the murder he committed
on Zoloft (the Zoloft defense). Why would he have Zoloft in his system?
49. Excitotoxicity, and too great an influx of calcium ions, is caused by
overstimulation of synapses for what transmitter?
50. When more acetylcholine is needed, vesicles are released. How is the
"transmitter" NO (nitric oxide) increased when it is needed?
turn on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)
51. Contrast the presence or lack of l- vs d- isomers for DOPA, dopamine,
dopa could be l or d, also NE but dopamine's carbons do not have 4 separate
52. "Day length" (what fraction of a 24 hr period is illuminated)
affects the size of the testes in a hamster by Answer either (1) What hormone?
Or (2) From what brain structure?
53. Explain either (1) why schizophrenia was once attributed to a serotonin
defect, or (2) why this hypothesis was later excluded.
an LSD trip seemed like psychosis and LSD affected serotonergic transmission,
but amphetamine induced psychosis was more similar to schizophrenia (and
eventually overexcitation with dopamine was demonstrated)
54. Why does it take a lot of DOPA to treat Parkinson's disease?
very little is available to cross the blood brain barrier because the decarboxylase
55. What class of molecules serves as the precursor for endocannabinoids?
56. What would Prozac, Paxil or Zoloft do to the concentration of what transmitter
in the synaptic cleft?
57. "Naloxone, an antagonist, displaced certain narcotic analgesics
in brain binding." This finding led to the isolation of what kind of
the opiate receptor
58. How did they show that the Raphe nuclei send serotonin all over the
histochemical fluorescence tract tracing, formaldehyde turned serotonin
into a fluorescent product
59. "Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus result in a thinner rat."
In what way does this story relate to Parkinson's disease?
loss of affect (motivation) results from disrupting dopaminergic tract
60. Caffeine inhibits what enzyme?
the phosphodiesterase for cAMP
61. Inositol trisphosphate is a ligand for what kind of channel located
calcium on smooth endoplasmic reticulum (calcium cistern)
62. It takes 4 cAMP molecules to activate PKA. How (biochemically) do they
2 each bind and remove 2 inhibitory subunits from 2 catalytic subunits
63. Why would atropine save your life if you were dying of acetylcholinesterase
block muscarinic receptors that are making the heart stop when there is
too much acetylcholine
64. The NMDA receptor (answer either) (1) is for what transmitter? Or (2)
passes sodium, potassium and (what other important ion?).
65. What would you give a patient with myasthenia gravis to relieve the
return to syllabus
return to Stark home page
last revised 2/15/18